GENERAL-LINE

Comintern (SH)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Proletarians of all countries – unite!

World proletariat – unite all countries !

The Strategy and Tactics

of the

Socialist

World Revolution

 

General - Line

 

CHAPTER II


The proletarian socialist world revolution

 

 


World revolution

and Lenin 's teachings on the

imperialism as the highest stage of capitalism


The Leninist theory on imperialism retains its full validity for the inevitable victory of the socialist proletarian world revolution.

This is an indispensable, integral part of the general-line of the Comintern / ML. The theory of Lenin on imperialism and its further development by Stalin and Enver Hoxha will be defended against all kinds of ideologues in general, and against the neo-revisionists, in particular.

Enver Hoxha:

If we study this work of Lenin's carefully and faithfully adhere to his analysis and conclusions of genius, we shall see that imperialism in our days fully retains those same characteristics that Lenin described, that the Leninist definition of our epoch as the epoch of imperialism and proletarian revolutions remains unshaken, and that the triumph of the revolution is inevitable.

From a careful study of this work, we shall see how the revisionists, and the Chinese leaders among them, distort the Leninist thought on imperialism, how they understand the aims, strategy and tactics of imperialism. Their writings, declarations, stands and actions show that their view of the nature of imperialism is completely wrong, they see it from counter-revolutionary and anti-Marxist positions, as did all the parties of the Second International and their ideologues, Kautsky and company, whom Lenin ruthlessly exposed” (Enver Hoxha, Imperialism and Revolution”, English version).

Today's development of world imperialism and the inevitable victory of its revolutionary destruction is fully confirmed:

firstly, by the Leninist-Stalinist theory of imperialism,

secondly by Hoxhaist theory on imperialism,

thirdly, by the victory of the October Revolution over imperialism,

fourthly, by the victory of the Stalinist world-camp,

fifthly, by the victory of Albanian socialism over the entire imperialist / social-imperialist world.


Enver Hoxha:

What is the road that must be followed ?

The road which must be followed is the road of the political and ideological struggle, including armed struggle, of all the peoples and the progressive and revolutionary forces against imperialist powers, against world reaction, against capitalism, against the big multinational companies …

The contradictions between the imperialist powers in the international arena exist and will become more and more profound, the four contradictions of the present epoch defined by Lenin and Stalin will grow deeper. These contradictions will result in the destruction of imperialism, capitalism in decay, by the revolution.” (Enver Hoxha, »The Superpowers«, page 443, Tirana 1986, English version).

[remark: The 4 contradictions: between the two opposing systems – socialist and capitalist; the contradiction between labour and capital in the capitalist countries; the contradictions between the oppressed peoples and nations and imperialism; the contradiction among the imperialist powers].


Enver Hoxha:

Proceeding from Lenin's conclusions on the nature of imperialism and its place in history, as a result of the contradictions eroding it from within and people's liberation and revolutionary struggles, the whole of world imperialism as a social system no longer has that undivided power to dominate it once possessed. This is the dialectics of history and it confirms the Marxist-Leninist thesis that imperialism is on the decline, in decadence and decay.

The trend towards the weakening of capitalism and imperialism is the main trend of world history today. Marx and Lenin argued this on the basis of concrete facts, historical events, and materialistic dialectics.

It is true that the peoples want liberation, but they can gain this liberation only through struggle, through efforts, and headed by a militant leadership. Marx, Engels, Lenin and Stalin teach us that this leadership is the proletariat of each country. But the Proletariat and its Marxist-Leninist parties must make thorough-going political, economic and military analyses, weigh everything in the balance, make decisions and define the appropriate strategy and tactics, always bearing in mind the preparation and carrying out of the revolution. If the revolution is forgotten, as it is by the Chinese, neither the analyses, actions, strategy, nor the tactics can be Marxist-Leninist and revolutionary.

We cannot have any illusions about imperialism of any kind, either powerful or less powerful. Imperialism from its nature creates the conditions for economic and political expansion, for unleashing wars, because its character is essentially exploitative, aggressive. Therefore, to deceive the masses of the peoples who want liberation, that they will achieve this if they are guided by such revisionist theories as that of “three worlds”, is to perpetrate a crime against the peoples and the revolution.

Our epoch, as Lenin teaches us, is the epoch of imperialism and proletarian revolutions. We Marxist-Leninists must understand from this that we have to combat world imperialism, any imperialism, any capitalist power, which exploits the proletariat and the peoples, with the greatest severity. We stress the Leninist thesis that the revolution is now on the order of the day. The world is going to advance towards a new society which will be the socialist society. World capitalism, imperialism and social-imperialism will become even more decayed and will come to an end through the revolution.

