Short Comment on the Book:
„Reflections on China“
- written by Enver Hoxha
This document was first published in „Albania Today“- No 4, 1979
and in February, 2010, re- published in co-production of
ciml.250x.com and www.enverhoxha.ru
PROOF OF THE UNFLINCHING STRUGGLE OF THE PLA AGAINST
(«ZËRI I POPULLIT- Organ of the CC of the PLA)
«Reflections on China» is a living testimony to the deep Marxist-Leninist analysis which the PLA and Comrade Enver Hoxha have made of the CP of China with Mao Tsetung at the head, its anti-Marxist line and attitudes both on international questions and internal Chinese development
THE PUBLISHING OF COMRADE ENVER HOXHA'S BOOK «REFLECTIONS ON CHINA» WITH PARTS FROM HIS POLITICAL DIARY HAS BEEN RECEIVED WITH GREAT INTEREST BY THE COMMUNISTS AND THE BROAD WORKING MASSES OF OUR PEOPLE. IT CONSTITUTES A MARKED POLITICAL, IDEOLOGICAL AND SCIENTIFIC EVENT.
ALONG WITH SUCH WORKS OF COMRADE ENVER HOXHA AS VOLUME 19 OF THE SERIES OF HIS WORKS, «IMPERIALISM AND THE REVOLUTION», «SELF-ADMINISTRATION - A CAPITALIST THEORY AND PRACTICE» AND OTHERS, «REFLECTIONS ON CHINA» REPRESENTS A NEW OUTSTANDING CONTRIBUTION OF OUR PARTY, AND OF COMRADE ENVER HOXHA PERSONALLY, TO THE EXPOSURE OF MODERN REVISIONISM. IN «REFLECTIONS ON CHINA» THE EVOLUTION OF CHINESE REVISIONISM, ON ONE HAND, AND THE PROCESS OF COGNITION BY OUR PARTY, ON THE OTHER, ARE VIVIDLY REVEALED TO THE READER ON THE BASIS OF CONCRETE EVENTS AND FACTS, AS THEY HAVE DEVELOPED FROM DAY TO DAY AND FROM YEAR TO YEAR.
«Reflections on China» is a living testimony to the deep Marxist-Leninist analysis which the PLA and Comrade Enver Hoxha have made of the CP of China with Mao Tsetung at the head, its anti-Marxist line and attitudes both on international questions and internal Chinese development. Now, on the basis of the further development of events up to our days, when the whole world is witnessing the dangerous and warmongering counterrevolutionary alliance of Chinese socialimperialism with American imperialism and other most reactionary forces, when the Chinese leadership has reconciled itself and fully united with the Yugoslav and other revisionists, when capitalism in China is developing in an unrestrained way, etc. everybody can see as clearly as in the light of the sun that the analyses, conclusions and forecasts which Comrade Enver Hoxha makes are entirely correct and confirmed to the letter.
At the same time, Comrade Enver Hoxha's book is convincing testimony to the prudent and correct stand of the Party of Labor of Albania towards the CP of China and the People's Republic of China. After reading this book, everybody becomes convinced that our Party and Comrade Enver never have precipitated things, never have reached hasty conclusions, nor have they made accusations proceeding from subjective opinions, but have always judged with patience and with a cool head, basing themselves on facts and real events, when they have taken place or when they have been given the possibility of being acquaint ed with them. In this way, gradually, from the first reservations over particular questions, grave doubts arose about the very essence of the whole line of the Communist Party of China, of its entire internal and international policy, until the firm conviction is created that the Communist Party of China and its leadership have nothing in common with Marxism-Leninism, the revolution, or socialism. It becomes completely clear that the conclusions the Party of Labor of Albania has reached in connection with the Communist Party of China, Mao Tsetung and «Mao Tsetung thought», have by no means been made accidentally, under the influence of the anti-Marxist and anti-Albanian activity of the present Chinese leadership, but are the result of a long follow-up and deep reflections over many years.
As long as it had not yet reached the conclusion that in the Communist Party of China and its leadership it had to do not with a conscious out-and-out anti-Marxist line but with vacillations and errors, grave and repeated though they might be, it has defended the Communist Party of China and sincerely tried to help it correct its mistakes on the Marxist-Leninist road. But while showing itself prudent and tolerant in its assessment of the CP of China and its stands towards it, our Party, as the «Reflections on China» very clearly indicates, has on no occasion made any concession on principles, regardless of the fact that the Chinese leadership exerted all kinds of pressure on it. On the contrary, Comrade Enver Hoxha's book is a vivid reflection of the principled and firm stands of the PLA, of its revolutionary line and tactic on all questions, of its unshakeable revolutionary positions in defence of Marxism-Leninism.
