- Theoretical Organ -

Communist International (Stalinist - Hoxhaists)







On the occasion of the 110th birthday of comrade Enver Hoxha, we publish the following article

Enver Hoxha on agriculture

- indispensable lessons for the construction of agriculture in future world socialism


At that time Albania was a backward agricultural country where the working peasantry made up the majority of the population. The predominant small-scale agricultural production was a fundamental problem in creating the socialist economic base in Albania. The Albanian Labor Party supported small-scale producers in overthrowing large landowners and kulaks, and distributing the confiscated land to small-scale rural producers. The kulaks as a class were liquidated from the very beginning. Compulsion and violence were necessary only against certain individuals or groups of kulaks who took the course of crime and did not observe the laws and ordinances of the Albanian state.

The law on Land Reform was promulgated in August 1945. Poor peasants' committees were set up to ensure a just and rapid implementation of the Land Reform. The alienation and renting of all the nationalized land was forbiddden. Forbidden was also the exploitation of men by men on the countryside, thus abolition of wage slavery.

All debts of the peasants were annulled - without compensation.

The land was given free of charge to peasants with little or no land at all (a maximum of 5 hectares).

"The land to those who till it."

This Land Reform was implemented in practice throughout Albania within one year - as a transition measure of the socialist revolution on the countryside.

But as socialism developed, so did the need to reshape this form of private property. Comrade Enver Hoxha stressed:

"The party realizes that our state can not rely on two different economic formations, the socialist economic sector in the city and the private sector of small-scale farmers in the countryside. It is therefore a historical necessity for the victory of socialism to build up the socialist agrarian sector.
But it would be extremely dangerous for the party and for the fate of building socialism if we would build the socialist sector of agriculture by the same methods and means that we have applied in industry, namely by confiscating and expropriating the means of production. Based on the immortal teachings of Lenin, one can not expropriate the small producers just like the bourgeoisie. The gradual transition to socialist agriculture is achieved mainly by conviction by means of assistance of the proletariat. The transformation to socialist agriculture is based on the creation of conditions for the continuous improvement of the material living conditions and the cultural level of the village workers, by technical equipments supplied from the proletarian state."

(Enver Hoxha, Works Vol. 12, pages 422-423).

For studying the first steps towards collectivization we recommend the speech of comrade Enver Hoxha, held on the first Congress of the agricultural cooperatives in February 1949.

Albania created the necessary conditions for the transformation of rural private property into collective property.

This is also one of the first necessary steps for building socialist agriculture on a world scale. Collectivization implies the ree will of the small rural proprietors to combine their land and their main means of work into big agricultural enterprises and form the collective cooperatives.

Another first necessary step will be the confiscation and socialization (transformation into state property) of already existing agricultural cooperatives, agro-capitalist factories and industrial enterprises all over the world.

The establishment of the dictatorship of the world proletariat puts an end to the exploitation of the peasantry all over the world and strengthens the friendship of workers and peasants for the purpose of commonly building up world socialism and commonly struggle against all attempts of capitalist restoration.

"Socialist development of agriculture is the concern and common task of all mankind."

The Socialist World Republic

is based on the unity of the peoples round the Comintern (SH) and it has as its foundation the alliance of the working class with the cooperativist peasantry under the leadership of the working class.


The deep friendship between workers and peasants in Albania rooted in their brotherhood of arms during the national liberation war and the people's revolution.

The movement to assist the countryside had taken many forms of solidarity. One of them was that of the workers and the youth going voluntarily to the remotest mountain regions in order to work and live there with the peasants. All this contributed to pave the way for collectivization of the peasantry. In return, the collective peasants visited the factories of the towns where they lived and worked together with the workers for a certain time. Worker's and peasants' control commissions cooperated closely with party and state. This was an innovation that Comrade Enver Hoxha created from the negative experiences of the revisionist development of the Soviet Union.

In contrast to collectivization under NEP conditions in the Soviet Union, Enver Hoxha, from the outset, chose the direct transition to the form of socialist cooperatives, without first undergoing the more lower forms of cooperation. To achieve this qualitative leap, Enver Hoxha was very cautious and flexible, that is, he did neither allow it to unnecessarily lengthen the process nor artificially accelerate it. In this way, the transformation process into a socialist collective economy was successfully completed within two decades.

