Maxim Gorky











































other languages



Maxim Gorky

"Long live, then, the proletariat as it goes forth to renew the whole world. Long live the working men of all lands who by the strength of their hands have built up the wealth of nations and are now labouring to create new life! Long live Socialism, the religion of the future. Greetings to the fighters, greetings to the workers of all lands, and may they ever have faith in the victory of truth, the victory of justice! Long live humanity fraternally united in the great ideals of equality and freedom!"
--from "Letter on the Russian Revolution", January 1, 1906. 



Gorky, Maxim (1868-1936)

Maxim Gorky was a founder of Soviet literature and the author of world-famous works such as Mother, Childhood, My Apprenticeship, My Universities, The Life of Klim Samgin and many plays, stories and publicistic articles.

Destitute as a youth, became Russia's foremost writer; he joined the Bolshevik party in 1905 and helped organise their first legal newspaper, but drifted away during the first world war.

In 1905, the first meeting between Lenin, leader of the Russian Revolution, and the great proletarian writer took place in St. Petersburg. Maxim Gorky came to know Lenin more closely in 1907 at the London Party Congress, of which he has written a detailed description. These two men were linked by true friendship and profound mutual respect. Lenin highly appreciated Maxim Gorky's work. "There can be no doubt," he wrote in 1917, "that Maxim Gorky's is an enormous artistic talent which has been, and will be, of great benefit to the world proletarian movement.



Lenin and Gorky



collection arranged by Wolfgang Eggers



Stalin and Gorky





Selected Works




Volume 2





Gorky and the October Revolution


(with an introduction of Konstantin Fedin)



Soviet Russia and the Nations of the World

The Communist International, May 1919, no.1, p.146



Two Civilizations

The Communist International, June 1919, No. 2, pp. 175-178




A man was born



How a song was composed



"Soviet Literature"

Speech delivered in August 1934

First Congress of Soviet Writers. Moscow.



The People Must Know Their History









On the Steppes




An Autumn Night





Maxim Gorky

published by Hans Ostwald

in 1905







Letter on the Russian Revolution

27th January 1906







England and the Russian Revolution






My Childhood

M. Gorky 






Maxim Gorky 




Twenty-Six and One & Other Stories

Maksim Gorki




Gorki on Chekov



Reminiscences of Leo-Nikolaevich-Tolstoy

by Maxim Gorky




by Maxim Gorky




and other Stories




Three of them



The Clock

British Socialist, July, 1912, p.33-36



Fairy Tales of Reality

British Socialist, 1912, p.84-96, 140-142.



Letter to a Monarchist




Pushkin: An Appraisal



The Devil



The little sparrow



Evseika goes fishing






And the Others




Tales of Italy





published 1947


Song of the Stormy Petrel (1901)

By A. M. Gorky


Over dull grey wastes of water
winds are massing darkening storm-clouds.
There ‘twixt clouds and surging sea-waves
proudly soars the Stormy Petrel,
darting sheer like jet-black lightening.
Now he skims the foam with wing-tip,
now—and arrow shooting cloudward,—
he cries boldly—clouds hear gladness
in that cry so fierce and daring.
In that crying—thirst for tempest!
Mighty of anger, flame of passion,
certainty of final triumph
hear the storm clouds in that crying.
Sea-gulls moan in fear of tempest—
moan and whirl above the waters
fain to bury deep their terror
underneath the surging billows.
And the grebes, too, moan in panic,—
They, denied the joys of battle,
fear the raucous blasts of thunder.
Foolish penguins hide fat bodies
timidly behind cliff-crags...
And alone the Stormy Petrel
soars in freedom, proud and dauntless
over foaming grey sea waters.
Ever darker, ever lower
sink the clouds down to the sea-waves,
billows wail, toss ever higher
crests to meet the breaking thunder.
Thunder crashes. White with fury
waves are wrangling with the storm-wind.
But the wind in hatred seizes
herds of waves in ruthless clutches
crashes them against the cliff-crags
shatters solid emerald masses
into foamy dust and spraylets.
Prouder cries the Stormy Petrel,
darting sheer like jet-black lightening,
pierces arrow-like the storm clouds,
grazes sea-foam with his pinions.
Now he hovers like a demon,—
black and dauntless tempest-demon,—
he is mocking, he is sobbing...
He is mocking at the storm-clouds
from sheer gladness he is sobbing.
In the thunder,—wary demon,—
Growing weariness he senses,
He is sure, no cloud will ever
hide the sun, no cloud ever.
Winds are whining...thunder crashing...
Blue with flame the clouds are blazing
over dark abysmal waters.
Sea-waves catch swift darts of lightening
quench them in their deeps unfathomed.
Just like writhing fiery serpents,
swift reflections of those lightenings,
disappear into the sea-depths.
Storm! The storm will soon come bursting!
Cries the dauntless Petrel soaring
twixt the sea-roar and the lightening;
cries the harbinger of triumph:

Let it break with greater fury!


Translated from the Russian
by R. Magidoff and Herbert Marshall
International Literature
No. 9,
September 1936



Song of the Stormy Petrel

Written: 1901 - Selected Short Stories Progress Publishers, 1955;


High above the silvery ocean winds are gathering the storm-clouds, and between the clouds and ocean proudly wheels the Stormy Petrel, like a streak of sable lightning.

Now his wing the wave caresses, now he rises like an arrow, cleaving clouds and crying fiercely, while the clouds detect a rapture in the bird's courageous crying.

In that crying sounds a craving for the tempest! Sounds the flaming of his passion, of his anger, of his confidence in triumph.

The gulls are moaning in their terror--moaning, darting o'er the waters, and would gladly hide their horror in the inky depths of ocean.

And the grebes are also moaning. Not for them the nameless rapture of the struggle. They are frightened by the crashing of the thunder.

And the foolish penguins cower in the crevices of rocks, while alone the Stormy Petrel proudly wheels above the ocean, o'er the silver-frothing waters.

Ever lower, ever blacker, sink the stormclouds to the sea, and the singing waves are mounting in their yearning toward the thunder.

Strikes the thunder. Now the waters fiercely battle with the winds. And the winds in fury seize them in unbreakable embrace, hurtling down the emerald masses to be shattered on the cliffs.

Like a streak of sable lightning wheels and cries the Stormy Petrel, piercing storm-clouds like an arrow, cutting swiftly through the waters.

He is coursing like a Demon, the black Demon of the tempest, ever laughing, ever sobbing--he is laughing at the storm-clouds, he is sobbing with his rapture.

In the crashing of the thunder the wise Demon hears a murmur of exhaustion. And he is knows the strom will die and the sun will be triumphant; the sun will always be triumphant!

The waters roar. The thunder crashes. Livid lightning flares in stormclouds high above the seething ocean, and the flaming darts are captured and extinguished by the waters, while the serpentine reflections writhe, expiring, in the deep.

It's the storm! The storm is breaking!

Still the valiant Stormy Petrel proudly wheels amond the lightning, o'er the roaring, raging ocean, and his cry resounds exultant, like a prophecy of triumph--

Let it break in all its fury!



A Wallachian Legend.

By Maxim Gorky.

Translated by Elbert Aidline.


A fairy once dwelt in a forest,
And bathed in its silvery streams;
One day she was caught by the fishers,
While morning was shedding its gleams.

The fishers all scattered, affrighted,
But Marco, a fisherman young;
He kissed her, embraced, and caressed her,
So vigorous, youthful, and strong.

The fairy entwined like a serpent,
Seductively tender and mild,
And gazing upon him intently,
She silently, silently smiled.

All day she embraced and caressed him,
But—happiness ever is brief—
With nightfall the fairy had vanished
And left him alone with his grief.

At daylight, at starlight he wanders,
And seeks her, and withers, and craves,
"Oh, where is my fairy?"—"We know not,"
Are laughing the treacherous waves.

"Be silent!" he cries to the wavelets.
"Yourselves with my fairy you play!"
And into the waters deceitful
He plunged, there to seek his sweet fay. . .

The fairy still dwells in the forest,
Still beautiful, charming, and young . . .
But Marco is dead . . . Yet forever
He'll live in the glory of Song.

While you, self-contented and dormant,
Like worms you will crawl on your way;
No tale shall relate of your doings,
No poet shall sing you a lay!


First appeared in Red Banner Magazine No. 4, 1906.

International Literature No. 10, October 1936


Proclamation to the French Workers (1906)

Translated by Selma Schwartz

French Workers,

To you, who work all your lives and allow your masters to make laws for the protection of property created by labor. To you, who never have enough bread to satisfy your hunger, and who are ruled by people glutted with all that you have created. To you, workers, the real owners of the earth, I address myself:

Before you, as well as before the workers of the world, is a path of struggle for freedom of mankind from economic and political slavery, from the bondage of capital and the state, the sterile agent which supports capital against you. This struggle will soon envelop the whole world and will be a struggle of two races: The race of the poor, who will battle under the banner of reason, truth, love and justice, and the race of the rich, who will defend themselves with all their means—greed and hypocrisy, cunning and cruelty.

This struggle is as inevitable as death—and it has begun. The Russian worker, in the first detachment of the universal 17 army, has marched into combat. His victories and his defeats are known to you. You know how much strength he has expended and what he will expend, you know how abundantly his blood flowed and will yet flow. He has already inflicted powerful blows upon the enemy, but the enemy is still strong and many combats face the Russians.