The major value of the book «Reflections on China» also consists in the fact that it gives a vivid and concrete example of Comrade Enver Hoxha's Marxist-Leninist dialectical method, which is applied in a skilful and consistent manner, with events and phenomena being considered in their all-round links and the process of their dialectical development. From this angle, too, this book is particularly instructive and important.
Comrade Enver Hoxha's book «Reflections on China», due to the rich material it contains, the profound political and ideological analyses and assessments which pervade every line of it, its clear, easily understandable, sharp and militant form and style in representing events and facts and expounding conclusions, constitutes a treasury with great informative, scientific and educational values for everyone — the mass of the communists and cadres, the broad working masses of the country, the students and specialists.
The Party of Labor of Albania found itself close to the CP of China particularly in the struggle against Khrushchevite revisionism. To our Party this was a struggle of vital importance for the cause of revolution and socialism, which was being waged over a series of questions of principle, like the stand towards the historical experience of the dictatorship of the proletariat, the attitude towards the revolution and the national liberation struggle of the peoples, the stand towards imperialism, American imperialism in particular, the stand towards Yugoslav revisionism, the problem of relations among fraternal parties and socialist countries, etc. The facts and later developments would show that the «anti-revisionist" positions of the Communist Party of China on these questions were nothing other than pragmatic tactics in the attempts of the Chinese leaders to displace their Khrushchevite rivals and to place the international communist movement and the socialist camp under their own control, as a means to further their aims to transform China into a superpower. But in the period comprised in the first volume of «Reflections on China» what leaps to one's eye is the gradual departure, which was becoming ever more marked, of the leadership of the Communist Party of China from the positions of principle on which the Party of Labour of Albania had fought and was fighting without vacillations.
This becomes apparent, in the first place, on the question of the stand towards modern revisionism, especially Khrushchevite as well as
Yugoslav revisionism, etc.
At a time when the revolutionary communists of the whole world expected China to take an open and direct stand condemning Krushchevite revisionism, against which the Party of Labour of Albania alone was waging a frontal struggle, the leadership of the Communist Party of China, as Comrade Enver Hoxha points out in his first note of April 3, 1962, was following a tactic which brought grist to the mill of the Khrushchevites. The essence of the tricky tactic of the Chinese to the effect that «the revisionists should take the first step, we the second», was intended to have the other pull the chestnuts out of the fire for them, in order to further their not in the least principled objectives in their quarrel with the Khrushchevite revisionists; and this comes out openly from the admissions of the Chinese that to the attacks of the Soviets they answer with articles from the fraternal parties until the Chinese themselves are directly attacked! Hence, a «stern» fight with others' «bullets» Comrade Enver Hoxha ironizes.
«And the Chinese, living on «borrowed flour», will deal the witch the «final blow» after the others have torn the mask from her. In a word, this means to build your reputation on the other's efforts. This is truly revolting, neither Marxist nor honourable». 1)
The Chinese vacillations which are revealed step by step by Comrade Enver Hoxha, come out also in connection with the «tactic» of the leadership of the Communist Party of China on the so-called common front against imperialism including even the revisionists. Today it is clear that this tactic of the Chinese leaders was not in the least fortuitous, but it was connected with the fact that it did not wage a principled struggle against Khrushchevite revisionism, on the contrary, it tried to maintain its links with the Soviet revisionist leadership in order to achieve its hegemonic aims. In sternly condemning the tendency of the Chinese leaders towards a common front with the revisionists, as a wrong road of vacillations and opportunist concessions to the Khrushchev traitor group, Comrade Enver Hoxha, with Marxist-Leninist acuteness and farsightedness, points out:
«This is no minor matter, but one of the most important. This is the laying of a revisionist turn of policy and ideology on the table for discussion, regardless of the fact that this has been dressed up as an «anti-imperialist front».2)
The Chinese inclinations towards a «common anti-imperialist front» even with" the Soviet revisionists came out even more clearly in their illusions, which revived after N. Khrushchev's fall. Comrade Enver Hoxha vehemently rejects the Chinese attempts at rapprochement and unity with the Soviet revisionist renegades after N. Khrushchev's fall, as well as Chou En-lai's brutal pressure to force our Party, too, into this anti-Marxist and capitulating road.