In 1960, the collectivization of agriculture was by and large successfully completed. But that did not mean that the process of the revolution on the countryside would be finished. Enver Hoxha taught that the revolution in the consciousness of the Albanian peasants must go on uninterruptedly, namely up to a next higher level:

- ever deeper revolutionization of production and education;

- reducing and then liquidating altogether the essential distinctions between the town and the countryside; between industry and agriculture; between the working class and the peasantry;

- reducing and finally liquidating the inequalities in the development of the cooperatives of the plains and those of the mountains;

- deepening the ideological and cultural revolution by promoting revolutionary moements;

- developing internal democracy and implementing the line of the masses;

- stepping up the struggle against backward customs, religious beliefs, conservatism, bureaucracy, liberalism, revisionism etc;

- emancipation of women on the countryside

- stepping up the process of socialization of the domestic economy.

The electrification of the villages was completred in 1971.

The liberation of the poor peasants from the oppression and exploitation of the landlords and kulaks was the first victory of the Albanian agrarian revolution.
The collectivization of agriculture was the second victory of the Albanian agrarian revolution and thus the completion of the socialist economic base both in the city and in the countryside.

This also changed the class structure. Enver Hoxha said at the 4th PAA congress:

"The most typical and fundamental characteristic of the class structure of our country in this stage is the existence of two friendly classes, the working class and the class of cooperative farmers, their alliance under the leadership of the working class, and on this basis the consolidation of the moral-political unity of all working people. "

So the PLA did not wait until the productive forces were "mature enough" (Kautsky) for the socialist transformation. The Albanian socialist revolution was characterized by the fact that it itself created conditions for developing the productive forces from the beginning in a socialist direction. Thus, Enver Hoxha and the PLA thwarted the revisionist "theory" of the peaceful transition of capitalist into socialist agriculture. In particular, socialist Albania refuted the Yugoslav "theory" of the peaceful coexistence of two antagonistic social formations in agriculture. For their part, the Titoists condemned the Second Agrarian Revolution in Albania as a "brutal expropriation of small producers." And this is what the whole bourgeois world still speaks about today.

Socialist Albania, on the other hand, acted correctly and was guided strictly by the teachings of Lenin, namely, that

"Small-scale production produces capitalism and bourgeoisie on a daily, hourly, elementary and mass scale", (LENIN)

... if allowed and tolerated longer than necessary (NEP).

This can mean nothing other than, at least struggling to the same extent, ie daily, hourly and elemental, and mass-scale against this "production of capitalism and bourgeoisie," and taking effective measures by the dictatorship of the proletariat.

The elimination of the inevitability of the restoration of world capitalism depends not least on how far and how quickly the process of collectivization of world agriculture will be successfully completed.

While the evolution towards world communism depends on how far agriculture has become fully in the possession of all human beings and thus to become a propertyless, classless agriculture.

Albania gradually made the transition from an agrarian-industrialized country to an advanced industrial -agricultural country - the harmonious development of industry and agriculture - based on its own forces and resources , based on the dictatorship of the proletariat, especially due to the imperialist-revisionist Blockade of the outside.

Comrade Enver Hoxha developed the scientific, Marxist-Leninist foundations for the harmonization of the two pillars of the construction of socialism - industry and agriculture, and he successfully led the implementation of his revolutionary theory into practice.

Hoxhaism has proved that even a small backward country, surrounded by capitalist-revisionist enemies, can build a successful socialist agriculture.

And if socialist agriculture has been established in one of the smallest and most backward countries in the world, it means that not only is hoxhaism applicable in every other country, but also on a world scale.

That is why Hoxhaism is one of the crucial ideological foundations for the construction of agriculture in world socialism.


Enver Hoxha has also established a dialectical relationship between material and moral incentives in the field of agriculture, giving priority to the moral incentive, giving priority to common social interests over self-interests, giving priority to the long-term supply of agricultural products over the short-term. An agriculture which lives "from hand to mouth" can not be called socialist agriculture. Environmentally sustainable agriculture is socialist agriculture in harmony with the laws of nature and not with the laws of capitalism.

Comrade Enver Hoxha has drawn the right conclusions from the degeneration of socialist agriculture in the Soviet Union and condemned Khrushchev, who wanted to transform Albania into an Orange Plantation for the Soviet revisionists.

The victory of Hoxhaism is the most important proof and undiniable lesson that the restoration of capitalism is not an inevitable fatality, if one sticks to Marxism-Leninism and applies it correctly under the respective concrete conditions.

The PLA has taken a series of practical measures against the restoration of capitalism known as "further revolutionizing the party, state power and the entire life of the country".

Under the leadership of Comrade Enver Hoxha, the PLA has not ignored the lessons of class struggle, even after the fully established socialist agriculture, and continued it consistently and courageously. The socialist agriculture in Albania developed through a bitter class struggle, namely from the beginning until the end. The dictatorship of the proletariat was permanently consolidated and strengthened on the countryside.