The sooner the coming combat breaks out, the sooner its thunder will resound throughout the whole world. And if Russian worker is victorious—the workers of Europe, of the whole world, will draw from this victory new inspiration and strength, and lessons for themselves...Understand that in speaking of the working people, one speaks of the whole world—one family.

Therefore, I confidently appeal to you to help your Russian comrades, your comrades who are going to battle under a common banner with you—under the red banner of Socialism—with one aim: the freedom of labor from, the oppression of capital. They advanced first, and you must help them for I repeat, in this struggle the victory of one is the victory of all.

The day of general revolt in Russia draws near. You will not really permit your comrades to go to battle with empty hands. Give them silver for iron and zinc. I know workers are poor in silver; only their hearts are rich. But we must show the old world of Pharisees and hypocrites that it is in the heart of the worker that the true fire of love for mankind burns, that in him blazes the flame of faith in the brotherhood of man. You must show this fire in your breast to the blind eyes of the greedy and sated...

Let them tremble at the foreboding of their helplessness. And let our militant, our sacred slogan, the slogan of the brotherhood of mankind, sound the death knell of the satiated and dying world of malice and greed, the world of lies and cruelty. Proletarians of all countries—unite!

Believing that the brotherhood of mankind is not a dream, that it will be realized on earth, I have faith in this great holiday of the future because I am a worker. I have worked and lived among the working people. I know their nature and I know that only they are capable of creating a new life, a life of brotherhood, a life of joy and reason.

Only they, because the interests of labor are the same everywhere, and sooner or later the workers of the world will clearly see their path to happiness, freedom, truth. This path is the same everywhere and for all. All peoples will meet on it, and it will leader to the celebration of the idea of universal brotherhood.

The world is ever more sharply dividing into two armies—the army of the rich and feted, and army of the poor who all their lives bend their spines under the heavy burden of labor. Gold, that Yellow Devil, coldly and cruelly mocking the world, corrupts people, sowing enmity and envy among them. Some it gathers around itself to pervert their natures with insatiable greed; other it pushes away into the embrace of hunger and labor. Disuniting, it unites. Making the rich avaricious and stupid, it sharpens the mind of the poor, and, dividing all people into two irreconcilable camps, 18 prepares them for battle, one against the other.

The workers of each country are united in a closely knit family and the day will come when the workers of the world will unite in one brotherly army of labor. Uniting, they will see clearly how few are their enemy, and how weak to be able to rule the lives of hundreds of millions. And they will see that the evil of life is god, property. And from that day there will reign on earth not lies but truth, not hypocrisy but sincerity, not greed and envy and evil, but reason, goodness and love. Those who hold this belief are bound to serve it with all their strength since it alone will restore the world, will free man from the bondage of sorrow and need, will cleanse the spirit of everything that debases man.

Each worker who sees a comrade in need and sorrow must help him since all workers are one family. And the workers of one country must help the workers of another country. This aid to remote and unknown people is truly humane and far-seeing.

Help your Russian comrades in their bitter struggle against the tsar and gang of hangmen, who have drowned all Russian in blood. Do this. In the name of solidarity of interests of all workers, you must hold out your hand to help the Russian workers. When your day of struggle arrives and you also will need help—then you will find friends who will respond to your cry:

Help, comrades.




Tribute to Maxim Gorky

Maxim Gorky 1868-1936: Eulogies from his funeral on the Red Square*

Translated from the German by S. D. Kogan

V. M. Molotov

On Behalf of the Council of People’s Commissars of the USSR and the Central Committee of the CPSU


Bidding farewell today to Maxim Gorky, we, his friends and countless admiring readers, feel as if some brilliant particle of our own life has departed forever into the past. Millions of persons are experiencing this feeling. From the very depth of his spirit, Gorky stood close to us, the people of his epoch, to whom he gave so much in the writings of a genius, in his boundless love for the toilers and his struggle for the freedom of man and by the example of his entire, splendidly unique life.

In order to become the great writer we know, Gorky had during the course of long years to fight a stubborn struggle to break away from heavy need and sorrow beginning in his early childhood. Not a few times was he thrown to the depths in

which many talented and gifted man has perished. For the sake of daily bread, he had to labor much for big and little capitalists—as painter, baker, clerk, stevedore, hired man.

None of the great writers of our country, ay! and of other countries, knew so closely the life of “the depths” of the people under capitalism. None of them personally experienced so much of the ferocity and infamy of the masters and exploiters. None of them had even seen with his own eyes so many people tortured by slave labor and broken under the yoke of capital as our Gorky, in whom all this suffering was forged into irreconcilable and revolutionary hatred towards the capitalist system, and boundless faith in the liberating power of Communism.

That is why the workers, all toilers see in Gorky themselves, their own man, their own life and fate, their future. That is why Gorky was loved, is loved and will be loved so much by the toilers of our own and other countries. Gorky created immortal characters—the people of his times.

His artistic figures of the capitalist, the rapacious profiteer, the fusty philistine of the provincial backwaters, the selfish, parasitic bourgeois intellectual and other gentlemen of old pre-revolutionary Russia are indelibly stamped in one’s memory. The proletarian writer Maxim Gorky looked into their very souls and revealed in his works their very nature as oppressors of the masses of the people.

* From International Literature, No. 8 August 1936. 3

He gave many vivid and forceful examples of the depths of nothingness to which the brutal capitalist system had reduced some “rolling stone” off-spring of bourgeois sections of society. At the same time Gorky, as a magnificent artist of the proletariat, drew remarkable portraits of freedom-loving and selfless people who would not accept oppression and the slime of life; he gave the best and most expressive pictures of proletarian revolutionaries, picture burning with the warmth of the sincere feel of an artist-genius. Maxim Gorky has millions of admiring readers. Their ranks will grow and grow for a long time to come.

In his powerful influence on Russian literature, Gorky stands with such giants as Pushkin, Gogol, Tolstoy, as the one who best carried on in our times their great traditions. The influence of Gorky’s artistic writings on the destinies of our Revolution is more direct and more forceful than the influence of any other of our writers. Therefore it is precisely Gorky who is the genuine begetter of proletarian, socialist literature in our land and in the eyes of the toilers of the whole world.

Maxim Gorky came in his own special way as a great artist into the ranks of warriors for Communism. He came into our ranks even before the revolutionary uplift of 1905, but he came with the already unfolded banners of a storm petrel of the Revolution. Gorky began his revolutionary literary life in an epoch of cumulative revolutionary outburst and soon stood completely and organically on the platform of the working class, became a close friend of the great Lenin in the struggle for Communism. It reflects the grandeur of Gorky that his shining mind, closeness to the people, self-sacrificing and gigantic labor upon the mastery of the cultural achievements of human culture made him a supreme friend of the toilers and majestic inspiration in the struggle for the cause of Communism.

To his last breath Gorky lived as one in thought and feeling with those who with such enthusiasm are now building the new socialist society under the leadership of the Party of Lenin and Stalin. To the last day of his life his eyes sparkled with the fire of unyielding struggle against enemies of the toilers, the fascists and all other oppressors, the assassins of culture and the instigators of war. Every success of the toilers in our country, the successes of the Stakhanovites, the new forms of activity among women, the increase of the harvest and of labor productivity, the exposure of sorties and plots on the part of the enemy, the strengthening of the defense of the country, and above all, the cultural growth of the masses, the growth of literature and art made him as happy as an ardent youth and a venerable sage. Gorky’s example teaches us much.

Gorky was a literary genius. Literary men, artists in words, may learn from this example the power which words have when they serve in the struggle for the happiness of man and of humanity, when these words reach the hearts of men and of peoples.

Gorky was a great son of a great people. For simple folk, for toilers, the example of Gorky shows that our people, like other peoples, is rich in glorious talents which formerly were able only in exceptional circumstances to rise from 4

the depths but for which there is now open a free path to full flowering, to victories and to glory. Gorky was a supreme friend of the toilers and an inspirer of the struggle for Communism. Is any further proof needed that humanity’s finest men, those who have reached the heights of culture and of deep comprehension of the secret dreams of the peoples about their happiness, give their energies supremely and without reserve to the cause of Communism, and in so doing find their highest satisfaction? This in itself shows that the cause of Communism is on the way to its full triumph. Since Lenin, the death of Gorky is the heaviest loss for our country and for humanity. Our strength is in this: the people of the Soviet land to whom Gorky devoted all his tremendous talent and his mighty heart has already risen up on powerful feet, has provided space for the development of its own immeasurable energies and talents, and by this very fact is triumphantly incarnating the hopes and dream of the best representatives of humanity.



Alexei Tolstoy

For the Union of Soviet Writers

The artist who deeply and truly reflects revolutionary epochs of history—such was Gorky—the creator who leads humanity to the realization of a liberated world—such was Lenin— Great men do not have two dates of their existence in history—birth and death, but only one: their birth.

On this ancient square, where the people for thousands of years created for itself a government and where the higher forms of government were created for all, we have gathered to the place in its pantheon an urn with the ashes of a writer of our people and of the world.

The date of birth of Gorky the artist was in the nineties. The young Peshkov gathered in the magic focus of his soul all the explosive forces of the pre-revolutionary epoch; collected all the wrath of the humiliated and the exploited, all the wearied expectations, all the passions for which there was no vent.