«We cannot reconcile ourselves in any way to these views of Chou En-lai,» Comrade Enver Hoxha points out, «because they are revisionist from start to finish, anti-Marxist, capitulationist, and lead to the road of betrayal of Marxism-Leninism. In presenting such views, the Chinese comrades are making grave mistakes, and are and will be bringing colossal harm to communism».3)
The facts and the development of events, the stand and the actions taken by the leadership of the CP of China, especially by its main leaders, Mao Tsetung and Chou En-lai, followed up step by step with vigilance and acutely analysed in Comrade Enver Hoxha's book, reveal another feature of the Chinese pretended struggle against Khrushchevite revisionism; its pragmatic character, as it was inspired by bourgeois nationalist and great power chauvinist motives and aims. This is expressed in two main directions.
It expressed itself, on one hand, in the Chinese shifting the principled ideological polemic with the Khrushchevite revisionism into territorial claims on the Soviet Union. Later, until the fascist type barbarous aggression of the Chinese social-imperialists against Vietnam, as well as their threats and actions' against Laos, the facts would prove that great power chauvinism lies at the very roots of the policy of the Chinese revisionists, the same as the Soviet revisionists. But even at the time when these chauvinist tendencies had Just begun to show up, our Party and Comrade Enver Hoxha opposed them resolutely.
On the other hand, the unprincipled and pragmatic character of the opposition to Khrushchevite revisionism on the part of the Chinese leadership is apparent in its attempts to unite with anybody, from the Yugoslav revisionist renegades and the others down to American imperialism, provided they are on anti-Soviet positions. «Hence, their «anti-revisionism» towards the Khrushchevites,» Comrade Enver Hoxha points out,
«is not based on the Marxist-Leninist ideology. They do not fight Soviet revisionism from principled positions... for the Chinese whoever is anti-Soviet is fine. This anti-Marxist stand has now led China into a blind alley, on to a course which, if it does not stop, leads to betryal».4)
Comrade Enver Hoxha condemns with particular sternness and indignation the «advice» and pressure of the Chinese leadership to push our Party, too, into the treacherous road of reconciliation and unprincipled and dangerous alliances with the Yugoslav and other revisionists.
Like the Khrushchevite revisionists, the Chinese leaders, accompany their course of reconciliation with and rapprochement to the revisionists with attacks against Stalin, as a means to justify this anti-Marxist course of theirs. And in fact, while they show vacillations and inclinations towards a common front with the Khrushchevite-Brezhnevite revisionists, while they make up and kiss with Yugoslav, Polish, Spanish and other revisionists, the Chinese revisionists, beginning with Mao Tsetung, leave no opportunity unused to attack and vilify J. V. Stalin, the great Marxist-Leninist, the disciple and faithful continuer of the work of Lenin. As Comrade Enver Hoxha points out, in 1956 Mao Tsetung took under his protection Tito against Stalin, while at the 1957 Moscow Meeting he lauded and supported Khrushchev and condemned Stalin, accusing him of unequal relations with the fraternal parties. Mao Tsetung, Liu Shao-chi, Chou En-lai and other Chinese leaders also accuse Stalin of «rightist mistakes» in the class struggle, of «grave errors» towards the Chinese, of «seizing» Chinese, Japanese, Polish, German, Czech, Rumanian, Finnish territories, etc. «No,» Comrade Enver Hoxha resolutely stresses,
«these things do not go down with us. These views of the Chinese comrades are wrong and must be corrected, because they are on major questions of principle».5)
He forcefully emphasizes that Stalin has been a great man, a great revolutionary and a great Marxist-Leninist, and so will he remain in the centuries.
In revealing and condemning the vacillating, unprincipled and anti-Marxist positions of the Chinese leadership in its attitude towards the modern revisionists, Comrade Enver Hoxha emphasizes over and over again the firm position of the Party of Labor of Albania in its principled and irreconcilable struggle against all shades of modern revisionism, its unflinching determination to carry it through to the end.