Lenin teaches us that we must fight imperialism to the finish, must criticize it in the broad sense of the term and rouse the oppressed classes against the policy of imperialism, against the bourgeoisie. The Marxist-Leninist analysis of the development of imperialism today clearly shows that nothing in Lenin's analysis and conclusions on the nature and features of imperialism and the revolution can be altered. The attempts of all opportunists, from the social-democrats down to the Khrushchevite and Chinese revisionists, to distort the Leninist theses on imperialism are counterrevolutionary. Their aim is to negate the revolution, to prettify imperialism and to prolong the life of capitalism” (Enver Hoxha, Imperialism and Revolution”, English version).

In order to survive, it has devised new forms for the exploitation of the masses, not just on a national scale, but also on a w o r l d scale, has contrived its last and most sophisticated means of plunder, neo-colonialism, has created financial links and economic and m i l i t a r y alliances through which it intends to hold in complete or partial dependence many states belonging to what is called the «second world», the «third world», the «non-aligned world» or the «developing countries». A l l these terms, which refer to the various political forces acting in the w o r l d today, cover up and do not bring out the class character of these political forces, the fundamental contradictions of our epoch, the key problem which is predominant today on a national and international scale, the ruthless struggle between the bourgeois-imperialist world, on the one hand, and socialism, the w o r l d proletariat, and its natural allies, on the other.” (Enver Hoxha, Imperialism and Revolution”, English version)

Comrade Enver Hoxha defined scientifically the stage which imperialism has reached today :

World capitalism, which is proceeding irretrievably towards crises and decline, just as Marx, Engels, Lenin and Stalin predicted with such genius, has now reached the stage of imperialism in decay” (Enver Hoxha, Imperialism and Revolution”, English version).

What does this stage, “Imperialism in decay”, mean in relation to the fundamental contradictions of our epoch ? Every moment of further decay of imperialism is simultaneously a moment for the further prospering of the proletarian world revolution. This trend means that our epoch reaches the stage of world socialism by means of the socialist world revolution. The trend of imperialism's decay is connected indivisibly with the trend of the restoration of socialism. Word socialism is the highest stage of socialism, is - in view of world history - the replacement of the epoch of imperialism by the epoch of socialism.

Enver Hoxha:

Capitalism has entered the phase of its decay. This situation is arousing the revolt of the peoples and impelling them to revolution. The struggle of the peoples against imperialism and the bourgeois capitalist cliques is building up in various forms, with varying intensities. Quantity will inevitably turn into qualiIty. This will happen first in those countries which ,constitute the weakest link of the capitalist chain .and where the consciousness and organization of the working class have reached a high level, where .there is a deep political and ideological understanding of the problem.

Imperialism has stepped up its barbarous oppression and exploitation of the peoples. But, at the same time, the peoples of the world are becoming more and more conscious that they cannot go on living in capitalist society, where the working masses are no less oppressed and exploited -than in the pre-War period.

Despite all the efforts by imperialism and its hangers-on, it will find no stability, now or in the future, in its struggle to establish its hegemony over the peoples. It cannot find stability because of the awakening consciousness of the working class and the masses of oppressed working people who want liberation, as well as because of the inevitable inter-imperialist contradictions.

The peoples are seeing, and later they will see ever more clearly, that world imperialism and capitalism are not based solely on the economic, military, political and ideological strength of the two superpowers, but are based also on the wealthy classes which keep the peoples of their own countries in bondage, under exploitation and under fear so they will not rise up to gain their true freedom and independence.

The broad masses of various peoples of the world have also begun to understand that the present-day bourgeois-capitalist society, the exploiting system of world imperialism, must be overthrown. For the peoples this is not just an aspiration, in many countries they have taken up arms.

Therefore, there is no need to concoct theories which divide the world into three or four parts, into “aligned” and “non-aligned”, but the great objective historical process must be seen and interpreted correctly, according to the teachings of Marxism-Leninism. The world is divided in two, the world of capitalism and the new world of socialism, which are locked in a merciless struggle with each other. In this fight the new, the socialist world, will triumph, while the old capitalist society, the bourgeois and imperialist society, will be overthrown” (Enver Hoxha, Imperialism and Revolution”, English version).

The program of the Comintern says (1928) :

Being the highest phase of capitalist development, imperialism, expanding the productive forces of world economy to enormous dimensions, and re-fashioning the whole world after its own image, draws within the orbit of finance capitalist exploitation all colonies, all races and all nations. At the same time, however, the monopolist form of capital develops increasingly the elements of parasitical degeneration, decay and decline within capitalism. In destroying, to some extent, the driving force of competition, by conducting a policy of cartel prices, and by having undivided mastery of the market, monopoly capital reveals a tendency to retard the further development of the forces of production. In squeezing enormous sums of surplus profit out of the millions of colonial workers and peasants and in accumulating colossal incomes from this exploitation, imperialism is creating a type of decaying and parasitically degenerate rentier-class, as well as whole strata of parasites who live by clipping coupons. In completing the process of creating the material pre-requisites for socialism (the concentration of means of production, the enormous socialisation of labour, the growth of labour organisations), the epoch of imperialism intensifies the antagonisms among the “Great Powers” and gives rise to wars which cause the break-up of its single world economy. Imperialism is therefore capitalism moribund and decaying. It is the final stage of development of the capitalist system. It is the threshold of world social revolution.

