This document was first published in „Albania Today“- No 4, 1984

and in February, 2010, re- published in co-production of and


The book «Among the Common Folk» (Memoirs) was published in June.

This book of essays is part of the series of Comrade Enver Hoxha's memoirs of the years of the National Liberation War, which reflect events and the author's impressions mainly from two of the gravest and most difficult periods of the war.

In the pages of this book the brave and patriotic common folk are portrayed with penetrating clarity and love.

This book «Amongst the Common Folk», published in the context of the 40th anniversary of the liberation of the Homeland, is another expression of the profound honour, gratitude and respect which the Party and Comrade Enver Hoxha nurture for our valiant, industrious and freedom-loving people, for all those thousands of individuals from all parts of the country who, during the years of the National Liberation War responded to the call of the Party and gave their all for the liberation of the country, for the triumph of the revolution and for the establishment of the people's state power.

The book «Reflections on the Middle East» was published in July

This work is one of the series of books drawn from «The Political Diary on International Issues» on international matters. It includes notes, observations and analyses of events in the Middle East made in the period from 1958 to the end of 1983.

This book reveals the roots of conflicts in the Arab world, unmasks the open and secret enemies of the Middle East and exposes the intrigues, plots and rivalries between the imperialist Great Powers and their interference in order to subjugate and plunder the peoples of that zone.

At the same time it makes a high evaluation of the resistance and struggle for freedom and independence of those peoples, of their outstanding traditions and their ancient art and culture.

This book also reflects the correct, principled stand which the Party of Labor of Albania and our country have maintained consistently in support of the just cause of the Arab peoples and all the other freedom-loving peoples of the world.

The book has been published in foreign languages.



Comrade ENVER HOXHA's book

«Among the Common Folk»


These days the working masses of our country, the communists and the cadres have in their hands the book of Comrade Enver Hoxha «Among the Common Folk», which is part of the series of memoirs from the years of the National Liberation War. It is dedicated to the simple, courageous and patriotic people who sheltered, protected and accompanied leaders of the Party and Comrade Enver Hoxha through the great dangers of the spring and summer of the year 1942 in Tirana and the enemy offensive of the winter of 1943-1944 in the regions of Elbasan, Librazhd, Gramsh and Korça.

Although it reflects events of the time of the War, although it speaks of individual families and people, the book has great generalizing values and is valid for today. The links of the Party with the people, which began to be tempered in heroic events and through hard tests, have been and remain the source of all our victories. In this direction, too, the experience of the War, enriched with the experience of these just as glorious 40 years, serves the present and will serve the future.

This book is, first of all, the expression of the feelings of love, gratitude and respect of the Party and Comrade Enver Hoxha for the people, for the patriotic and revolutionary villagers and town folk who, in those very grave days, opened their doors and hearts to the leaders of the Party and all the fighters for its cause. The book reflects, at the same time, the strong bonds of the people with the Party, with the communists, with the new people's state power, with great convincing truthfulness. This boundless love and these monolithic bonds are seen and analysed in their dialectics. Through many details and events, with which are depicted a variety of the representatives of the masses of the people, the reader sees how the love of the people for the Party was born and grew, which were the factors that influenced in the continuous steeling of these bonds, how the Party, its leadership and the mass of the communists used such traditions of the people as generosity, hospitability, steadfastness in order to give them a new content and raise them to a new qualitative level.