«There will never be a 'marrige' between communists and revisionist traitors. On the contrary,» he emphasizes, «the struggle will go on until the total defeat of modern revisionism and the complete victory of Marxism-Leninism».6)
The present-day development of China's relations with the United States of America,
when it is entering into direct political and military alliance with American imperialism, flinging wide open China's doors to the unrestrained flow of American capital and way of life, are another brilliant proof of the acuteness and farsightedness of the analysis Comrade Enver Hoxha makes of the tendencies of the Chinese leadership for rapprochement with American imperialism which had just begun to surface.
Step by step, Comrade Enver Hoxha analyses the process of the pragmatic shift of the axis of Chinese policy, from its «blow for blow struggle against American imperialism», to the Chinese tactic of the «common front against imperialism including the revisionists», down to the reconciliation with and rapprochement to American imperialism and Soviet socialimperialism.
Following up vigilantly this evolution from the first «signal», when the Chinese leadership tries to justify the Rumanian stand towards receiving credits from the United States of America (note of August 18, 1964), and down to Nixon's visit to China, Comrade Enver Hoxha sternly condemns the Chinese policy of reconciliation to and compromises with American imperialism as a policy which has an anti-Marxist, anti-revolutionary line at its foundation. Likewise, he exposes the anti-Marxist and dishonest methods of secret diplomacy adopted by the Chinese leadership.
«...to fail to inform your own friend and ally, Albania, first of all,» Comrade Enver Hoxha writes about Nixon's visit to China,
«and then the whole of world opinion, this is perfidy, this is glaring revisionism, this is not «people's diplomacy», as the Chinese claim, but is secret diplomacy with the heads of American imperialism».7)
The visit of the head of American Imperialism, Nixon, and the warm reception given to him by the Chinese leadership with Mao Tsetung and Chou En-lai at the head, and moreover, at a time when the criminal bombardment of Vietnam by the Americans had reached unprecedented intensity and barbarism, was the great alarm-bell announcing the dangerous turn which the Chinese policy had taken. Comrade Enver Hoxha analyses the consequences of this policy in detail, with iron logic and farsight.
«China,» he concludes, «is more and more heading rapidly towards the course of a revisionist great power, towards the transformation of its line into a revisionist line. At present it is in a more acute struggle with the Soviets, whose revisionist ideological hegemony and social-imperialist great power positions are threatened by it, and is smiling on and forming links of friendship with the United States of America, for a counter-weight and its own consolidation as a major capitalist power».8)
Comrade Enver Hoxha warns about the fatal consequences of the course adopted by the Chinese leadership, the great threats it poses to the peoples if it is not restrained. «The first phase,» he points out, "is that of setting China on the road of agreement with the revisionist betrayal, on the road of becoming discredited in the international arena, in the eyes of the peoples and communists. The second phase is the game of the three superpowers, of new combinations, of the balance of forces, of more severe quarrels in the international arena.
«The peoples and the Marxist-Leninists must fight with self-sacrifice to stop this retrogressive world course».9) Today we are witnessing the realization in practice of the forecasts of Comrade Enver. Social-imperialist China has actively involved itself in the game of the superpowers, and while continuing its course of alliance with American imperialism, now, as is known, it has started talks with the Soviet social-imperialists.
A considerable number of items included in «Reflections on China» are devoted to the analysis of the so-called Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution,
when, though wrapped up in an ultra-revolutionary phraseology, the deviations of Mao Tsetung and the CP of China from the teachings of Marxism-Leninism over a series of capital questions of the internal development, began to appear in acute forms.
The Party of Labour of Albania gave its support to the development of the Cultural Revolution in China, which, on the basis of facts available to our Party at that time, gave the impression that it was directed against revisionist and capitalist elements like Liu Shao-chi, Teng Hsiao-ping, Peng Chen and others who had partly usurped state power and aimed to lead China on the road of capitalism. The aim of our Party and Comrade Enver Hoxha was to assist the Chinese people, to assist the CP of China and to defend and consolidate the socialist order and the dictatorship of the proletariat, which was supposed to exist in China, regardless of the grave revisionist mistakes that had been made there, such as were for example the existence of capitalist profit, the line of the 8th Congress of the CP of China, the opportunist stand towards the enemies and counterrevolutionaries, etc. The more so when it was believed that these distortions, about which our Party had had its reservations even before, had been made under the influence of the revisionist elements which the Cultural Revolution overthrew.
