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斯大林 - 画廊











1898年2月10日 - 2018年2月10日






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Migrant workers are the transitional form of Chinese peasants transferring to the working class.

This text was sent to us from a Chinese comrade

The change of peasant identity to worker's identity is the inexorable trend of the development of modern society. The working class is not always available. Historically, the working class is the product of the industrial revolution and the development of market economy. On the one hand, the bourgeoisie to the development of capitalism industry and the pursuit of profit, farmers with land by means of enclosure movement phase separation, farmers forced to implement the to of the working class, as Marx pointed out: the bourgeois "for rural residents intermittent, repeated deprivation and expulsion, continually to provide urban industrial large completely outside the guild relations proletarians." On the other hand, with the development of the industrial revolution, the various social classes in the bankruptcy in the competition of market economy, such as small industrialists, small businesses and small rentier, craftsmen and farmers, etc., have joined the ranks of the proletariat. Visible, the working class derived from other social stratum, and farmers is the main source of the working class and peasants to working class is relatively complete, professional transformation and the transformation of identity is almost simultaneously. In contemporary China, peasants to working-class presents different characteristics with other countries, a career change and identity transformation phase separation, the separation that farmers cannot directly into the working class, peasant workers is the transitional form of Chinese peasants to the working class.

The transition of Chinese peasants to the working class is closely related to the special institutional arrangements in China. In the early days of the founding of the People's Republic of China, there was no restriction on the movement of population between urban and rural areas, and the peasants who moved to the city were completely transformed into the official workers of the city. With the establishment of priority to the development of heavy industry of road to industrialization, and the slow development of city construction, to provide more employment opportunities and social welfare to accept farmers into the city, the government started by the household registration management to control the farmers into the city. Promulgated in 1958 "household registration ordinance of the People's Republic of China, and then introduced a series of relevant policies and regulations, formed by the household registration system as the center, adhere to the housing, food supply, employment, medical treatment, endowment insurance, labor protection system of urban-rural dual structure, system barriers, the system barriers not only restrict the flow of the farmers to the cities, is more serious is that the urban and rural residents is divided into two different social identity, between urban and rural residents in the formation of a distinct" national treatment ", the function of the household registration system dissimilation, become an important identity to distinguish between urban and rural residents of national identity.

Since 1979, rural residents have broken through many obstacles to work in cities. Under the impact of "the tide of migrant workers", the urban and rural dual structure system barriers to loose, but loose on this system is very limited, so far of the household registration system reform is to restore the rights of farmers live and migration, in employment, education, social security, medical insurance, etc on the fundamental interests of the migrant workers, migrant workers cannot enjoy the same treatment with urban formal worker. In addition, the urban and rural dual structure system barriers make long-term living in a castle in the city's welfare residents "natural has access to social resources and occupy the competitive advantage, to form the advantages of 'first class citizens' identity consciousness," there is a widespread prejudice and discrimination of migrant workers, in their eyes, always can't get away from migrant workers "farmers" identity identification, in this case, migrant workers can't into the mainstream society and mainstream culture, become free from the urban social marginal groups. Visible, the household registration system as the core of the urban and rural dual structure system barriers to fundamentally hindered the transformation of migrant identity, "migrant workers" is the farmers to working-class encountered in the process of urban and rural dual structure system and form the product of the obstacles barriers. The urban-rural dual structure system barrier makes the urban peasants can not completely realize the transformation to the working class, and this transformation does not completely determine the duality of the class attribute of migrant workers.

The duality of the attribute of peasant-worker class.

But we must wake up to the fact that the real migrant workers are not fully working class. On the one hand, rural migrant workers stratum in the performance of the external form preliminary have the basic characteristics of the working class, on the other hand, the social status and inner nature aspects such as comprehensive quality compared with the advanced working class also there exists a large gap, so as to show the class attribute of duality.

The occupation of the citizen and the possession of the production data is a basic basis for social stratification. The main production activity of the migrant workers is to engage in non-agricultural industries, such as construction, transportation, machinery manufacturing and service industry, which are only employed by industrial workers, and the labor nature has developed fundamental changes. Career change also causes changes in income form and workplace. The income of migrant workers is mainly based on monetary income, and the income of migrant workers is the main source of household income. Their workplaces are mainly concentrated in the second and third industries of the city, close to the city workers. Engaged in non-agricultural industries in cities, rural migrant workers are not directly in production, they are not have a small amount of land in the countryside also ownership, and a large number of migrant workers has actually lease, transfer, or even abandoned land and other means of production in the countryside. Therefore, from the perspective of occupation and occupation of production data, migrant workers have the basic characteristics of working class.