Enver Hoxha has unmasked and successfully fought anti-Marxist "theories of agriculture" and practices. Socialist agriculture is not a market economy with the main objective of profit, but aims to satisfy the needs of socialist society. The law of value was effective in Albanian agriculture only in strictly controlled borders and not as a regulator of production as in the revisionist countries. As the key to a truly socialist agriculture, Enver Hoxha correctly applied the socialist economic law and subjected the measure of labor and consumption to strict control.

In the documents of the Party of Labor of Albania and in the works of Comrade Enver Hoxha, which we have now published, it becomes clear that the leadership of socialist agriculture was based on the principle of democratic centralism. Under the dictatorship of the proletariat, democratic centralism fulfills an important economic-organizational function of the socialist state. Thus, the most important links in the socialist economy were concentrated in the hands of the state. This alleged "dirigism" in agriculture is what the agricultural capitalists fear and loathe most, and why they do everything possible against it. According to them, the state must not only stay out of the business of agricultural capitalists, but act solely as an instrument to enforce their profit interests. In the capitalist world, decisions are made in the executive floors of agricultural trusts. In socialist Albania, the working people themselves did decide, namely, how, what, and how much is produced and distributed. In Albania, "the unified state leadership was linked to the initiative and the organized participation of the masses." (Enver Hoxha, Works Volume 34, page 94).

Socialist state centralism is the appropriate means against the decentralization of agriculture, as it is favored in small-scale agricultural producers who do not want to be dictated by any state, neither by the capitalist nor by the socialist state, and who violate socialist interests in favour of their private interests. It is clear that democratic centralism is not applicable in world capitalism. Democratic centralism in agriculture can only be effective in socialism.

In today's world order everything is subject to international capital, there is no agriculture that can develop or consolidate on democratic foundations. But socialist Albania has never bowed to international capital. To base oneself on one's own powers was the decisive "internal factor in the revolution and in the construction of socialism." (Enver Hoxha, Berichte und Speech, 1969-1970, page 214).

For example, socialist Albania was the only country in the world that built up its agriculture without any foreign aid or credits. The enemies of Albania condemned this world socialist principle [relying on one's own forces] as being allegedly "autarkism". We ask them: What happened to all the so-called "socialist" countries who sold their agriculture to world imperialism?
Comrade Enver Hoxha taught that "a process must be completed where the sphere of state ownership relations is gradually widening and the sphere of relations of cooperative ownership is decreasing." (Enver Hoxha on the Seventh Five-Year Plan). With this, Enver Hoxha faithfully followed the teachings of Stalin (see: Economic Problems of Socialism in the USSR).

That what was prevented in the Soviet Union, namely the transition to communism through the transformation of collective ownership into public property, was tackled by comrade Enver Hoxha with the 7th Five-Year Plan and the decisions of the 8th congress of the PLA. Agricultural co-operatives of "higher type" were formed and turned into state farms, which further improved the satisfaction of the growing needs of cooperative farmers. This also prevented the emergence of privileged classes in socialist society.

But after his death, the revisionists came to power and so in Albania the trodden path to the higher type of agriculture was reversed again and capitalist relations in Albanian agriculture were established.

* * *


When Albania built up its socialist agriculture, over 70% of the world's population still lived in the countryside. At the end of the 20th century, this share shrank by 20%. By the beginning of the 21st century, more people were already living in the city than in the countryside. And this trend will increase dramatically by the middle of this century, leaving the rural population at most only one third of the total population. And then the world's population will reach the climax of 10 billion people. Faced with this gigantic number, we recall Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels, who predicted in their Communist Manifesto 150 years ago that the capitalist system can no longer feed its wage slaves, that is, the value-creating working people, and that capitalism is digging its own grave.

The Comintern (SH) is therefore firmly convinced that latest until the middle of this century, agricultural capitalism will plunge ever deeper into ever-new world crises, so that it will inevitably have to be replaced by world socialism, not only for securing the survival of world society, from one day to another, but to create the conditions for the classless society without exploitation and oppression. The path to world communism is the only way in which humanity and nature have a future. And that is why we are fighting for the globalization of socialist agriculture.




Long live the global agricultural revolution!


Today, globalization is such that a handful of super-rich people own half of the land of the entire earth (with rapidly increasing tendency). The rural population has virtually no more own agricultural land. The super-rich, on their part, do not use land for tilling, but for speculations to increase their wealth. Who owns the lands and natural resources today, has the power.

The natural resources of the earth are now in the hands of a few, who bribe the international state community and which, on her part, is watching inactively how the world's rural population impoverishes more and more.