In the large store of means that were used during those years in order to strengthen and steel the links of the working masses with the Party continuously, the principal place was occupied by the educative propaganda work which was aimed at capturing the hearts and minds of the people, mobilizing and throwing them into the war. The first printing shops, which spread the warming and convincing word of the Party and Comrade Enver Hoxha, were set up in basements or the huts of the poor. At no time before had any political group or organization in Albania carried out such a widespread militant propaganda and agitation with such a healthy ideological contents, so clear and tangible as the propaganda and agitation which the Communist Party of Albania carried out in those years among the masses of workers, peasants, intellectuals, the youth, the women. The main place in this propaganda work was occupied by oral agitation, the work done with each individual. This was dictated not only by the circumstances of the time, the mass illiteracy of the population, and the persecution to which the press of the Party was submitted, but also by the fact that this form, which was in conformity with a centuries-old tradition, yielded its fruit more effectively and more rapidly. In the pages of the book «Among the Common Folk» the reader sees Comrade Enver Hoxha talking warmly and simply alike with a tender mother, with a downtrodden worker, with an educated intellectual, or with an illiterate peasant at a hut in Galigat, with the children of Çermenika, etc. Besides the exacting work to direct the organs of the Party and the new people's power and the big formations of the National Liberation Army, the beloved leader of the Party and people did not spare his efforts and time to enter into conversation and clarify any possible sympathizer and supporter of the Liberation Movement. The auditoriums of these conversations were ordinary rooms, mud-floor huts, walls masked to protect him from being discovered, the hills commanding the roads from which the enemy columns approached, or simply a partisan fire, any place where the patriotic and freedom-loving people lived. As for the time in which these talks were held, there were no fixed hours. The time for talking was found in the breaks between meetings, during meals by the fire-place, in the short walks to shake one's legs, at the time when lying in bed and preparing to sleep and the unschooled, but honest and patriotic peasant dreamed of and asked questions about the future, in the low hut in which the tongues of the flames created a whole universe of lights and shades. It is communist work that knows no fixed hours and accepts no officialdom.

On the other hand, the book is a strong and truthful embodiment of the idea that the propaganda work of the Party to capture the hearts and minds of the people was not just and merely a question of words and ideas. It was preceded and accompanied with continuous revolutionary actions, in which the communists, the best sons and daughters of the people, stood at the forefront, even at the risk of their lives. All this began as a tradition which all the communists and cadres have inherited and make it their duty to develop and raise it still higher in our days.

It is not accidental that, although the book turns to the years of the War, Comrade Enver Hoxha describes characters who lived in the period after Liberation and are still alive today. This is not a demand of the composition of the book, it is rather a question of the embodiment of the idea that the ties of the leader with the simple people, the ties of the Party with the people, struck root during the War, and developed and grew stronger in the battles for the construction of socialism. Besides, this has enabled the author to reflect the transformation of the world outlook and the moral growth of our people in their dialectical continuity, and thus, bring out better the values of the book for today. Comrade Enver Hoxha writes, «The Party would be again and again encircled by savage enemies, but just as it defeated the enemy winter operation, so would it smash and defeat the blackmail, plots and blockades of the future. Our Party would never fear anything, because it knew that just as it was ready to sacrifice itself for the people, so would the people by ready to sacrifice themselves for the Party». These closing words of the book express in a nutshell not only the central idea of the book, that alloying element which binds together and creates the ideo-artistic coherence of a rich mosaic of memories, but also its validity for today.

Displaying the same characteristics which we see in the other works of the collection of memoirs by Comrade Enver Hoxha, such as the resilient and attractive style, marked journalistic-literary form, vivid language full of popular colour and idiom, the book «Among the Common Folk» has real artistic values.

For all these reasons this book is also a weapon in the present struggle and work, as well as a beautiful gift which comes at an appropriate time in the jubilee of the 40th anniversary of the liberation of the Homeland and the triumph of the people's revolution.




Comrade ENVER HOXHA'S book

«Reflections on the Middle East»

Comrade Enver Hoxha's new book «Reflections on the Middle East» has been welcomed and is being read with special interest by the communists, cadres and our working masses, by those who study in various political, historical and social fields. Through the notes, observations, analyses and general panoramas in this book which are part of the author's «Political Diary» and which refer to events of the period from 1958 to the end of 1983, a scientific Marxist-Leninist analysis is made of major political problems of the time, which are linked with the Arab and non--Arab peoples of two continents, Africa and Asia, and which in the international arena are linked with what is called the Middle East crisis. These materials reflect some of the main moments and events, some of the inhuman imperialist activities of the superpowers and Israel as well as moments from the heroic struggles of the Arab people of Palestine, the other Arab peoples, the Afghans and the Iranians against the plots of the two superpowers.