However, our Party, as emerges clearly from the first volume of Comrade Enver's book, «Reflections on China», from the very beginning had expressed serious reservations and doubts over this so-called Cultural Revolution, over the causes which led to its outbreak, over the manner and methods of its development, etc., until eventually it reached the complete conclusion that this was neither a revolution, nor great, cultural, and not at all proletarian, but an unprincipled struggle for power, down to the use of armed violence among opposing bourgeois and petty-bourgeois factions, trends and lines in the midst of the leadership of the CP of China and the Chinese state.
Comrade Enver Hoxha raises the question about the causes which lead to that critical situation in China, the causes which lead to the outbreak of the Cultural Revolution, and reaches the conclusion that these causes should be sought in the grave mistakes proved in the line and activity of the CP of China.
«Liu Shao-chi, Teng Hsiao-ping and company have truly betrayed Marx-ism-Leninism therefore they should be struck lethal blows. This should have been done long ago».10)
But the question arises, how was this hostile work allowed to develop and, in particular,
«what has Mao been doing during these eighteen years and why has he allowed the party to be weakened? Why has he left it in the hands of the revisionists, who have eroded it from within? During this whole «dark» period, has Comrade Mao been isolated, has he been in the minority, or has he, too, been swimming in opportunist waters, and as such, permitted two lines in the Communist Party of China?» (11).
The later developments in the internal and external policy of China, the eventual analysis, in greater extent and depth, of the events and facts, a more detailed and all-round analysis of the views and practices of the CP of China and Mao Tsetung showed, as Comrade Enver Hoxha has indicated in «Imperialism and the Revolution» and other materials, that the roots of the evil, the deep cause which lead to the so-called Cultural Revolution, lie in the anti-Marxist, revisionist, pragmatic and eclectic general line of the CP of China and in its theoretical basis, in the ill-famed «Mao Tsetung thought».
Comrade Enver Hoxha makes a stern principled criticism of the substitution of the personal leadership of Mao Tsetung and the unprecedented inflation of his cult, for the leadership of the party.
«The name of the party,» Comrade Enver Hoxha writes, «has been completely replaced with the name of Mao, the cult of Mao... Mao has replaced the party, and «Mao Tsetung thought» has replaced Marxism-Lenin-ism».12)
This course and these methods are totally alien to Marxism-Leninism, unjustifiable under any circumstances, and extremely dangerous.
Particularly dangerous and unacceptable, as Comrade Enver points out in many of his notes, is the tendency of placing the army above the party and the use of the army to carry out a coup d'etat and to dominate the party, a thing which was practiced both by Mao Tsetung and his opponents.
The anarchic opposition of the masses to the party, as was done during the so-called Cultural Revolution in China has nothing, nor can it have anything in common with a true revolutionary movement.
"It is a mistake of catastrophic proportions to leave the party in the dark and to oppose the masses to it, to put the leadership of the party, the true collective leadership, under the uncontrolled, undirected fire of the broad masses, or the «red guards», who are inspired in a spontaneous and irregular manner».13)
The anarchy created, Comrade Enver Hoxha stresses, cannot be combated with anarchy. Moreover, in this «revolutionary movement», which was being advertized as the largest movement of the masses in history, the decisive force of every genuine socialist revolution — the working class — and the «smash of the bourgeois-revisionist attack» and the «de-fence of the dictatorship of the proletariat», had been left in abeyance, and were entrusted to the hands of the «red guards», the school and university youth.
Alongside these fundamental aspects, Comrade Enver Hoxha, in the first volume of «Reflections on China», makes a critical analysis of a series of other distortions, which were noticed especially during the so-called Cultural Revolution, such as were the unprincipled opportunist stands maintained towards the hostile, anti-party and revisionist elements in China, or the nihilist, extremist and chauvinist stands towards the progressive cultural patrimony of the past and the progressive culture of other peoples.
In the light of such Marxist-Leninist analysis, Comrade Enver Hoxha categorically refutes the brutal attempts of the Chinese leadership to impose Mao Tsetung, as «the chief Marxist-Leninist in the entire history of Communism», and the «experience» of the so-called Proletarian Cultural Revolution, on all the Marxist-Leninist parties and all the socialist countries. «The Chinese press,» Comrade Enver Hoxha writes, «is bombarding Mao with paeans of praise, making a real god of him. liquidating Marx, Engels, Lenin, and Stalin, as if there were nothing wrong with this, and reaches the scandalous point of saying, 'Those who do not follow the road of Mao and the Cultural Revolution, whether revolutionary Marxists of the world, or countries where the dictatorship of the proletariat is in power, are deviators'. This is not Marxist, this is Trotskyism, this is wrong.