He felt on his own shoulders the iron strength of the fists of the merchants, the philistines and the police. Not a few times did he fight, madly, alone, against the many, in

defense of the injured and insulted. And so, in the nineties—in those terrible years of oppression and tense silence— this tall, thin, stooping, blue-eyed youth with a fierce and fiery soul—raised the banner of revolt. Whoever has a living heart, he said, must shatter to bits the cursed torpor of the philistines, march out to the open spaces and light the bonfires of a free life! With broad strokes of the brush, with the precipitousness of genius, he drew the stupid brutal face of the exploiting class.

There you are—the Russian, insatiable mask besmirched with Lenten oil. Feast your eyes upon it!

I was still a boy but I remember the impression of a tremendous explosion echoing through the whole world. In the mould of bourgeois life, which had seemed so durable, a breach had been forced to which streamed all who had living hearts. In a year or so, the name of Gorky traveled throughout the world.

He became a forerunner of the Revolution, its storm petrel.

Nearness to Lenin crystallized his revolt, gave his art an impulse towards clearly marked and concrete aims.

Nearness to Stalin crystallized his work: apart from his own creative work he took upon himself the tremendous and weighty task of the leadership of Soviet Literature. With undying ardor he led Soviet literature to world heights.

He led Soviet literature along its only path—realism, culture, truth, with deep compensation of all the multiformity of our Soviet life. His guiding idea was Lenin’s formula: ”The very aspiration to comprehend all saves us from stagnation.” Such is the path of Soviet literature, the aspiraton to comprehend as much as possible, as deeply as

possible, as truthfully as possible, our complex, creative, flourishing, unprecedented life. On guard over this striving stood and stands Gorky, deathless.

Comrades, not with a funeral march but with the triumphant song of life let us greet the great artist who lives with us, and continues to help us with his unfading word to carry high and still higher the torch of Soviet art. Let Gorky live eternally in our hearts and in our works!




The Socialist Humanism of Maxim Gorky

By Eugenia Knipovich

From International Literature, No. 10-11, Oct.-Nov. 1937

In 1927 Gorky finished article on the Tenth Anniversary of the October Revolution with the words of brotherly greeting to “the new Russian man,” to “the builder of a truly new world,” to “the most necessary person on earth.”
These words were more than the congratulations of a comrade. They were the words of communion between he deputy and his electors. The Russian, and international, master of culture hailed those whose will, passion and hatred molded and reared his incomparable talent.
Gorky’s words embody revolutionary life, underground work, prison, exile, hard labor, the greatest revolution in history, civil war and the heroic and victorious struggle for the building of a “truly new world.” Gorky personifies the fearless mind of the “new Russian man,” who storms all heights of past and present culture. His works stir with that new and formerly unknown quality which distinguishes the conquests of our aviators, miners, cotton pickers, geologists,—all manifestations of the same Socialist culture, based on the free labor of free men. That is why Gorky stands in the world of letters not only as the bearer of the great traditions of Russian culture, but as the first representative of the universal Socialist culture, bringing with him a creative and liberating knowledge of ancient and contemporary culture. In the name of millions he can demand the fulfillment of all the promises made by the humanists of bourgeois revolutions.
Past culture has nurtured for mankind many wonderful conceptions, liberty, harmonious development of personality, the rule of reason, the brotherhood of peoples, equality, justice. However, in a world founded on private property, on wolfish egoism, on forced labor, they remained visions. Loyalty to the great ideals of the past, which penetrates the works of the “prodigal sons” of bourgeois culture, is accompanied with expressions of agony, bitterness, impotence and alarm.
Gorky, in the cultural world, is endowed with special privileges, as the “representative” of a many-millioned master, a master conscious of his rights, armed with revolutionary theory, disciplined and educated by free labor. In the possession of this master the great concepts, values, slogans of the past acquire for the first time actual, not abstract and hypocritical meanings. And in the name of this new master Gorky has a solution for every problem that had tormented the lone keepers of the great cultural treasures. Each reply had been brought with their life and blood. And Gorky also paid for them with his own blood.
This determines the specific nature of Gorky’s humanism.
Gorky was first known as a romanticist, but his romanticism was born not of disillusionment with the world, not denial or evasion, substituting for the living reality always accessible to the creative hand of a master, picture world, personal, invented and sterile. To such “individualistic” romanticism Gorky contrasts another kind, which “springs from man’s consciousness of his bond with the world and the confidence of creative powers which this consciousness evokes.” This type of romanticism Gorky called “social, or the romanticism of collectivism.” “It is only now being born,” wrote Gorky in the period of the “disgraceful and infamous decade, and its owner is the class which is entering life as the carrier of the Socialist idea of liberating mankind from the clutches of capitalism, as the carrier of the idea of free and brotherly labor—of the Socialist system.”
Yes, Gorky was both a realist and a romanticist. But his romanticism had the same qualities as the romanticism of the creative Soviet people today.
For our pilots and scientists, our statesmen and workers also dream. Their visions have created new lakes, have turned the course of rivers, have opened new airways as important historically as the routes traced by Columbus and Vasco da Gamma, have produced new flora and fauna; what is most important, their dream has remade the remaker of the earth—man himself. The dreams of a Bolshevik-Leninist, of a man of Stalin’s epoch, are creative. Tomorrow the dream becomes a plan, and the day after countless loving hands are carrying it out.
All of Gorky’s works from the romantic legend to the realistic would confirm this orientation to the future, this faith in collective labor.
To the humanism of the masters of Western culture Gorky contrasted proletarian revolutionary humanism of pity the humanism of truth, which is “above pity”; to gentle scorn—the severe demand to respect man; to the cult of “autonomous personality”—the glorification of the great mass of individuals, the real creators of cultural values. To the imagined superman Gorky contrasts the fighter, who has grown to the stature of a titan in the revolutionary battles of his class. Gorky, insisting upon the tie between the artist and the world, exposes the illusory nature of art isolated from reality.
At the same time—and here, again, the deeply proletarian nature of Gorky’s humanism declares itself —every genuine protest against bourgeois terror, every expression of discontent with the unjust world of private ownership, every act of devotion to the cultural heritage of the world is near and dear to him.
That testimony of “the death of a world” which the great modern humanitarian artists have left us, in one form or another, is consummately presented in Gorky’s works. Hatred of the capitalist system, which in the work of the best Western writers is often feeble and unfocused, has, in Gorky’s writings, a creative function, merges with active love of the new society being built. Lastly, the charges of the murder of man, which the humanists of the West bring against the old world—in Gorky’s works these charges go deeper and further; they force a reckoning with the old world in the name of humanity, in the name of the emergent new world.
Wretches? Gorky saw and portrayed wretches more ghastly than any monster of the Russian and Western decadence.
Here is Igosha, the Nizhni-Novgorod half-wit beggar, hungrier, more hunted than an animal. Here is Panashkina, with blue blood rot in her veins, wall-eyed, dreaming of “an affair with an officer not lower in rank than a lieutenant.” Here is the “dog’s mother,” whom misfortune has crazed, whose companions are a pack of stray dogs. And finally—”mother Kemskikh”—mad-woman with a fit brood of seven children—cripples and idiots, for whom she sacrifices her life. A starved bitch who feeds her puppies on garbage is more dignified than this morsel of ridiculously suffering womanflesh.
Man’s brutality? What writer has a more appalling kindergarten of abused children? Jacob (The Three), sweet Bubenchik (Among People), Koska Ulyucharev (The Spectators), etc. They perish not so much from barbed inhumanity as from dull indifference. Similarly, in women’s lives, Gorky lays bare their torment. They are beaten not out for cruelty alone but because on them the men folk avenge their own sufferings—the anguish and humiliation of their degraded and oppressed lives. Such is the fate of Nilovna (Mother), Orlova (The Orlov Family), Nikon’s mother (Summer), etc.
To Gorky, however, unlike some Western writers, this world of wretchedness was not fixed and immutable, not the creation of man but of the bourgeois. It is not the mutilated but the mutilators who must answer for these crimes.
Gorky’s protest against injustice began when as an eight year old child he saw his stepfather beating his consumptive mother.