Workers refer to individuals who do not own the production data and are mainly wage earners and are engaged in production; A farmer is a laborer who has been engaged in agricultural production in the countryside for a long time. Migrant workers are not possession of means of production, they work and live in the city for a long time, become the main source of family income, wage income, therefore, from the perspective of semantics, there is no doubt of them are workers.

In addition, the identification of migrant worker class attribute is related to the size and contribution of the group. According to the ministry of agriculture, ministry of Labour and social security departments, estimates that in 2002 only about 94.6 million migrant workers, in recent years, the number of migrant workers is also rising, in 120 million by conservative estimates, more than the registered permanent residence of town is the worker of the public sector of the second and third industry. Migrant workers not only big and outstanding contribution, the world bank (1997) estimated that the process of structural change for China's economic growth over the past 18 years, providing an additional boost the Labour department transfer can explain 16% of the gross domestic product (GDP) growth. In 1978 ~ 1995, the average annual GDP growth of 9.4 percent, the rural labor force with underemployment transferred to the high productivity industry and service industry, contributing 1 percentage point; Non-state sectors, where employment has shifted to higher productivity, contributed another half a percentage point.

(2) there is a large gap between the rural migrant workers and the advanced working class.
Affirming the working class attribute of migrant workers does not mean that migrant workers have become fully working class. Due to the special institutional arrangement in the history of our country and institutional inertia effect, rural migrant workers stratum in social status, comprehensive quality with the advanced nature of proletariat exist between the larger gap.

The social status of the peasant-worker class cannot be compared with that of the city. On the economic side, the migrant workers are different from the official workers in the cities. For a long time, low wages of migrant workers, the worker wages has increased year by year in the city, under the condition of migrant workers wages rise but not fall, 2001 migrant workers in shenzhen's average monthly salary is 588 yuan, less than the level of the 1980 s.

Migrant workers work long hours, according to a 2002 survey by li qiang in Beijing. Beijing's migrant workers work seven days a week, with an average of 10.36 hours per day, sometimes up to 24 hours. In addition, migrant workers are faced with the problem of lack of rights in signing labor contracts, labor security, social security and income distribution. Politically, migrant workers are excluded from the city's political life.

Migrant workers "farmers" identity determines their political life in the city can't and formal workers enjoy equal right to vote and be elected as prescribed by the law, to participate in politics and the management of national rights, expression of the will of their right to free speech, within the enterprise can not get proper staffing, training, promotion, not like regular staff participate in enterprise decision-making and democratic management, even to join trade unions is limited by many. In terms of social life, migrant workers are "marginalized groups" in urban society. There is between them and formal worker and city residents "isolation", lack of equal exchange and interaction, the plight of exchanges suppresses the migrant workers and urban integration between regular staff and residents. They are discriminated against and rejected by urban society in employment, education, medical insurance, social security and children's admission. In a word, the social status of migrant workers is extremely low, at the bottom of urban society.

Social stratification system in the city in all 100 kinds of professional position, the migrant workers in 94, and in the last 10 places career are having nothing to do with migrant workers, migrant workers and urban formal worker social status differences.

The peasant-worker class does not have the good comprehensive quality that the advanced working class should have. The working class is an advanced class whose advancement changes with The Times. In the process of socialist modernization, the advancement of the working class is characterized by high political consciousness and strong sense of social responsibility. With strict organization and discipline; Having excellent ideological and moral quality and scientific and cultural quality; Brave to reform and innovate, forge ahead and keep pace with The Times; Have strong democratic consciousness, participation consciousness, legal concept and so on.

Compared with the advanced nature of the working class, there are obvious deficiencies in the peasant-worker class. First, the main reason for the migrant workers into the city is out of the consideration of economic factors, there is no form for the people's interests, make contributions to society in the social sense of responsibility, have not form the class consciousness of the working class and the high level of political consciousness. Second, migrant workers is at times more labor market employment, the employment is not stable, with modern production is not strong, combined with their own existence peasant class liberal style of work, therefore also does not have the working class should have strict organization and discipline.

Third, because of their weak position, just as the legitimate rights and interests of migrant workers is difficult to guarantee, let alone participate in enterprise management and democratic supervision, treatment is low, and the lack of power to make them hard to develop emotional contact with unit of choose and employ persons, unable to form "unit is my home" strong sense of ownership, so in the work hard to show the height of the working class consciousness and enthusiasm. Fourthly, migrant workers suffer from a low level of education, and the cultural level is mainly graduated from junior high school. Most of the migrant workers are not trained in skills and are poorly prepared. In 2001, only 18.6 percent of the newly transferred rural workers were trained in professional skills.