Hence, international proletarian revolution logically emerges out of the conditions of development of capitalism generally, and out of its imperialist phase in particular. The capitalist system as a whole is approaching its final collapse. The dictatorship of finance capital is perishing to give way to the dictatorship of the proletariat!

The ultimate aim of the Communist International is to replace world capitalist economy by a world system of Communism. Communist society, the basis for which has been prepared by the whole course of historical development, is mankind’s only way out, for it alone can abolish the contradictions of the capitalist system which threaten to degrade and destroy the human race.

Communist society will abolish the class division of society, i.e., simultaneously with the abolition of anarchy in production, it will abolish all forms of exploitation and oppression of man by man. Society will no longer consist of antagonistic classes in conflict with each other, but will present a united commonwealth of labour. For the first time in its history mankind will take its fate into its own hands. Instead of destroying innumerable human lives and incalculable wealth in struggles between classes and nations, mankind will devote all its energy to the struggle against the forces of nature, to the development and strengthening of its own collective might.

After abolishing private ownership of the means of production and converting these means into social property, the world system of Communism will replace the elemental forces of the world market, competitive and blind processes of social production, by consciously organised and planned production for the purpose of satisfying rapidly growing social needs. With the abolition of competition and anarchy in production, devastating crises and still more devastating wars will disappear. Instead of colossal waste of productive forces and spasmodic development of society-there will be a planned utilisation of all material resources and a painless economic development on the basis of unrestricted, smooth and rapid development of productive forces.

The abolition of private property and the disappearance of classes will do away with the exploitation of man by man. Work will cease to be toiling for the benefit of a class enemy: instead of being merely a means of livelihood it will become a necessity of life: want and economic inequality, the misery of enslaved classes, and a wretched standard of life generally will disappear; the hierarchy created in the division of labour system will be abolished. ” (Program of the Comintern 1928)

The world economic law is the law of the global relations of production in harmony with the global character of productive forces. The current world capitalist crises is characterized by the deepest disharmony of this world economic law. Today, the globalized capitalist private property at the means of global production is violating the social character of the global process of production to such degree that this brings about unavoidably the world revolution which destroys globally the current global capitalist relations of production. The world economic law teaches us that only socialist relations of world production are able to harmonize with the social character of the developing global productive forces.

Why is the transformation of the economic basis of socialism's first period ( in “one” country”) towards the economic basis of socialism's second period ( world socialism) so difficult and complicated and even interrupted ? It is obvious that it was easier to develop the driving forces of class struggle in “one” country than that of the global class struggle because of the different developments of different capitalist countries. The globalization of the economic basis for world socialism needed a certain period of time and its global centralization. Objectively, capitalism developed firstly on national stages before it could then develop globally. And we can see, today, that globalization is required for the decaying process of imperialism. The harmonization of the economic law was therefore only possible on a national stage in the first run. It had to be liberated in the first period of socialism before it was possible to unchain it also on a global scale. Not until the economic law is freed from its global class-chains it can be completely mastered and unfolded all over the globe to the regeneration and prosperity of the new world society. Not until then it will also be developed optimally in all the countries of the world. The world bourgeoisie is unable to master the economic law of the world because of her striving for profits – that's the reason for the dying imperialism. In the hands of the world proletariat, however, the economic law can be far more developed than by the proletariat of a single country (under conditions of pre-dominant world capitalism). The economic law comes to full power by the maximum of centralization of the global world production in accordance with the global socialization of the world's property at the means of production ( as the highest and last stage of property - at all). In world communism the relations of production have finally lost their character of property – and this is required for the full application of the economic law.

The purpose of the present class-struggle of the world proletariat is not only to free the economic law from the world-capitalist chains of private property, however to abolish the inevitability of the discordance between private relations of production and social productive forces which means with other words: the abolition of the inevitability of the exploitation of man by man.

The means, methods and ways of present class-struggle of the world-proletariat is to smash the ruling world bourgeoisie through the socialist world revolution and to establish the dictatorship of the world proletariat, or with other words: to struggle for the harmonization of the whole global superstructure ( creation of the Union of world-socialist states, etc.) with the global methods of production in every country of the world.

Through correct combination of its purpose and means, the law of world-proletarian class-struggle is optimally confirmed.

Our general-line is a demarcation line against all ideological, political and economic measurements with which the ruling classes try to prolong the life of the dying imperialist world-system.