«As far as we are concerned... our only correct unerring course is, and will remain, Marxism-Leninism».14)
In «Reflections on China», Comrade Enver Hoxha attaches great importance to the problems of the relaions between sister parties and the unity of the Marxist-Leninist movement.
In this field he confronts with determination the chauvinist stands of the Chinese leadership to subject the sister parties to «its own conductor's baton».
The Chinese policy towards the Marxist-Leninist parties and organizations, as Comrade Enver Hoxha points out, is not at all friendly, nor even less principled or Marxist. The Chinese leaders hold them in scorn, do not assist them, and moreover fail to give them ideological support in the struggle against the revisionist parties as well as against the anarchic, Trotskyite and other groups. On the one hand, they approach, maintain contacts, and hold talks with the Yugoslav, Spanish, Italian and other revisionists, while on the other hand, they are maintaining contacts with all sorts of groups opposing the Marxist-Leninist parties, provided these groups boost Mao Tsetung and the Cultural Revolution, regardless of their tendencies.
The falsity and the none too honest and not at all internationalist aims of the Chinese leaders in their attitude towards the Marxist-Leninist movement and the sister parties come out in the open also in their negative stand towards the multilateral meetings and activities of these parties. But, why are they against such meetings? Comrade Enver Hoxha discloses that, on the one hand, they want to avoid all confrontation over the wavering, unprincipled and revisionist line, views and stands of the CP of China, with the universal Marxist-Leninist thought. The Chinese leaders see the unity of the Marxist-Leninist movement from the positions of «great party» chauvinism. The Chinese leadership, Comrade Enver Hoxha points out,
«thinks that it is sufficient if we all unanimously approve what is going on in China, and that our unity is strengthened with this».15)
On the other hand, by reducing the relations with the Marxist-Leninist parties only to bilateral contacts, the leadership of the CP of China seeks to transform the sister parties into blind followers of the CP of China and into its obedient tools.
By exposing and severely attacking these anti-Marxist, chauvinist and disruptive stands of the leadership of the CP of China, Comrade Enver Hoxha in his book «Reflections on China», firmly expresses the unreserved support of the Party of Labor of Albania for the new Marxist-Leninist parties and forces, considering this as its lofty internationalist task. At the same time, Comrade Enver Hoxha lays down the clear unequivocal position of the PLA about the all-round strengthening of the collaboration between the sister Marxist-Leninist parties and the unity of the international Marxist-Leninist communist movement in the common struggle against imperialism, revisionism and reaction, for the triumph of the cause of the revolution, national liberation and socialism, for the triumph of Marxism-Leninism.
Comrade Enver Hoxha's book, «Reflections on China» throws light on the truth of the development of Sino-Albanian relations in a most detailed manner, with most convincing arguments, with innumerable facts and gradually.
It is a stern indictment of the incorrect, unfriendly, dishonest, anti-Marxist and chauvinist stands of the Chinese leadership with Mao Tsetung and Chou En-lai at the head, stands which were maintained towards our Party and country, and which would later develop into such brutal anti-Albanian acts as the one-sided cutting of credits and economic and military aid to socialist Albania.
The thorough Marxist-Leninist analysis based on facts which Comrade Enver Hoxha makes of these questions in «Reflections on China» shows that the deep cause of the exacerbation of the contradictions between our two parties should be sought in the fact that while the PLA stood firm and unshakeable on the positions of Marxism-Leninism, the CP of China was more and more departing from the Marxist-Leninist, revolutionary and internationalist positions over these capital issues, slipping ever deeper into revisionist, capitulating and chauvinist great power positions.
In the opposition of the PLA to accept and submit to the anti-Marxist line and chauvinist pressures of the leadership of the CP of China, in the persistence of our Party not to shift from its principled Marxist-Leninist positions, and always to have its bold say should also be sought the true cause of the hostile and anti-Albanian stands of the Chinese revisionist leadership, which led it into the odious action of the cutting of economic and military aid to Albania.
As Comrade Enver Hoxha shows through innumerable facts in the first volume of «Reflections on China», the leadership of the Communist Party of China, though in words it described the Party of Labor of Albania as its closest ally, in fact has always acted furtively with the bourgeois methods of secret diplomacy, always trying to avoid giving it the slightest information, without speaking here of consultations and exchange of opinions over major principled questions of common interest.