“I heard sounds of the beating, broke into the room. I saw my mother, who had fallen on her knees, lean her back and elbow against the chair; her back was arched with pain and she was groaning. Her head was thrown back and her eyes glittered with terror and fever; and he, neatly dressed in a new uniform, kept kicking her in the breast with his big heavy foot. I grasped a knife from the table —it was a bread knife with an ivory and silver handle. It was the only article of my father’s left to my mother—I gripped it and with all my might struck my father in the side.”
Gorky knew from experience that justice is not restored, “once and for all,” that “each time the fight begins anew.”
One must crush the brothel “bouncer,” who drags a drunken prostitute by the feet, while her head knocks against cobble-stones (Among People); one must crush the underworld scum, who perform their vile, blasphemous ceremony on the student at the flop house (My University Days); and one must, even at the cost of one’s life, attempt to rescue the tortured woman of whom Gorky writes in The Conclusion.
The Conclusion was founded on an episode during Gorky’s wanderings in Russia in the nineties of the last century [1890’s]. These barbarities inflicted on a woman actually occurred in the village of Kandybovka. Gorky told what he had seen but he left unmentioned what he had done. A passerby—Alexei Peshkov (Gorky) threw himself on the tormentors, was given a beating that almost finished him, was flung into the bushes, to be picked up by a chance pedestrian who carried him to the hospital. However, the memory of this chivalrous passerby remained alive in the village. In 1936, more than forty years later, the daughters and granddaughters of women who had suffered like that tortured one, members of the Kandybov collective farm, sent Gorky a warm letter full of love and gratitude. They described their work, their present life—the life of free and equal Soviet women—and invited him to visit Kandybovka and see the changes with his own eyes.
Gorky saw the truth in the person of a tormented bloodstained woman; and for her blood he shed his own.
Gorky won the treasures of human culture, reached the highest levels of humanism through continuous fighting.
Gorky with his rich life-experience more than any other writer realized that labor id the foundation of culture, that every great work of art comes from the people. To Gorky a genuine artist was one whose works reflect the deep and vital processes of society, whose works mirror and entire epoch.
Patiently and lovingly Gorky recreates the figures of those industrious masters of Russian culture, who were in such close touch with life, those wonderful people who do honor to the human race by the worth of their lives,. Tolstoy, Chekhov, Korolenko, Karonin, Kotsubinsky—in each Gorky marks their perseverance, these men who helped beautify the earth, by attacking in the name of life and the dignity of man, stagnancy, ignorance and violence.
And above all these great men, in Gorky’s memory, towers the huge image
of Leo Tolstoy, the image of a demiurge, a universal man, whose creative powers are so immense that “it seems as if he shall rise, wave his hand, and the rocks will begin to stir, and everything shall quicken, make itself heard, speak up in different voices, about themselves, about him, against him.”
How can the world “refuse happiness” to such a man? He is real, bred on the creative forces of an entire epoch. The works of such people when taken of by the masses remake man and consequently the face of the earth.
To the cook Smury, one of the best stepsons of tsarist Russia, “the proper book,” the one he looks for, is a weapon in struggle; and in Gorky’s understanding it is in truth a formidable weapon. One who has come into contact with such works of art becomes aware of his human dignity, of his right to happiness and beauty, to a life worthy of man—and demands them.
Gorky has left us unforgettable pages describing his first communion with great works of art, describing the joy and pain of awakening to new levels of understanding. Gorky describes his introduction to Pushkin, to the musical lines “so easy to memorize, that festively adorned everything they mentioned; this made me happy and my life easy and pleasant. The poem sounded like chimes of a new life. How fortunate to be literate!”
Then his discovery of Balzac! Gorky describes how he found doubles for every character created by the great realist, in the people around him. How old Grandet helped him understand his avaricious grandfather, who refused to feed his wife and grandson, and how the very image of old Grandet shone with new light and new truth from this verification in real life.
The capitalist world not only forces a physical half-life upon the worker; it stultifies him, it fosters ignorance, superstition and savagery. “Consciousness” in a capitalist society is limited to the few privileged “specialists” who in the capitalist “division of labor” have drawn this assignment. And it is against these “few,” against the bourgeois intellectuals, hangers-on of capitalism, usurpers of cultural treasures, parasites on creative thought, that Gorky directs his stern on creative thought, that Gorky directs his stern and shattering wrath. The greedy commercial attitude towards cultural values, the fooling around with ideas which the life ferment of a real artist has paid for—this, to Gorky, is sacrilege.
The roots of culture are in the creative potentialities of he people, and Gorky blasted those who stood between the masses and culture, stole from the people their lawful inheritance, blasted them as imposters and thieves, “empty bags” inflated with other people’s words and ideas. Gorky knew well who these charlatans were—they were his persecutors all his life. They squeaked about “the end of Gorky” when Mother, that artistic manifesto of revolutionary humanism, appeared, these were the hysterical advocates of suffering and humiliation (for others) who slandered Gorky when in 1913 he had the courage to speak frankly about the “truths” of Dostoyevsky. It is they, then white émigrés or “mechanical citizens” of the Soviet Union, who poured feeble, insolent libel on the name of the greatest contemporary fighting artist. And it is they, who through Radek and the Trotskyite traitors, who had penetrated into Soviet literary organizations, attempted to soil with false words the name of the founder of Socialist literature.
Gorky was tireless in exposing these people, exposing their cowardice, futility and treachery. Such is Klim Samgin—this half-man, ruled by fear and lies, who shrinks from action, all his life seeking a “third way” between revolution and bourgeois counter-revolution. Never in world literature was bourgeois individualism so comprehensively exposed, and stripped of its pretensions as in The Life of Klim Samgin. Klim Samgin is a vacuum enclosed in phrases. Cultural values are phrases to him; those created them, the people, are nothing to him. As a characteristic feature of the “critical-minded” bourgeois intellectual, Gorky in the fourth volume of his epic points out the complete indifference of Klim Samgin toward Tolstoy’s death.
Mental parasitism, emptiness, worship of his own non-existent personality brings Klim Samgin very near to that offspring of decaying capitalism most despised by Gorky—the provocateur. Klim Samgin did not work in the tsarist secret police but the atmosphere of the secret police permeates this “critical-minded” individual’s whole life. An empty soul leading an empty life, the provocateur, to Gorky, was one who could not keep from doing evil through the fear that otherwise his “quite life” might be disturbed. A provocateur is the quintessence of the corrupted, whose worldly wisdom is shuffled along walls, never contradicts, so that nothing need be changed, so that one should never have to make any decisions, never have to act by one’s own free will. This paralyzing passivity, actively harmful and corrupting, this drag toward stagnancy Gorky embodied in Karamor, the “useless man,” and in the most loathsome of provocateurs—the potential provocateur—Klim Samgin. Those with whom Klim Samgin feels most compatible, most secure, most soothed in his twilight indecision, inevitably turn out to be agents of the secret police. Samgin is more dangerous than the provocateur, because he contrives to make cowardly inertia a value, seeks to endow it with tradition, decorate it as a preserver of “human personality.” These seducing in activities of Samgin’s are more disintegrating to revolutionary action and consequently more effective than the activities of provocateurs.
A. A. Lunacharsky was correct when he wrote: “No, it is not true that we can allow the dead to bury the dead. The old saying is false, and this is expressed in another proverb: ‘The dead snatch the living.’ Yes, the dead snatch the living; the social corpse, the dead class, the dead mode of life, the dead religion have an after-life of vampires; they are not still in their graves but return among us. They rise with the fumes from the chimney of the crematorium and again settle down on earth and cover it with black filth.”
Did not the voice of Klim Samgin’s “original personality” echo in the confessions of the Trotskyite-fascist conspiracy, this “black filth,” during the trials of 1936-37? And Gorky deals ruthlessly with another outgrowth of the same philosophy—passive pity and consolation. Luka (In the Depths), Markusha (The Life of Matthew Kozhemyakin), Serafim (The Artomonous Affair), the old apiarist (A Story about the Unusual)—all expose these “consolers,” these “teachers of life.” Gorky himself did not immediately understand this cunning and odious breed of the old world. In the figure of Luka he does not yet completely reveal that deep contempt of man and his sufferings which make him console only so as “not to disturb the rigid peace of an all tolerating frigid soul.” (About Plays) This characteristic of “the teacher of life” is impressively exposed; their hidden aim: to muddy the soul of man with words, so that he should become so sluggish for discontent and action, is revealed. And “the consoler” is shown finally in his inevitable “social function,” as secret counter-revolutionary, the underground agitator against the “restless people”—the Bolsheviks who “demolish life.”
The philistine nature’s sluggishness and disgusting clammy indifference—this is the core of the “original personality’s” individualism, of the “humanism of pity and consolation.” Gorky undresses these two fetishes, strips them of their ceremonial robes, makes them stand forth in their hideous nakedness as the quintessential expressions of philistine morbidity.
Studying the changes in the life of the bourgeoisie, Gorky analyzed two generations of Russian capitalists—noted the fate of the “fathers”—the plunderers of the period of preliminary accumulation , and the different destiny of the “children.”
“We should not paste the class label on a person as we are used to doing,” wrote Gorky in his article About Plays; “the class feature is not a mark, it is something internal, biological, of nerves and brain.” This is why Gorky does not give us the “capitalist shark” of poster presentations. The awakening of class instinct in Ilya Lunin (The Three) or Matthew Kozhemyakin, an awakening that shocks the heart and reason, Gorky depicts as a dialectic artist, organically understanding what “social environment” means. And at the same time Gorky’s portrayal of capitalists (Ignat Gordeyev, Ilya Aratamov, Saveli Kozhemyakin, Vassa Zheleznova, Yegor Bulychev) is far from the weak-minded slogan: “Look for good in evil and evil in good,” with which the Trotskyite “critics” attempted to mislead Soviet literature in its struggle against the enemy.
Gorky does not “sympathize” with the merchant Yegor Bulychev or the factory owner Vassilissa Zheleznova because one of them is an “honest” man and the other a “devoted mother.” No, he shows how protery consciousness mangled and disgraced splendid human material, perverted wholesome instincts, turned the passion for creation, for beautifying the earth into a pursuit of shadowy, stolen profits. Yegor and Vassilissa (of the second version) themselves understand that their service to the “cause” is senseless and unreal. Unreal because in the case of the factory owner Zheleznova her “heir” as well as the merchant Artamonov’s son become Bolsheviks, and Yegor Bulychev, when revolution breaks out, declares that he had “saddled the wrong horse,” that he, “the man,” found himself robbed of money.

