What is Marxism ?

  « Marxism is the science of the laws of nature `s and society `s development, the science of the revolution of oppressed and exploited masses, a science of socialism `s victory in all countries, the science of building the communist society» (I.V.Stalin).

133st Anniversary of the Death

of Karl Marx


14th of March 2016

14th of March 1883

Marx was laid to rest in Highgate
Cemetery on Saturday, March 17 1883, in the
same grave as his wife, Jenny, buried 15 months


The Comintern (SH) greets all comrades across the world !

Messages of Solidarity

Message of the Comintern (SH) on occasion

of the 133rd anniversary of comrade Marx’s death day

March 14, 1883 – March 14, 2016



Today, we celebrate the 133rd death day of Karl Marx.

Marx’ legacy is immortal. Karl Marx will live forever on the minds and in the hearts of every worker and of every true communist. Marx is the 1st Classic of Marxism-Leninism and, thus, he is the major theorisers of communist ideology. We cannot pay tribute Karl Marx without to pay tribute to Frederick Engels. They both created the famous "Communist Manifesto" in 1847/48. Two years earlier, exactly 170 years ago, these two founders of Marxism published the "German Ideology", one of their major joint works.

This was the period when Marxism was finally evolved as the scientific world outlook of the revolutionary proletariat. Marx and Engels had arrived at the decisive stage in working out the philosophical principles of scientific communism.

Frederick Engels wrote later:

"It was our duty to provide a scientific foundation for our view, but it was equally important for us to win over the European and in the first place the German proletariat to our conviction."


The new revolutionary outlook of Marx and Engels was hammered out in struggle with bourgeois and petty-bourgeois ideology.
They directed their criticism in the first place against the idealist conception of history inherent in German post-Hegelian philosophy, including that of Ludwig Feuerbach, whose materialist views were inconsistent and essentially metaphysical.

The condition for eliminating religion, the "Feuerbach Theses" (part of "German Ideology") underline, is the revolutionary elimination of the social contradictions which give rise to it.

The eleventh Thesis is engraved in Marx' grave stone in Highgate

"The philosophers have only interpreted the world in various ways; the point is to change it"


The Marxist philosophy - in contrast to all pre-philosophy- concentrates into this single sentence the effective,
transforming character of the revolutionary theory created by
Marx and Engels, its inseparable connection with revolutionary

It was in this work that for the first time the materialist way of understanding history became an integral conception of the structure of society and of historical periodisation. By virtue of the general dialectical law of the transformation of theory into method and of the unity of world outlook and method, organically inherent in the new revolutionary teaching, this conception appears in The German Ideology not only as the theory of society, but also as the method of understanding social and historical phenomena. Marx and Engels gave science a powerful weapon for the knowledge of social life, a means of elucidating both the general course of social development and the existing social relations. Thus they made possible the
comprehension of social processes which is necessary for active and revolutionary interference in them.

The German Ideology is a polemical work. Criticism of views
hostile to the proletarian world oudook occupies a predominant
place in it, often couched in a biting satirical form which gives it particular force and expressiveness. In the course of their attacks, Marx and Engels continually counterposed their own point of view to the views they were criticising.

First of all Marx and Engels formulate the "premises" of the
materialist conception of history. These premises are the real living people, their activity and the material conditions under which they live, both the conditions which they find already existing and those produced by their activity. Thus, what is underlined here is the historical character of the material conditions themselves, which are increasingly influenced by people's activity. And there are two sides to it. First, production (people's active relation to nature, their influence on it), and, secondly, intercourse (people's relations to one
another in their activity). Production and intercourse determine each other, but the decisive side of this mutual action is production.
Subsequently, Marx and Engels introduced the term "relations of
production" to distinguish the social relations people enter into in production, which are the basic relations underlying everything included under the term "intercourse".

This discovery can be reduced to the following propositions. The productive forces determine the form of intercourse (social relations).
At a certain stage of their development, the productive forces
come into contradiction with the existing form of intercourse. This contradiction is resolved by social revolutions. In the place of the previous form of intercourse, which has become a fetter, a new one is evolved which corresponds to the more developed productive forces.
Subsequently, this new form of intercourse in its turn ceases to
correspond to çhe developing productive forces, turns into their
fetter and is replaced by an ensuing, historically more progressive form of intercourse. Thus, in the course of the entire historical development a link of continuity is established between successive stages. In disclosing the laws of social development, Marx and Engels arrived at a conclusion of immense significance:

"... All collisions in history have their origin, according to our view, in the contradiction between the productive forces and the form of intercourse"


Proceeding from production to the sphere of intercourse, i.e., of social relations, the social system, Marx and Engels gave a materialist interpretation of the class structure of society and demonstrated the role of classes and the class struggle in social life.

It was demonstrated that the division of society into antagonistic classes and the existence of classes are connected with; definite stages in the development of production, that the development of the class struggle must necessarily lead to a communist revolution carried out by the proletariat, and that this revolution will result in the abolition of classes and the creation of a classless society.

For the first time the essence of the state in general and the bourgeois state in particular was revealed.

"... The state is the form in which the individuals of a ruling class assert their common interests, and in which the whole civil society of an epoch is epitomised"


Of particular importance is the classical formulation of the
materialist solution to this basic question of philosophy:

"Consciousness [das Bewusstsein] can never be anything else than conscious being [das bewusste Sein], and the being of men is their actual life-process....
It is not consciousness that determines life, but life that determines consciousness."