It is a fact that for many years on end the leadership of the CP of China had been trying to avoid to the maximum the confrontation of opinions and exchange of experience with the Party of Labor of Albania, in an effort to occupy the chauvinist position of the «great party», which thinks that any talks are unnecessary and all the other parties must follow blindly and speechlessly what the Communist Party of China says and does, and adopt it as their «general line». But such a stand, as Comrade Enver Hoxha points out, is non-Marxist and unacceptable. «It has always been our side,» he writes, «which has sought exchanges of opinions on different problems with the Chinese comrades...
«We shall continue this correct Marxist method of work, we shall always tell the Chinese comrades of our views, even if this is hard for us and unpleasant for them. And we shall demand from them that discussions must be held about our views and not 'avoided' from fear that 'we shall get into polemics in this way'”.16)
As Comrade Enver Hoxha's book, «Reflections on China», clearly shows, the Party of Labor of Albania never submitted to the brutal pressures of the leadership of the CP of China in the latter's efforts to force it to abandon its correct stand; on the contrary, it resisted them courageously, taking into consideration even the possibility of uneconomic measures against our country, which the Chinese side, in various forms and manners, was occasionally threatening our Party with. These were the same anti-Marxist and chauvinist methods of the great state which had been used before against our Party and country by the revisionist clique of Khrushchev, and which had been rejected with scorn by our Party and people and had suffered complete fiasco. By sternly condemning the brutal pressure of the Chinese leadership, Comrade Enver Hoxha wrote on November 3, 1964:
«Just as Marxism-Leninism struck one 'conductor's baton' an iron blow to the head, it will strike an equally powerful blow at another 'conductor's baton', or at two 'conductor's batons' together, or a combined clique of other conductors...
«We, as Marxists, are greatly interested that you should not make mistakes, but although we are small, although our Party is a small party, although our people are a small people, no one has the power to shut our mouths, to stop us telling the truth, defending the truth, defending Marxism-Leninism».17)
The interests of the Homeland, of the Party, of Marxism-Leninism, points out Comrade Enver Hoxha, by no means allow us to relax vigilance against anyone who gives even the slightest sign of wavering: the task falls on us to give advice and assist those who waver; but if they behave arrogantly, try to lord it on us, we must put them to their proper place, by firmly, unwaveringly following our correct Marxist-Leninist line. It is precisely this correct and principled stand that the Party of Labor of Albania has maintained also towards the CP of China.
The putting into circulation of Comrade Enver Hoxha's book, «Reflections on China», just as his other works, equips all the Albanian communists and all the working people of our country with a powerful means of revolutionary, political and ideological education, struggle and tempering. The party organizations and the organizations of the masses, the communists and cadres, the broad masses of working people of town and countryside, should put Comrade Enver Hoxha's book, «Reflections on China», along with «Imperialism and the Revolution», at the basis of their study for their Marxist-Leninist education, and should draw lessons for their practical work and activity.
1. Enver Hoxha, «Reflections on China», p. 201 (Eng. ed.).
2. Ibid., p. 118 (Eng. ed.).
3. Enver Hoxha, «Reflections on China», p. 126 (Eng. ed.).
4. Enver Hoxha, «Reflections on China», p. 570 (Eng. ed.).
5. Enver Hoxha, «Reflections on China», p. 329 (Eng. ed.).
6. Ibid., p. 109 (Eng. ed.).
7. Enver Hoxha, «Reflections on China», p. 564 (Eng. ed.).
8. Enver Hoxha, «Reflections on China», p. 669 (End. ed.).
9. Ibid, p. 569 (Eng. ed.).
10. Enver Hoxha, «Reflections on China», p. 389 (Eng. ed.).
11. Ibid., p. 371 (Eng. ed.).
12. Ibid., p. 282 (Eng. ed.).
13. Enver Hoxha, «Reflections on China», p. 358 (Eng. ed.).
14. Enver Hoxha, «Reflections on China», p. 391 (Eng. ed.).
15. Enver Hoxha, «Reflections on China», p. 291 (Eng. ed.).
16. Enver Hoxha, «Reflections on China», pp. 114-115 (Eng. ed.).
Enver Hoxha, «Reflections on China», p. 143 (Eng. ed.).