Having made the rounds of capitalist society, high and low, in pre-revolutionary Russia, Gorky through the remorseless witness of his characters, pronounces death sentence on that word. But from the outset Gorky understood the Leninist dictum that the national crisis is the forerunner of the approaching revolution, that intensified distress gives intensified force to man’s protest against his oppressor, that together with decay of “one world” another is being born; and facing the old world, in struggle, man rises to his own full height.
“...On the huge steppe, barren and waste, a huge thousand-handed man moves in great circles, ever wider girthing the earth, and in his path the dead steppe comes to life, quivering juicy grass shoots forth and everywhere towns and villages emerge; and he strides ever on, farther towards the edge, sowing what is live and human.
“Then one feels toward people a new tenderness and respect; feels in them an inexhaustible vitality that can vanquish death, that eternally transforms what is dead into life, moving toward immortality by mortal roads—death overshadows people, but it cannot engulf them.”
At times during his wanderings in Russia Gorky conceived his hero as a folk image—Mikula, Ilya, Vassilissa the Wise, for example—figures in whom the toiling people embodied its faith in its own measureless creative power. But to Gorky this “thousand-handed man” is not a featureless incarnation of stormy, elemental forces. His novels, biographical sketches and short stories, his autobiographical writing and journalistic work show with what untiring care and devotion he worked to save from oblivion, from featureless anonymity the protean figure of his hero—the man who adorns the earth. The creative personality was to Gorky the greatest value in the world.
And if the “original personality” of Klim Samgin, the individualism of emptiness, sluggishness and property owning conceit when in contact with revolution turned into “a dirty bag, filled with worthless angular things,” then at the same time the awakening of revolutionary conscious revealed and raised up the millions of human personalities, crushed by capitalism. This transformation of man is not “a miracle” for Gorky, no sudden transfiguration. In all his works there are tributes to the mighty impetus of creative force that seeks liberation, that shows even through the scum of “swinish filth” of bourgeois society; the healthy, creative forces break through, good, human things grow, protecting and justifying faith in regeneration to a free and noble life.
Grandmother Akulina Ivanovna, the workers Tsiganok, the boarder “Gooddeed,” the cook Smury, the bakers, icon painters, typesetters, stokers, the student Gury Pletnyev, the Narodnik Romass—imposing is the gallery of wonderful Russian people, strong and sweet individuals, who have preserved inner beauty, dignity and courage through the unbearable hardships of Russian life, despite the efforts of the “teachers” and “masters” to blot from man his human countenance.
Gorky knew that in the brutishness and ignorance of workers the guilty were
those who had driven them into beastly existence Gorky noted how these oppressed and degraded victims of capitalism at the first possibility reveal creativeness and human dignity. He marked their instinctive esteem for skill and labor—and he knew these responses to be the foundation of human culture.
In The Life of Klim Samgin and Foma Gordeyev, in stories and autobiographical narratives (Among People) Gorky pictured collective labor, which—if only for a short time—gives him the wonderful release and contentment of self-fulfillment. Collective work even under conditions of capitalism creates “a legion of labor” among people which anticipates the time when labor shall be “a thing of honor, valor and heroism,” as it is in a Socialist society.
These recurrent witnesses of glowing humanity, of the transformation of man through labor, love, friendship, contact with works of art, permitted Gorky to view the world with elation.
“I passionately want to live—live so that the old stones make merry and the white horses of the sea rear and prance still higher; I want to sing a hymn to the earth so that, drunk with praise, she should with more abandon unfold her riches, display her beauty, inspired by the love of one of her creatures—man, who loves the earth like a woman and burns with ardor to impregnate her with new beauty.”
On the Ukrainian steppe a peasant “who feeds the world” died; an ordinary “little man” left the world; but thinking of his work “it seems astonishingly great.” But then, between Sukhum and Ochemagari, a “new young eaglet” was born; the mother, just up after its birth, gazes at the sea, the forest, the mountains and the face of her new-born son, and “her eyes, washed with tears of agony, once more become amazingly clear, blossom and burn with the blue flame of inexhaustible love.”
Countless people, whose paths crossed Gorky’s, who stored up in his soul the “honey” of their experiences and knowledge, also pined for a nobler life, grieved for vainly perishing forces.
All the imperceptibility small, who do “great things,” all the downtrodden, oppressed, bitter and furious, all whose strength and abilities are unused—all shall find the right road, because there is a force—and Gorky always knew of it—which is the touchstone of genuine human character, which draws out of man his best humanity. This force is revolutionary consciousness.
In Enemies and Mother Gorky depicts the revolutionary movement and revolutionary ideas first of all as factors restoring in man what is most human in him. The flame of revolution, the struggle for the building of a new world, burns out in man the petty bourgeois dross deposited in him. Man is transformed while transforming the world. Revolutionary, proletarian, Bolshevik humanism—this is Gorky’s answer to the “accursed problems” which tormented the great humanists of the West.
Not the last feeble offspring of bourgeois humanism, not a fictive titan and creator, conjured from the past, are called upon to solve these historical problems as inheritors of the great legacies of the
past. There is no need to look for an heir—he has appeared and entered his claim. Revolutionary consciousness, which penetrates into the very thick of the masses, creates millions of heroes and heirs. Simultaneously the theme of the rupture between the artist and the world becomes an anachronism; for one of the events of the new created world is their reconciliation; liberated humanity thrust forth the artist as the fighter, toiler, worker for the great common cause.
The tasks of a genuine master of culture in the days of great class battles and social upheavals arouse to his aid millions, who for the first time become aware of their rights, their human dignity, of the revolutionary and humanitarian traditions of the past, of all that has been accumulated by mankind during the thousands of years of its conscious existence.
Unforgettable in Gorky’s works are the figures of men molded in the revolutionary movement and together with it. From Pavel Grachev to Pavel Vlassov, Gorky realized in loving portraiture fighters of the vanguard of the proletariat, to whom revolutionary enlightenment brought will, faith, new emotions, new ideas.
One of the finest and most beautiful of these figures is Nilovna, “the mother,” the impersonation of the universal power and significance of revolutionary enlightenment. For forty years prevented by the bestial conditions of capitalist society from the fulfilling the great resources of active love stored in her heart, she is reborn when she comes in contact with revolutionary consciousness borne into the world by revolutionary youth.
In the image of Nilovna, portrayed in clear and vivid epic form, with stirring simplicity, Gorky has shown how new consciousness, new social feelings do not fall from the sky, but are dormant in man himself, are eternal, and only change in quality.
Love of her son, of her flesh and blood, gradually grows into a love of her son’s truth, of his comrades, of all the oppressed, fighting for their emancipation; she joins their ranks, for they have become her children.
“Children, through truth and reason bring love to everything and array everything in new colors; they illuminate all things with an imperishable flame—which comes from the very soul. A new life is being born, thanks to the children’s ardent love toward the entire world. And who shall extinguish this love? What power is above it, who shall overcome it? The earth gave birth to it and all life wants its victory—all life!”
Gorky with all his works, all his life served the slogan: “Support the rebel,” and his works as well as his life are an example, a lesson for all.
Gorky not only advocated revolutionary humanism, but he is a living memory of those battles in which this humanism was born.





Comintern (SH)

On Maxim Gorky -
the founder of Soviet literature

"The name of Maxim Gorky is familiar to the working people of the Soviet country and far beyond its borders, and dear as the name of a very great revolutionary artist, a fighter against tsarism, against capitalism, for the international proletarian revolution, for the liberation of the working people of all countries from the yoke of capitalism." ["Welcome letter of the CC of the CPSU (B) on the 40th anniversary of the beginning of his literary activity -". Pravda "No. 266, in 1932, page 1.]

The great Soviet nation that rose up in gigantic, revolutionary enthusiasm and that had shown to the world the miracle of energy, will and talent in the construction of socialist society - images of the struggle of millions of people for a new life without capitalism - inspired the great writer Gorky. Under Gorky's influence, the Soviet people gave birth to a Pléiade of new Soviet poets and writers.

Gorki raised the banner of classical Russian literature, followed their best social and artistic tradition, and at the same time he created a new literature, a literature of revolutionary ideas, of revolutionary attitude toward the world and creating heroes of the socialist society which hitherto never and nowhere existed.

Gorky is not only the father of Soviet literature. His extraordinary influence determined the major methods and contents throughout its whole development.

This is not just about that many Soviet writers, including Ivanov, F. Gladkov, K. Fedin, L. Leonov, grew up under the direct influence of Gorky and who received his personal, loving support. Gorky's type of attitude, or more specifically, the Bolshevik attitude, became a characteristic feature of Soviet literature. Whether workers or writers, we must follow the footsteps of the great Gorky and become participants of the great matter of the world proletariat, which is absolutely necessary for the future of humanity, for world socialism and for the socialist world revolution.

The affinity to Lenin had steered the literary rebellion of Gorky into the track of the revolution of the proletariat.

The affinity to Stalin characterized his work in recent years - thus the focus on the construction of socialism.

Gorky put himself at the head of the whole literary life of the Soviet country.

He was not only writer but also founder and editor of a number of journals, and he was chairman of the Association of Soviet Writers. Gorky was not only the great Creator, but also the excellent worker of the book - a tireless editor. There was hardly a literary project at which Gorky would not have been involved. The mere listing of publications that have been undertaken at the instigation of Maxim Gorky, is astonishing by its diversity.

Even in the eraly days of Lenin, Gorky supported the Bolsheviks with his contributions to their newspapers and magazines. Above all, thanks to the personal friendship with Lenin and his suggestions and initiative.

Later, under Stalin, Gorky's publications took shape of mass character.