The book «Reflections on the Middle East» grips the reader from the first pages on account of the complete and accurate reflection with scientific objectivity which it gives of major political, economic and social events during the past 25 years and the profound analysis and important conclusions and lessons which it contains. By following the contemporary events which have taken place in the Middle East and writing about them at the moments when they are fresh, the author makes an all-sided analysis of them, based on historical materialism and the fundamental principles of Marxism-Leninism, reveals their internal and external causes, their complexity and interconnection, and makes assessments and forecasts the accuracy of which has been completely proved by the development of events in subsequent periods and which are valuable to the present day.

In this new book by Comrade Enver Hoxha we find correct answers to why so many wars have taken place in this region of the world during a relatively short period; why the Middle East crisis has assumed such proportions today that its inherent dangers and consequences exert an influence on the whole world situation; who has turned the Middle East into an extremely dangerous hotbed of endless conflicts; who are the open and secret enemies of the Arab people and a series of other acute political problems.

While throwing light on many facts and events, Comrade Enver Hoxha dwells in detail on those capital problems which have worried and are worrying the peoples of the Middle East and the whole world. First of all, he discloses the true causes of the explosive situation in that region, the roots of conflicts in the Arab world in which a number of wars, one bloodier than the other, have been waged between 1948 and 1983. In each decade there has been war and indeed two in one decade in the case of the wars of 1967 and 1973. On two occasions, in 1958 and 1983, the United States of America has employed its military forces to occupy Lebanon.

Comrade Enver Hoxha makes a stern, all-sided denunciation of the hostile anti-Arab expansionist policy of Israel and international Zionism. He makes a similar, firm, all-sided denunciation of the likewise anti-Arab, pro-Israeli policy of the imperialist powers which today, as in the past, stop at nothing in pursuit of their own interests just so long as they are able to achieve their aims of robbing the Arab peoples of their freedom and national independence and above all of their oil. As Comrade Enver Hoxha points out, «The American and British imperialists and the revisionist traitors are in diplomatic movement. All of them are waving the olive branch, all 'wailing' about the defence of the freedom and independence of the peoples, all of them writing and sending telegrams and messages to this address or that, but all of them hide the truth that with all this deafening clamour, the American, British and French imperialists, the Soviet revisionists, the Titoites and the others, are defending nothing but their own dirty interests to the detriment of the Arab peoples».

A profound and all-sided analysis is made of the content and true aims of the global strategy of American imperialism in the Middle East, followed by all the American presidents before, during and after the Second World War, down to president Ronald Reagan, of the unprecedented arrogance of the United States of America which has proclaimed and treats the Middle East as a sphere of its national interests and its own domain. In this context the author reveals the «new» forms and methods which are being worked out in the White House to place not merely one or two countries, but all the countries which stretch from Morocco to Iran, within the orbit of American imperialists and keep them there.

With irrefutable arguments, Comrade Enver Hoxha explains the aims of the shuttling of American diplomatic missions around the Middle East, their step-by-step policy which led to «cooking up» the Camp David agreements which did not and could not bring peace or settle any part of the Arab-Israeli conflict. The reader finds the true reason for this in a number of articles which show what place and role Israel has played in the context of the overall anti-Arab strategy of American imperialism, what efforts the United States of America has made and is still making to ensure «secure borders» for its pistol in this region, that is, borders which will include all the Arab territories occupied by force of arms. The basis of the American-Israeli friendship and their political, economic and military alliances has always been their common hostility and struggle against the Arab peoples. This friendship and this alliance of identical anti-Arab aims has its roots in the motives and interests from which the United States of America and its allies proceeded for the establishment of the state of Israel. «No aims based on altruism or national sentiments impelled the British or American imperialists to create the state of Israel. Their aims were linked with their own predatory economic and strategic interests in the Middle East to preserve their bases and to have a centre of diversion amongst the Arab states».

Besides the open support of American imperialism, Israel has always had the secret aid of Soviet social-imperialism which is trying to grab a place in the sun in the Middle East. Therefore, those articles in which through many facts and arguments the policy of the Soviet social-imperialists in the Middle East is exposed have great value today. On the surface, the Soviet social-imperialists present themselves as «friends» and «saviours» of the Arab peoples, but in essence, they are nothing of the sort. As time has confirmed, at the most critical moments they have betrayed the Arab peoples and left them in the lurch.