Let's take the privatization of water resources as an example:

Today, the water does not flow downhill anymore, but into the pockets of those who have bought water rights globally. For example into the pockets of Nestle which pump 50,000 gallons water out of Ethiopian soil ( per hour ! ) for industrial private use - namely in the midst of the drought period ! For example into the pockets of Coa-Cola which produces in India, where is the worst drought, and where the Rural population suffers from a lack of water.
The new global Water Barons also include a number of billionaires (such as Bush Junior), as well as mega-banks and investors such as Goldman Sachs, JP Morgan Chase, Citigroup, UBS, Deutsche Bank, Credit Suisse, Macquarie Bank, Barclays Bank, Blackstone Group, Alliance , HSBC Bank and many others. They all control the water. And they did not even need 20 years for this coup!

One of the richest water barons is also one of the world's biggest fraudsters - Bill Gates. Bill Gates owns one of the largest blocks of water shares in the world, and with his Bill Gates Foundation, he "simultanously" raises funds to "help" people get water !! Such incredible contradictions can only be produced by nobody else than by world capitalism!

This unfunny because now, when the global water is nearly sold out, war is being waged for its redistribution - war against nature, against humanity, against the poorest of the poor. Water became a weapon of exploitation and oppression, just for the purpose to become even richer - and yes, that's how today the dramatic situation of world society really looks like !

Today, half of the impoverished rural population is struggling for naked survival on soils that became virtually untillable and that have turned into huge deserted death zones. The climate agreements are not worth the paper on which they were written. Climate agreements in a capitalist world do only serve further profit maximization but not to protect nature and people.

The cause of the increasing agricultural crises is not the climate, not the natural disasters, is not the overpopulation or other external influences. The responsible politicians confuse cause and consequences and with this they only want to distract from the actual cause - world capitalism. Those who advertise themselves as alleged greatest "environmentalists" are in fact the biggest environmental criminals - the global agricultural and financial monopolies, the multi-national corporations,the today's private owners of the decisive means of world production.

The causes lie indeply in the failure of the present world social system, in world capitalism, in the destructive leitmotif of this capitalist world - in the pursuit of profit, in the economic law of capitalism.

So if you want to save man and nature, then you have to tackle the problem at the root, namely to eliminate world capitalism and replace it with world socialism. Everything else serves to disguise the catastrophe into which world capitalism increasingly drives the world.

Fifty million people are strarving of hunger, especially in the Sahel zone, including thousands of refugees die of thirst who have not made it to Europe. The number of drought victims is increasing dramatically, namely as a result of the criminal world imperialist climate policy. The capitalists stick on nothing and nobody.

The ruthless and predatory profit motive of global agrarian monopolies is causing global land degradation, which in turn contributes to many world conflicts, the poverty crisis, the migration crisis, the water crisis and many other crises such as salinisation or over-fertilization of soils. This includes 12 million hectares of topsoil that are washed away or blown away each year. Wherever the topsoil disappears, the soil is heated faster than anywhere else in the world, further aggravating the vicious circle of global warming. More than half of the world's soil has already lost its original carbon stock and releases 100 billion (!) Tonnes of dangerous carbon within one year.

Impoverished peasants are not leaving their soil solely for reasons of global warming, but are increasingly being forced to flee by imperialist power conflicts (Nigeria, Somalia, Yemen, etc.). As economic refugees, peasants are not recognized, namely not recognized by governments who are responsible for impoverished African Peasants, namely through flooding the markets in Africa and displacing the local economy.

In the face of these alarming facts, global and rapid political action would actually be needed to stop this criminal activity of agricultural monopolies. But the opposite is true. Nothing happens and the omnipotence of the global agricultural and financial monopolists continues to increase, daily, hourly, elementarily.

By means of "dialogues", "reforms" and so on, no single agrarian robber was stopped from continuing robbing. Environmental projects are in the drawers and are getting dusty there. The world population has been hoping and waiting in vain for years for something to change. No, there was time enough to tackle and solve the problem. But one has let time pass away senselessly. And that can not be otherwise, because in the context of the capitalist world order this is quite normal, just system conform.

There, where the sources of world capital begin to flow, the sources of life of human beings and nature dry up.

Agricultural capitalists do not get excited about costly projects if they can not make a profit with it. At most, "environmental projects" of these largest environmental criminals serve to improve their image in order to increase their sales volume. Their main thing is that the cash register is "ringing".

So called "environmental measures" that leave world capitalism untouched are nothing but fraud against humanity.


Of course, everyone agrees with us that one must stop this reckless exploitation of man and nature, namely not at some point, but now.

But how ? With requests and begging? With Petitions ? With this or that protest rally in this or that country ?
No, this is a global matter, and global matters can only be solved globally, by unification of all forces against world capitalism.