This includes both mass editions of magazines such as "Our achievements"; "From abroad"; "Literary doctrine"; "The collective farm"; "Work of the people" etc.;

- As well as serial publications such as:
"The lives of great men"; "The story of a young man of the XIX. Century", "The Library of the poet"
- And also collective works like: "A day in the world";

- Further releases were dedicated to the past of the home - books about the historical development of farms and factories, the story of the Civil War, the history of the village, the almanac, "The year XVI", "The Library of the collective farmers", "The USSR under construction", a huge library of magazines and books. Each page had gone through the hand of a man who was in love with the creative work - in the truest sense of the word.

Many of these activities represented a realization of old dreams and plans of Gorky. Even before the revolution Gorky had, for example, the idea of collections of literary works of various peoples. But this was difficult to achieve in those times, and the whole project was stuck in its beginnings.

Along with the huge amount of work in the field of organization of Soviet Literature, Gorki took part in the creation of new scientific institutions. He was closely monitoring the achievements of folk art, corresponded with inventors and engineers, studied the lives of the working communities of the children (see his correspondence with Anton Makarenko) and worked out a number of practical initiatives. All these activities took him a great deal of energy and time, but in spite, Gorky continued his creative literary activity. He wrote the sequel to his novel "Life of Klim Samgins", a series of articles, plays, under which "Yegor Bulychev" among the most important and most outstanding creations of the artist.

Already in his difficult childhood, Gorky had to care for himself. He had to struggle for his pure survival. Gorky learnt everything laboriously, shifting for himself. His freedom of writing was realized through performing the heaviest and dirtiest odd jobs - here, there and everywhere. Gorky: "I do not have time to write much, I'm working up to 12 hours a day until I spit blood."

This way, Gorky did not only learn much from famous Russian writers, but also from the daily destiny of the working people. He internalised the language of enslaved people, while he shared their fate, whether farmers, artisans, soldiers, merchants, sailors, choristers ... etc. He got around everywhere and so he learned the tradition of oral poetry not only of his own people, but also those of other peoples (e.g. from Italy). Gorky was inspired by the creative power of the people. He was indeed an internationalist personality - with body and soul. He went among the people in the teaching and thus achieved the highest level of art, namely the international merging of beautifulness, elementariness and truthfulness.

Maxim Gorky has not only theoretically recognized the role of literature in its full scope, but also rendered exemplarily evidence as a writer through his poetic creativity. Of course, he possessed great life experience, and that was because he himself participated in the life of the proletariat. Moreover, in youth he came in touch with the revolutionary theory. Better than any other writer, Gorky was able to understand the revolutionary tasks and demands of literature. But that alone was not enough. There were a lot of other people who possessed knowledge about the worker's life and revolutionary theory. However, in order to detect and understand the gathering storm of the revolution in the first steps of the revolutionary movement, one must have an extraordinary farsightedness which must be reflected and transformed into creative literary work. Gorky did not only understand the daily events but moreover their future sense which is still hidden. Maxim Gorky understood the historical significance of current events and expressed it artistically. For Gorki, his appreciation of the very essence of the tasks of Russian literature was a precondition of its further development.

At the very beginning Gorky tried to find new creative ways. He opposed the confined limits of the old realism. He demanded that the writer works out the ideals which are already embodied in life through the whirlwind of revolution. However, this is possible only through truly Bolshevik partisanship. Only under this condition, the writer could create works that are of importance for the liberation of the people.

Gorky demanded that literature must serve the people and their homeland. For Gorky never existed any contradictions between patriotism, working class and love for all mankind.

The main task of literature was the partisan presentation of life, namely by artistically carving out the figure of the new man. Gorky developed the artistic forms of the most valuable features of the socialist man. He described the traits of the people who fight for the new, socialist world. Gorky's hero figures are full of humanistic ideals, of the will to fight for the happiness and the liberation of all mankind. His positive heroes embody the new, socialist ideals of the working class.

So Gorky found the artistic creation principle which was later defined by Stalin, on the 26th of October 1932 ( in an interview with writers): the method of socialist realism.

Gorky had already begun to develop the basis of this artistic method, when the working class was fighting for her liberation (in his famous novel "Mother"). It is clear that this principle could not already appear in its completeness at the first attempt. This method was developed in the course of the creative work of Gorky, namely in proportion with the maturing of his heroes, according to the growing revolutionary movement, especially after the October Revolution, thus from the soil which paved the way of Gorky's life and work.

Thus the principles of socialist realism, as they were created by Lenin and realized Gorky with consummate mastery, became later the revolutionary basis for literary mass movement, the basis for the development of Soviet literature in its entirety. The socialist ideal, the positive hero, the dialectic and patriotic character - these are the essentials of the method of Soviet literature, as they have been theoretically developed by Lenin and first applied in practice by Gorki. The best example of the application of socialist realism is Gorky's novel "The Mother".

Gorky was a hard-edged literature critic. But he did not criticize some petty-bourgeois writers for the sake of criticism in itself but because of their subservience towards the bourgeoisie. For him, literature was a weapon on one of the manifold battle fields of class struggle.

He particularly criticized the writers of symbolism. In the revolutionary years the Symbolists represented the rejection of the revolution, they remained passive and sceptical towards the working class, and they appeared as opponents of Socialist Realism. Gorky saw in Symbolism "a malicious, reactionary phenomenon which must be absolutely combatted."

Gorky defined the mysticism of the Symbolists as a "subtle knack of the bourgeois society, troubled by the ever clearer contradictions of the chaos of life. They want to soothe their consciences by protecting themselves against the looming logic of the disaster of the coming events. They praise divine mercy under the guise of the Pharisees."

Gorky practice not only criticism, but also self-criticism: "I am not a good Maxist" . Selfcritically, Maxim Gorki admitted this weakness frankly. The petty-bourgeois intellectuals tried to misuse his authority against the Bolsheviks, especially after the revolution of 1905 (Machism and Otzovism), shortly before, during and after the October Revolution.In March 1917, Lenin criticized Gorky’s social-pacifist appeal and deplored the fact that the great writer was indulging in politics and reiterating petty-bourgeois prejudices: "There can be no doubt that Gorky’s is an enormous artistic talent which has been, and will be, of great benefit to the world proletarian movement. But why should Gorky meddle in politics?"

And Stalin wrote about Gorky on the 20th (!!) of October 1917 :

"There is a whole string of such 'celebrities' whom the revolution has rejected—Plekhanov, Kropotkin, Breshkovskaya, Zasulich and all those old revolutionaries in general who are noteworthy only for being old. We fear that Gorky is envious of the laurels of these 'pillars'. We fear that Gorky feels a 'mortal' urge to follow after them—into the museum of antiquities. Well, every man to his own fancy. . . . The revolution is not disposed either to pity or to bury its dead. . . ." (Stalin, Volume 3; "Strong bulls of bashan have beset me round")

The anti-Communists try to make believe that Gorki and communism would be an "antagonism". And they try to substantiate this with quotes from Gorki, where he had allegedly argued against Lenin and Stalin, against Bolshevism.

Well, the bourgeoisie would have liked Gorky to part with the Bolsheviks. But for decades, there was never a falling-out with the Bolsheviks - in spite of several political mistakes that Gorky had made. Gorky's friendship with Lenin and Stalin proved to be stronger than all the ideological-political influence of petty-bourgeois intellectualism.

A special characteristic of Gorky is his close connection to the workers' movement in Russia and all over the world. He participated in the Second Congress of the Communist International. Concerning the dialectical relationship between patriotism and internationalism on the field of literature, Gorky learnt from Stalin. J. V. Stalin had found that the folk culture retains its national form after the October Revolution. But at the same time folk culture gets an international socialist content: "Proletarian in content, national in form - this is the general human culture, socialist culture. Proletarian culture does not abolish national culture, which now receives a socialist content and vice versa: The national culture does not remove proletarian culture, which receives its form." (Stalin).

The magazine "Letopis", with which Gorky was connected, was the only legal organ of the anti-war propaganda in Russia during the First World War.

Gorki fought against the imperialist world and its slanders of Soviet literature, against its intention to denigrate the achievements of Soviet culture as worthless, against any attempt to discredit the Soviet writers, against all those who tried to deny the independent development of Soviet culture. With the dirtiest means, socialist consciousness of the Soviet people should be unsettled by the bourgeois cosmopolitans. And finally they blamed the Bolshevik Party of Lenin and Stalin for the death of Gorky. According to the old Trotskyist method Gorky's early works were praised by the bourgeoisie, until he returned to the Soviet Union in 1928 (the "good" creative period and his "evil Stalinist" period after 1928). In this way, one tried to play out "Gorki against Gorki" and to misrepresent him as seedy "figure". Until this day, the bourgeoisie does not hesitate to accuse Stalin that he would Gorky allegedly turned into his "puppet". And that shameless anti-communist lie is today still maintained, namely that Stalin would have allegedly killed Gorky. In truth, it was the anti-Stalinists who murdered Gorky. The bourgeoisie has never stopped to liberate Gorky "from the clutches" of communism and to present him as "one of their own", thus as a famous writer of the bourgeois world literature. Therefore no late works are published by the bourgeois publishers, in which Gorky has directly promoted the cultural construction of the Soviet Union of Lenin and Stalin. And therefore the Comintern (SH) decided to care especially for the publication of Gorky's late works - in spite of all that ! A Gorky as a revolutionary against enslavement of tsarism and capitalism can be tolerated by the bourgeoisie, however not a Gorky, who has strengthened the dictatorship of the proletariat in struggle against the imperialist encirclement and internal enemies of the Soviet Union. No one will ever be successfull to drive a wedge between Gorky and the world proletariat. Gorki was a revolutionary and belongs to the socialist world revolution.