Many articles in the book show what features the policy of the Soviet social-imperialists has in common with the policy of the American imperialists, what brings these two superpowers closer together and what makes them clash and battle fiercely with each other openly or behind the scenes, over many years, and trample on the freedom, the independence and the national and social interests of the poor, industrious peonies of the Middle-East countries.

«It is truly a great tragedy for a series of Arab peoples in the Middle East that they have long been the prey of American imperialism and Soviet social-imperialism. They have been continually caught up in the intrigues of the Warsaw Treaty, represented by the Soviet Union, and of NATO, represented by the United States of America, that aim to have spheres of influence, markets and military bases in those countries. The aim of the two superpowers is to keep these peoples divided and. in fact, for the time being they have achieved this aim.»

Comrade Enver Hoxha's writings cover a wide range of themes and include the main fields of life. They have to do not only with the struggle of the Palestinian people and the other Arab peoples against the Israeli aggressors, but also with their struggle for social liberation, with their colossal oil wealth, and the very ancient culture of the peoples of the great region of the Middle East.

The materials which deal with the anti-feudal, anti-imperialist uprisings of the peoples of the Middle East, such as the heroic fights of the martyr Palestinian people, the struggle of the Afghan people against the Soviet social-imperialist occupiers, and the articles which give a wide ranging and detailed view of the great values these peoples have created in the fields of culture, art, science, philosophy, etc., and their major contribution to the treasury of world culture, have great value as studies.

Equally great values have the materials about the energy crisis which has swept the capitalist-revisionist world and in this context the role of the Middle-East countries, which are among the biggest oil producers in the world.

Major, acute problems are facing all the peoples of the Middle East who are struggling to solve them in correct ways. As this book points out, the crisis in the Middle East can never be resolved until the Palestinian people regain their homeland stolen from them and martyred by the Israeli aggressor, and this will be achieved only when the political, economic and military influence of the superpowers and other imperialist powers is dealt powerful blows from all the Arab peoples and their political and economic influence is finally rejected. Today the primary question facing the Palestinian, Lebanese, Afghan and Iranian peoples and all the other Arab and non-Arab peoples of the Middle East is to avoid falling deeper into the traps and the deceptive and disruptive plots of the superpowers, the United States of America and the Soviet Union and of Israel, and to establish and strengthen true unity internally and amongst themselves in order to withstand and overcome the united forces of Israel, the American imperialists, the Soviet social-imperialists and the reactionary local feudal-bourgeois circles. Only resolute uncompromising struggle, based on genuine Arab unity, will carry them to the triumph of their genuine independence and freedom, to the utilization of their colossal oil wealth in favour of their national and social development and progress.

The materials contained in the book «Reflections on the Middle East» openly express the stand of the Party of Labor and the People's Socialist Republic of Albania on all the problems which have to do with the Middle East crisis, at the time when they have occurred, hence they bear the stamp of the time. They present the principled and resolute stand of our country and people in favour of the struggle of the Palestinian people and the other Arab peoples against Israel and the imperialist superpowers, of the Iranian people, the Afghan people and the freedom-loving African peoples. These stands have been expressed also in many important documents of our Party and state in various international institutions such as the UNO, etc., where our representatives have defended the just cause of the struggle of the fraternal Arab peoples. The opinions and assessments which are included in this book, too, are further proof of that warm and sincere friendship which has always linked the Albanian people with the Arab peoples and with all the freedom-loving and peace-loving peoples of the world.

Proceeding from concrete facts and events, in a number of materials Comrade Enver Hoxha expresses his profound grief over the misfortunes which have befallen these peoples, over the injustices which they have suffered and are suffering and, at the same time, he stresses that their exemplary struggle for their own freedom and national independence against savage Israeli imperialist and social-imperialist invaders gives him joy and inspiration.

The publication of this book, which focuses on an important region of current interest, which the two imperialist superpowers, the United States of America and the Soviet Union, for their own predatory political, economic and strategic-military purposes have made one of the most tense and potentially explosive regions of the world, undoubtedly constitutes an outstanding political, ideological and scientific event in the life of our country.