With the development of the industry, the modernization, the continuous improvement and upgrading of industrial structure and technical structure, social production and life service professional, comprehensive and intensification trend to strengthen, low level of education, vocational skills shortage of migrant workers will face the severe challenge, they and the requirements of advanced productive forces to a certain gap. Fifth, the small peasant consciousness of this group is obvious, and it fails to form a strong sense of participation, autonomy and democracy. Visible, in the aspect of the comprehensive quality of rural migrant workers stratum, and the larger gap compared with advanced working class, their effect on the development of the society in the form of potential, also can't form the consciousness of social action, so you need to get further education and education, in order to realize the thorough transformation of the working class.,












in 3 Volumes

thanks to our Chinese comrades


Vëllimi 1



Vëllimi 2



Vëllimi 3







Greeting Message of the Chinese Section of the Young Communist International (SH)

on occasion of the 17th founding day of the Comintern (SH) on 31st of December 2000


Increasing the red flag of revolution forever

Dear comrades
Today, we are celebrating the 17th anniversary of the red color with great excitement.
Over the years, though due to the exuviate of ramiz alia, opportunistic one exited one by one, communist movement was unprecedented huge setback, currently she is still in the low tide of history. However, as the great revolutionary teacher comrade Lenin had said, the international organizations of the proletariat did not perish and will not perish, workers will overcome all difficulties to rebuild a new international organization.

Seventeen years ago today, comrades from all over the world gathered to reestablish the international organization of the working class,  that is the communist international sh .
For seventeen years, the red flag of the proletariat has been fluttering in the wind. Due to adhere to the correct revolutionary line in policy, international and people against imperialism and revisionism and unswerving and selectivity of struggle, the result of the comintern are enhanced international status and reputation, the more original revolutionary united under this glorious battle flags. The establishment of the Albanian organization, especially, has a particularly significant historical significance, which has dealt a heavy blow to modern revisionism. Our international organizations enjoy high prestige, support and solidarity from the revolutionary people and many friends from all over the world.

In the future, our communist party, the communist youth league, the proletarians and the revolutionary people, they will still at last to the principles of marxism-leninism and proletarian internationalism, glorious forever, from beginning to end of live up to their international workers' movement and the international obligations of the working people, and the real revolutionaries and proletarians and love freedom of working people, walk side by side in the struggle for national and social liberation and revolution and the forefront of the socialist cause.

The development of life and events has increasingly shown that we have grown in the cause of revolution and have achieved good results and been tested. But we will not be dejected or complacent. We will continue to unite in the camp of the world revolution, and always hold high the banner of comrade hoxha, and fight in the ranks of the laborers, until the final victory of the world revolution!

Long live our seventeen years!
Long live the immortal communist ideal!
Great Marx, Engels, Lenin, Stalin, hoxha,viva!





斯大林霍查主义万岁! (Chinese)

Long live Stalinism-Hoxhaism ! (English)


Es lebe der Stalinismus-Hoxhaismus ! (German) DEUTSCH

Да здравствует сталинизм - Ходжаизм ! (Russian)

გაუმარჯოს სტალინიზმ–ხოჯაიზმს! (Georgian)

Viva o Estalinismo-Hoxhaismo! (Portuguese)

Viva Stalinismo-Hoxhaismo! (Italian)

Viva el Stalinismo-Hoxhaismo! (Spanish)

Vive le Stalinisme-Hoxhaisme! (French)

At zije Stalinismus-Hodzismus! (Czech-Slovak)

Ζήτω ο σταλινισμός - χοτζαϊσμός! ! (Greek)

Živeo Staljinizam - Hodžaizam! (Bosnian)

! زنده باد استالینیسم-خوجهئیسم (Farsi)

Niech zyje Stalinizm-Hodzyzm! - (Polski)


Længe leve Stalinismen-Hoxhaismen (Danish)

Hidup Stalinisma dan Hoxhaisma! (Malay) Bahasa Melayu

Staliniyamum-Hoxhaiyamum niduzhi vazga (Thamil)

Viva o Stalinismo e o Hoxhaísmo (Português Brasil)

स्टालिनबाद-होक्जाबाद जिन्दाबाद! (Nepali) 

Trăiască Stalinism-Hodjaismul! (Romanian)

Viva l'Estalinisme-Hoxaisme! (Occitan)

سٹالنزم ، ہوکسزازم زندہ باد پائندہ باد
(اردو) (Urdu)


!عاشت الستالينية-الخوجية (Arab language)