It is now the duty of us Stalinist-Hoxhaists to defend Gorky against all bourgeois-revisionist slanders. For this, the Comintern (SH) has made a modest contribution and created the world's largest Gorky archive in the Internet - in honor to the 80th Day of Death. Gorky's works can now be read in 20 languages. And we will soon publish his works in many more languages.

The literary heroes of Gorky embody the ideal of the people in the future era of world socialism. Gorky's work is a torch that enlightens the way for world socialist revolution.
Gorky was and will always be the most revolutionary writer of the world. The socialist world literature of the past, at present and in the future will always be based on his work.


What characterizes the world-revolutionary writer of today?

The world-revolutionary writer of today is equipped with the treasures of the works of Maxim Gorky.

A world-revolutionary writer is a deliberate and passionate advocate for the cause of world communism.

The world-revolutionary writer draws critically on all the negative phenomena of world capitalism, rebels against the misery of the entire human race into which the world capitalism has engulfed it.

Only the writer who encourages humanity to overcome world capitalism and to fight for the realization of the long-desired world communism, is a true world-revolutionary writer.

The world-revolutionary writer praises the struggle of the world proletariat, the vitory of the global class-struggle against the misery of mankind, especially by the literary promotion of the socialist world revolution.

It is the true heroes of the international class struggle, which serve as a model to the creation of the literary heroes of the world-revolutionary writers. Out of the revolutionary world proletariat itself, the world-revolutionary writer creates his artistic heroes. He creates the positive hero of proletarian internationalism, which is imbued with revolutionary world-consciousness.

The world-revolutionary writer is not exclusively working for his homeland. The homeland of the world-revolutionary worker is nothing but the world in a whole. The future world-socialist literature is both in form and content a socialist literature. The world-revolutionary writer writes in the service of the merger of all peoples throughout the world, he writes for the future classless world community in which there will be no borders of man against man anymore. The socialist world literature is free from any privileges or discriminations of nations. It is the literature determined by the dictatorship of the world proletariat and under the guidance of the Communist International.

The writer of the future is not only a writer but simultaneously a world revolutionary who participates oneself directly in the class struggle against world capitalism and its vestiges. He scatters the way towards world communism not with flowers, but describes it as a way of mortal combat, as a most burdensome path that bears toughest global examinations.

He abhors the world of arrogant intellectualist literatism and accepts the subordinate role to the world-collectivism of the proletariat, to the party-line of the Communist International.

A world-revolutionary writer is modest in ones international authority and sober in his humility towards the great cause of the world proletariat.

A world-revolutionary writer learns daily from the living and working experience of the world proletariat. He writes the truth about the world proletariat and nothing but the truth. He raises his world-revolutionary voice on every continent.

He fights for the strengthening of a global association of writers of the new world communist literature.

No matter in which language he writes - he writes always with all other world revolutionary writers together at the boundless class-front of the mighty word of world communism which is everywhere understood by the whole world community.

There is no comparable honorable duty in world history, as to educate humanity in the spirit of communism. This is above all the duty of all world-revolutionary writers.

Socialist realism emerged from and is based on the Great October Socialist Revolution. And as well, it is clear that the world-socialist realism emanates from the Great Socialist world revolution, which was heralded by the October Revolution, which is based upon the literary achievements of the October Revolution. The victory of the October Revolution opened up the intellectual and cultural world of the socialist Soviet peoples, and as well, the socialist world revolution will be the soil upon which the intellectual and cultural world of all socialist peoples will blossom.

The new method of the world-socialist realism is based on the scientific principles of Stalinism-Hoxhaism and can only develop during the struggle against neo-revisionism, particularly in the field of world-revolutionary literature.

Only with the communist ideology the global life can be study properly, namely in the great battles of the new socialist life against the old life under capitalism. A world-revolutionary writer who is not equipped with the lessons of the 5 Classics of Marxism-Leninism, is not at a a world-revolutionary writer. A world-socialist literature can emerge only under the leadership of the Communist International. One can develop the world socialist literature only by the strengthening the Comintern (SH).

One must be primarily aware about the ideological-cultural position of the bourgeois and petty bourgeois littérateurs, and find out those elements which try to hide behind the mask of "communism". One must settle up with all these open and hidden anti-communists, namely exclusively on the basis of Stalinism-Hoxhaism.

* * *

We will never forget that the Rightists and Trotskyites - these agents of the world imperialists - had murdered Gorky on 18 June 1936, those against whom he had fought so bravely. On June 20, Gorky was buried in Red Square in Moscow. Among the carriers of the coffin there was also Stalin, of whom Gorky wrote:

"Continuous and more rapidly growing in the world the importance Josef Stalin, the man who has adopted the energy and boldness of his teacher and comrade in arms. Stalin was the best Leninist, and now worthy, during 10 years, to occupy the most serious post as the leader of the party ... The excellent organized will, the penetrating mind of a great theorist, the boldness of a talented pool administrator, the intuition of a true revolutionary who understands brilliantly how to navigate through the difficult characteristics of the people, who cultivates the best of these features, who fights relentlessly against those who form a hindrance for achieving the utmost level of development, all this has placed Stalin on Lenin's position." (Maxim Gorky: "About the homeland", page 154/55)

In the days of his illness Gorky read Stalin's draft of the new constitution. Deeply moved, told Gorky: "In our country, even the stones sing."

The traditions of Gorky are dear to us for all times. May "all stones around the whole world begin to sing" when the Constitution of the Socialist World Republic enters into force.

Long live Maxim Gorky!

Comintern (SH)
June 18, 2016







Maxim Gorky


Максим Горький



Мать - 1919 Первая экранизация повести М. Горького


Детство Горького / Childhood (1938) - биография


Мои университеты (1939) Полная версия


Дело Артамоновых / Artamonov Business, The (1941) - экранизация


В людях (1938) Марк Донской


На дне ч.1 М.#Горький #театр #Современник #театрСовременник #ПолныеВерсииСпектаклей

На дне ч.2 М.#Горький #театр #Современник #театрСовременник #ПолныеВерсииСпектаклей


Аудиокнига Максим Горький -Детство




Maxim Gorky


“Happiness always looks small while you hold it in your hands, but let it go, and you learn at once how big and precious it is.”
Maxim Gorky, The Lower Depths and Other Plays


When work is a pleasure, life is a joy! When work is a duty, life is slavery.

When everything is easy one quickly gets stupid.


“What I'd like is to meet a man I could take off my hat to and say: "Thank you for having got born, and the longer you live the better.”


“Lies are the religion of slaves and masters. Truth is the god of the free man.”
Maxim Gorky, The Lower Depths, And Other Plays


“You must write for children the same way you write for adults, only better.”


“Remembrance of the past kills all present energy and deadens all hope for the future”


“The good qualities in our soul are most successfully and forcefully awakened by the power of art. Just as science is the intellect of the world, art is its soul.”
Maxim Gorky, Untimely Thoughts: Essays on Revolution, Culture, and the Bolsheviks, 1917-1918


“The illness of a doctor is always worse than the illnesses of his patients.The patients only feel, but the doctor, as well as feeling, has a pretty good idea of the destructive effect of the disease on his constitution.This is a case in which knowledge brings death nearer.”
Maxim Gorky, Literary Portraits


“This fear is what is the ruin of us all. And some dominate us; they take advantage of our fear and frighten us still more. Mark this: as long as people are afraid, they will rot like the birches in the marsh. We must grow bold; it is time!”
Maxim Gorky, Mother


“You will not drown the truth in seas of blood”


“Politics is something similar to the lower physiological functions, with the unpleasant difference that political functions are unavoidably carried out in public.”
Maxim Gorky, Untimely Thoughts: Essays on Revolution, Culture, and the Bolsheviks, 1917-1918


“One word of praise from a woman is dearer to me than a whole ode from a man . .”


“Writers build castles in the air, the reader lives inside, and the publisher inns the rent.”


“When the life is monotonous , even grief is a welcome event...”
Maxim Gorky, My Childhood


“The poor are always rich in children, and in the dirt and ditches of this street there are groups of them from morning to night, hungry, naked and dirty. Children are the living flowers of the earth, but these had the appearance of flowers that have faded prematurely, because they grew in ground where there was no healthy nourishment.”
Maxim Gorky, Twenty-Six Men and a Girl and Other Stories


“In the monotony of everyday existence grief comes as a holiday, and a fire is an entertainment. A scratch embellishes an empty face.”
Maxim Gorky, My Childhood


“But I'm not to be caught with such poor bait! I'm a big fish, I am.”
Maxim Gorky, Selected Short Stories


“However low he may fall, a man can never deny himself the delight of feeling cleverer, more powerful or even better fed than his companions.”
Maxim Gorky, Twenty-Six Men and a Girl and Other Stories


“Anger is like ice, and also quick to melt”
Maxim Gorky, My Childhood


“in music one can hear everything.”
Maxim Gorky, Mother


“...the more a human creature has tasted of bitter things the more it hungers after the sweet things of life. And we, wrapped round in rags of our virtues, and regarding others through the mist of our self-sufficiency, and persuaded of our universal impeccability, do not understand this.”
Maxim Gorky, Her Lover


“If it is true that only misfortune can awaken a man's soul, it is a bitter truth, one that is hard to hear and accept, and it is only natural that many people deny it and say it is better for a man to live on in a trance than to wake up to torture.”