In their work Marx and Engels disclosed the class origins
of the various forms of consciousness and showed that in a class society the dominating consciousness is the consciousness of the ruling class.

"Not criticism but revolution is the driving force of history, also of religion, of philosophy and all other kinds of theory."


The principal conclusion from the materialist conception of history, already substantiated in The German Ideology, is the historical necessity of a proletarian, communist revolution. Marx and Engels stressed that

"for the practical materialist, i.e., the communist, it is a question of revolutionising the existing world, of practically coming to grips with and changing the things found in existence."


The development of the productive forces within bourgeois society, Marx and Engels pointed out, provides the two basic material premises of a communist revolution. These are: first, a high level of production, which is incompatible with private property and at the same time is necessary for the organisation of society on a communist basis; and, secondly, mass proletarianisation, the formation of the proletariat, the most revolutionary class in modern society. This definition of the premises of a communist revolution is one of the fundamental conclusions of scientific communism contained in The German Ideology.

It was in The German Ideology that Marx and Engels first spoke of the necessity for the proletariat to conquer political power as the only way of carrying out a communist revolution. They pointed out:

"... Every class which is aiming at domination, even when its
domination, as is the case with the proletariat, leads to the abolition of the old form of society in its entirety and of all domination, must first conquer political power".


Thus we find expressed for the first time the idea of the dictatorship of the
proletariat, though as yet only in a most general form.

Marx and Engels stressed that a communist revolution is a dual
process: a change in people's conditions of life, and at the same time a change in the people themselves who carry out the revolution. This thought was given its classical formulation in The German Ideology:

"... The revolution is necessary, therefore, not only because the ruling class cannot be overthrown in any other way, but also because the class overthrowing it can only in a revolution succeed in ridding itself of all the muck of ages and become fitted to found society anew."


The German Ideology expounds the basic features of future
communist society—the abolition of private property, of the class division of labour and of classes themselves, the transformation of production and all the social relations, and the disappearance of the state, the instrument of class domination. People's own activity will cease to confront them as a power alien to them. The antagonism between town and country and between mental and physical labour will be eliminated. Labour will be transformed from activity people
perform under compulsion into the genuine self-activity of free
people. The real liberation and all-round development of every
individual will be the highest aim of the communist organisation of society.
This view of the future communist society is presented in The
German Ideology

This work signified a decisive stage in the philosophical and
sociological grounding of the theory of scientific communism, in the scientific demonstration of the world-historic role of the working class as the social force whose historical mission is to overthrow the exploiting capitalist system and create the new communist society.


The Comintern (SH) recommends to all communists and revolutionaries to study "The German ideology" of Marx and Engels. Therefore, we have published this famous work in many languages.




Long live Marx, the 1st Classic of Marxism-Leninism!

Log live the 170th anniversary of the “German Ideology”!

Long live the 5 Classics of Marxism-Leninism: Marx, Engels, Lenin, Stalin and Enver Hoxha!

Long live world violent socialist revolution and world armed proletarian dictatorship!

Long live world socialism and world communism!

Long live the Comintern (SH)!








On occasion of the

133rd Day of Death of

Karl Marx

the Comintern (SH) publishes the following works in various languages:





Karl Marx/Frederick Engels

"German Ideology"


written 170 years ago

and now published by the Comintern (SH)


in 16 (!!) languages



in German language


Karl Marx-Friedrich Engels

Die deutsche Ideologie

MEW Band 3

Seite 1 - 309


Seite 310 - 610


* * *


in English language

Marx Engels



Volume 5







* * *


in Spanish language

Tomo I

 Página 1-39

Selección de obras escritas entre 1845  y  1859.  



* * *


in Portuguese



Oposição das Concepções Materialista e Idealista

Capitulo Primeiro de

A Ideologia Alemã


* * *


In Bangla language 

জার্মান ভাবাদর্শ (ফয়েরবাখ, প্রথম অংশ), মার্কস ১৮৪৫

(German Ideology, Marx)


* * *


 in Chinese language






* * *



in Czech language

Karel Marx a Bedřich Engels

Německá Ideologie




* * *


in Dutch language

De Duitse ideologie

Deel 1:



* * *


in Farsi language




ایدئولوژی آلمانیمارکس- انگلس



 * * *


in Finnish language


Karl Marx & Friedrich Engels

Saksalainen ideologia

(1. luku)



 * * *



in French language




L'idéologie allemande



* * *



in Greek language



Κ. Μαρξ, Φ. Ένγκελς. Γερμανική ιδεολογία.




* * *


in Italian language


Ideologia Tedesca







* * *



in Swedish language

Den Tyska Ideologin



* * *


in Russian language


Маркс - Энгельс
Немецкая идеология

Том 3



* * *




in Turkish language






* * *


Co-founder of the worldwide first Marxist Party

on occasion of the 190th anniversary of

Wilhelm Liebknecht

(father of Karl Liebknecht)

(born on 19th of March 1826)

Karl Marx:

Biographical Memoirs

written by Wilhelm Liebknecht







The great significance of Marx's explanation is, that here too, he consistently applies materialist dialectics, the theory of development, and regards communism as something which develops out of capitalism. Instead of scholastically invented, 'concocted' definitions and fruitless disputes over words (What is socialism? What is communism?), Marx gives analysis of what might be called the stages of the economic maturity of communism.

(Lenin Collected Works, Volume 25, p. 471)




to our special website

on Karl Marx ...