Our general-line is the line on which we collect and concentrate all class forces who help us to speed up the dying process of world imperialism and its final death-blow.

Our general-line is the line on which we remove all harmful obstacles that hinder the development towards world socialism.

Our general-line gives the answer to the question: How can the world proletariat get rid of the capitalist-revisionist encirclement of the world ? The general-line of the Comintern / ML is the strategy and tactics of the world-revolutionary counter-encirclement of the capitalist-revisionist world !

Our general-line serves us to promote all forces and measures which contribute to the birth of world socialism.

Our general-line is the instrument to nip in the bud all attempts for the revival and restoration of world imperialism. Our general-line is needed until world communism - as comrade Lenin has taught us:

Theoretically, there can be no doubt that between capitalism and communism there lies a definite transition period which must combine the features and properties of both these forms of social economy. This transition period has to be a period of struggle between dying capitalism and nascent communism -or, in other words, between capitalism which has been defeated but not destroyed and communism which has been born but is still very feeble” (Lenin, collected works, Volume 30, page 107, English version).

In essence, the process of dying of imperialism is equal both in times of Lenin and in our times of globalization. Nevertheless, we must analyse the whole historical development of this dying process. This lasts - after all - hundred years. This long lapse of time can not be ignored or stay unconsidered for the development of today's world socialist revolution.


Enver Hoxha:

Our Marxist-Leninist theory teaches us that the deepening of crises within the capitalist world is the beginning of the death agony and coma of this world. Therefore, world capital is making desparate efforts to escape from this terrible grip which has it by the throat and is strangling it. But escape is impossible, because it is the capitalist system itself which gives birth to the crisis, which fosters it and intensifies it to the higher degree. The temporary or relatively long-term treaties and agreements between imperialists are only palliatives, they are built on sand” (Enver Hoxha, “The Superpowers”, page 542.543,English edition).

The inequality of the development of capitalism in different countries determines unavoidably the inequality of the degenerating process and of the dying process of capitalism in different countries. This different development of imperialism is essentially for the different development of the world revolution in different countries.

The increasing inequality of degeneration of imperialist powers accelerates the dying process of the whole world imperialism. The death of capitalism is inescapable and there remains only one “alternative”: to delay the final D-Day. However, even these helpless efforts accelerate total collapse and lead inevitably to "Capitalism of No Return".

This is the reason why we can not describe the death of capitalism as a gentle, smooth and quiet death, however, imperialism dies a horrible painful death under conditions of the hardest global class-struggle in history of mankind. Capitalism will not die only in a hail of bullets in the world revolution, but goes through - before and after the world revolution - a long process of dying, which lasts over the entire period of world socialism. Dying capitalism is a contradictory global process of the struggle of opposites in different countries, a struggle to the global death in every country of the world. The classes of capitalist society will not die without the class-struggle of the proletariat in every single country.

The world revolution shortens the dying process of imperialism and therein lies its strength and its vested mission for the proletariat in all countries. The dialectics of the development process of world revolution is based on the acceleration of the dying process of imperialism. Without Marxist-Leninist analysis of the dying process of world imperialism - no victory of the socialist world revolution. The Leninist teachings on decaying, parasitic and dying process of imperialism is in direct proportion to the Leninist teachings of the world revolutionary development of the world proletariat and thus – later on - related to the teachings of the continuation of the world-socialist processes. It follows that the victory of socialism is not only possible in a single country under world-imperialist conditions, but that socialism is also possible in the present period of globalized imperialism. And today, we would continue the same struggle of Lenin and Stalin for their defense of socialism in "one" country through our struggle against the Trotzkyite "theories" of the alleged "impossibility of globalized socialism." The Stalinist-Hoxhaist theory of the possibility of globalized socialism means simultaneously defense of Lenin's and Stalin's thesis on "the possibility of socialism in "one" country - only under the changed current conditions of world imperialism.

The possibility of socialism "in one country" was created as a result of the first World War II by the October Revolution the Russian proletariat. That was the time of dying capitalism in one country. In the second World War II we have a further development of the dying process in other countries, thus world socialism was possible thanks to the socialist world-camp of comrade Stalin. This possibility was deprived of revisionist betrayal. Today, when the dying-process runs through the entire globalized capitalism, we must speak of the possibility of socialism on a world scale.


Lenin:

Capitalism in its imperialist stage leads directly to the most comprehensive socialisation of production; it, so to speak, drags the capitalists, against their will and consciousness, into some sort of a new social order, a transitional one from complete free competition to complete socialisation” (Lenin, Collected Works, Volume 22, page 205, “Imperialism, the highest stage of capitalism”).

 

next:

- world revolution and the role of the global masses; the role of the workers' -, peasants' - and soldiers' Soviets; the role of the Marxist-Leninist party