The reality looks the same everywhere in the world. If someone acts against the profit interests of these "gentlemen", they stop at nothing, neither at violence nor terror, even not at killing demonstrating farmers (see: WTO demonstration in Mexico). The world imperialists even do not stop at carrying out predatory wars for resources of this earth. They distroy this blue planet to become more rich than they already are: "devil-may-care!"

What is left for humanity? What is the last and ultimate means to stop the rich from destroying our world?

There is only one thing left for the action of the citizens on this earth:

That's revolutionary violence,

that's hammer, sickle and rifle!

This, our party symbol, is the only language the capitalists understand.

Fight with the Comintern (SH) for the World Agrarian Revolution!

The agrarian revolution is part of the world socialist revolution propagated, prepared and organized by the Comintern (SH).

Without violence against the global monopolists, there can not be and will not be a victorious global agrarian revolution, and nothing will ever change the miserable situation of man and nature.

We fight for the world socialist revolution, for the restoration of socialism, for world socialism, for the world power of the workers and peasants, for the dictatorship of the world proletariat, for the socialist world republic, for the purpose to overthrow the agricultural monopolies all over the world. Only in this way can we get the necessary power tools to break the power of agricultural monopolies.


Our word-revolutionary measures


We can and want to start immediately with drastic measures after the victorious global agrarian revolution.

The agricultural productive forces of the global economy are already so well developed by globalization that we can simply take them over as soon as we are in power.

Today's level of development of agricultural productive forces is sufficient to solve all the agricultural problems globally.

The decisive hindrance to this is solely the current world imperialistic relations of production (property relations). These must be smashed. That's all, for a start.

The producers really only need to destroy the world imperialist property relations and to organize the socialized productive forces globally, that is to take them into their own hands in order to use them wisely in their own interest.

The confiscation of the private property of the capitalists and their transformation into socialist ownership is not confined to the city, but includes the village. This applies both on a national and world scale.

The socialization of the means of production is not only a fundamental requirement for the construction of socialist agriculture in a single country, but also on a world scale, that is, for the construction of agriculture in world socialism.

This basic requirement is necessary, irrespective of the different stages of agricultural development in each country.

This does not mean, however, that the different conditions in each country should be ignored. In world socialism, the collectivization of agriculture can not be implemented at the same pace in every country. Concrete conditions require concrete measures.

The global transformation into a socialist agriculture would be completed by the Comintern (SH) in a few years, much faster and more thoroughly than this would have been possible under the former conditions in Albania.

Above all, the global technical prerequisites are already sufficiently available for this, which had to be created from scratch in Albania.

And also the financial possibilities for building up the agricultural sector in world socialism are incomparably better than for building socialism in Albania.

Our world socialist agriculture would not settle for the globalized socialization of large agrarian enterprises. In addition, we will also support and launch socialist projects of small-scale production. In contrast to the displacement policy of the trans-national monopolies, we do not forcibly destroy the small production sites. In the contrary. Under the control of the Comintern (SH), small-scale production can be easily integrated into world socialism as a useful supplement, without giving small producers the possibility of restoring capitalist conditions.

For the restoration of the impoverished soils we would provide abundant financial resources to make life in the countryside livable again.

With the destruction of world imperialist relations of production, we would not only stop the starvation and thirst of the world's population in a very short time, but also immediately begin with the restoration of the destroyed nature.

We will remove the whole unusable and ineffective capitalist "ecosystem" in a revolutionary way and create on its ruins a globalized sustainable, socialist ecosystem.

Under the dictatorship of the world proletariat, there will no longer be any environmental crimes.

The drinking water sources would again flow to all people on earth, (of course free of charge).

We will take globalized measures which help the climate to recover and by omission of measures which harm climate.

The social conflicts caused by the big capitalists will be eliminated.

Wage slavery on the countryside will be forbidden.

The material and cultural supplies of the rural world population is ensured, the rural exodus stopped, reduced and eliminated.
Harmony between town and village will be achieved all over the world.

And all these measures of the Comintern (SH) ultimately contribute in a sustainable manner to the consolidation of world peace as soon as the world socialist revolution of the working class, with the peasants at its side, has triumphed.


Long live the 5th Classic of Marxism-Leninism - Comrade Enver Hoxha!

Long live the restoration of socialism in Albania.

Long live the world socialist revolution!

Long live the dictatorship of the world proletariat!

Long live the revolutionary alliance of the workers and poor peasants!

Long live the socialist agrarian revolution!

Long live the socialist eco-revolution!

Long live the world socialism and world communism!

Long live the Comintern (SH)!


19. 10. 2018

Wolfgang Eggers