“And this was the end of my first friendship with one of that innumerable company of people who are foreigners in their own country, but who are in reality its finest sons....”
Maxim Gorky, My Childhood


“They destroy lives with work. What for? They rob men of their lives. What for, I ask? My master—I lost my life in the textile mill of Nefidov—my master presented one prima donna with a golden wash basin. Every one of her toilet articles was gold. That basin holds my life-blood, my very life. That's for what my life went! A man killed me with work in order to comfort his mistress with my blood. He bought her a gold wash basin with my blood.”
Maxim Gorky, Mother


“The poor people are stupid from poverty, and the rich from greed.”
Maxim Gorky, Mother


“I do not care to see men better off – but better!”


“Here I've been living along, year after year, forty of them behind me, with a wife and children, and not a soul in the world to talk to. Come moments when I think I just have to pour out my soul to somebody, to say all there is to say, and — no one to say it to! If you tell it to her—the wife, that is — it don't reach her. What's it to her? She's got her children, the house, her cares. She's outside my soul. Your wife's your friend till the first baby comes ... that's how it is. And in general, my wife—well, you can see for yourself—no fun with her—just a lump of flesh, damn it all! Ah, brother, what a heartache!”


“once there was a crow, it flew from the field to the hill, from hedge to hedge, and lived its life. then it died and rotted away. -what's the sense in it? there just ISN'T any!”


“Much later I realized that Russian people, because of the poverty and squalor of their lives, love to amuse themselves with sorrow--to play with it like children, and are seldom ashamed of being unhappy.”
Maxim Gorky, My childhood


“When they tear a workingman's hand in a machine or kill him, you can understand-- the workingman himself is at fault. But in a case like this, when they suck a man's blood out of him and throw him away like a carcass --that can't be explained in any way. I can comprehend every murder; but torturing for mere sport I can't comprehend. And why do they torture the people? To what purpose do they torture us all? For fun, for mere amusement, so that they can live pleasantly on the earth; so that they can buy everything with the blood of the people, a prima donna, horses, silver knives, golden dishes, expensive toys for their children. YOU work, work, work, work more and more, and I'LL hoard money by your labor and give my mistress a golden wash basin”
Maxim Gorky, Mother


“The pleasure of living carries with it the obligation to die.”
Maxim Gorky, Mother


“In recalling my childhood I like to picture myself as a beehive to which various simple obscure people brought the honey of their knowledge and thoughts on life, generously enriching my character with their own experience. Often this honey was dirty and bitter, but every scrap of knowledge was honey all the same.”
Maxim Gorky, My Childhood


“I've thought all my life, 'Lord Christ in heaven! what did I live for?' Beatings, work! I saw nothing except my husband. I knew nothing but fear! And how Pasha grew I did not see, and I hardly know whether I loved him when my husband was alive. All my concerns, all my thoughts were centered upon one thing—to feed my beast, to propitiate the master of my life with enough food, pleasing to his palate, and served on time, so as not to incur his displeasure, so as to escape the terrors of a beating, to get him to spare me but once! But I do not remember that he ever did spare me. He beat me so—not as a wife is beaten, but as one whom you hate and detest.”
Maxim Gorky, Mother


“But silence is terrible and painful only to those who have said all and have nothing more to speak of; but to those who never had anything to say--to them silence is simple and easy. . . .”
Maxim Gorky, Twenty-six and One and Other Stories


“we people at the bottom feel everything; but it is hard for us to speak out our hearts. our thoughts float about in us. we are ashamed because, although we understand, we are not able to express them; an often from shame we are angry at our thoughts, and at those who inspire them. we drive them away from ourselves”
Maxim Gorky, Mother


“Our existence has always and everywhere been tragic, but man has converted these numberless tragedies into works of art. I know of nothing more astonishing or more wonderful than this transformation.”


"Like some wondrous birds out of fairy tales, books sang their songs to me and spoke to me as though communing with one languishing in prison; they sang of the variety and richness of life, of man’s audacity in his strivings towards goodness and beauty.”


“And he's direct, clear, firm, like truth itself.”
Maxim Gorky, Mother


“Those——"—here he flung out a terrible oath—"those people don't know what their blind hands are sowing. They will know when our power is complete and we begin to mow down their cursed grass. They'll know it then!”
Maxim Gorky, Mother


“All parents wash away their sins with their tears; you are not the only one.”
Maxim Gorky, My childhood


“Keep reading books, but remember that a book is only a book, and you should learn to think for yourself.”


“the number of books increased on the shelves neatly made for him by one of his carpenter friends. The room began to look like a home.”
Maxim Gorky, Mother


“All of us are pilgrims on this earth. I have even heard it said that the earth itself is a pilgrim in the heavens.”


“We must endure, Alyosha." That was the only thing she could say in response to my accounts of the ugliness and dreariness of life, of the suffering of the people — of everything against which I protested so vehemently. I was not made for endurance, and if occasionally I exhibited this virtue of cattle, wood, and stone, I did so only to test myself, to try my strength and my stability. Sometimes young people, in the foolishness of immaturity, or in envy of the strength of their elders, strive, even successfully, to lift weights that overtax their bones and muscles; in their vanity they attempt to cross themselves with two-pood weights, like mature athletes. I too did this, in the literal and figurative sense, physically and spiritually, and only good fortune kept me from injuring myself fatally or crippling myself for life.

For nothing cripples a person so dreadfully as endurance, as a humble submission to the forces of circumstance.”


“The doleful, ugly sounds became entangled in his whiskers.”
Maxim Gorky, Mother


“The indifferent pendulum of the clock kept chopping off the seconds of life, calmly and precisely.”
Maxim Gorky, Mother


“I did not speak," continued Pavel, "about that good and gracious God in whom you believe, but about the God with whom the priests threaten us as with a stick, about the God in whose name they want to force all of us to the evil will of the few.”
Maxim Gorky, Mother


“Yes, the rich. And that's their misfortune. You see, if you keep adding copper bit by bit to a child's food, you prevent the growth of its bones, and he'll be a dwarf; and if from his youth up you poison a man with gold, you deaden his soul." Once,”
Maxim Gorky, Mother


“Aside from kringles, we gave Tanya much advice – to dress warmer, not to run fast on the stairs, and not to carry heavy bundles of wood. With a smile she listened, answered in a laugh and never obeyed us, but we were not offended: we only wanted to show that we were concerned for her.”
Maxim Gorky, Twenty-Six Men and a Girl and Other Stories


“This is the way it ought to be!" said the Little Russian, returning. "Because, mark you, mother dear, a new heart is coming into existence, a new heart is growing up in life. All hearts are smitten in the conflict of interests, all are consumed with a blind greed, eaten up with envy, stricken, wounded, and dripping with filth, falsehood, and cowardice. All people are sick; they are afraid to live; they wander about as in a mist. Everyone feels only his own toothache. But lo, and behold! Here is a Man coming and illuminating life with the light of reason, and he shouts: 'Oh, ho! you straying roaches! It's time, high time, for you to understand that all your interests are one, that everyone has the need to live, everyone has the desire to grow!' The Man who shouts this is alone, and therefore he cries aloud; he needs comrades, he feels dreary in his loneliness, dreary and cold. And at his call the stanch hearts unite into one great, strong heart, deep and sensitive as a silver bell not yet cast. And hark! This bell rings forth the message: 'Men of all countries, unite into one family! Love is the mother of life, not hate!' My brothers! I hear this message sounding through the world!”
Maxim Gorky, Mother


“the mother again remarked the simplicity and calmness of their relation to each other. it was hard for her to get used to it. no kissing, no affictionate words passed between them but they behaved so sincerely, so amicably and so solicitously toward each other. in the life she had been accustomed to, people kissed a great deal and uttered many sentimental words, but always bit at one another like hungry dogs.”
Maxim Gorky, Mother


“This society of 'creatures that once were men' had one fine characteristic - no one of them endeavored to make out that he was better than the others, nor compelled the others to acknowledge his superiority.”


God created man in his own image and after his own likeness. Therefore he is like man if man is like him.”
Maxim Gorky, Mother


“Everything seems simple and near. Then, all of a sudden, I cannot understand this simplicity. Again, I'm calm. In a second I grow fearful, because I am calm. I always used to be afraid, my whole life long; but now that there's a great deal to be afraid of, I have very little fear. Why is it? I cannot understand.”
Maxim Gorky, Mother


“You have nothing to tell me!" said Vyesovshchikov slowly. "Nothing! My heart is so—it seems to me as if wolves were howling there!" "And I don't want to say anything to you. Only I know that you'll get over this, perhaps not entirely, but you'll get over it!" He smiled, and added, tapping Nikolay on the back: "Why, man, this is a children's disease, something like measles! We all suffer from it, the strong less, the weak more. It comes upon a man at the period when he has found himself, but does not yet understand life, and his own place in life. And when you do not see your place, and are unable to appraise your own value, it seems that you are the only, the inimitable cucumber on the face of the earth, and that no one can measure, no one can fathom your worth, and that all are eager only to eat you up. After a while you'll find out that the hearts in other people's breasts are no worse than a good part of your own heart, and you'll begin to feel better. And somewhat ashamed, too! Why should you climb up to the belfry tower, when your bell is so small that it can't be heard in the great peal of the holiday bells? Moreover, you'll see that in chorus the sound of your bell will be heard, too, but by itself the old church bells will drown it in their rumble as a fly is drowned in oil. Do you understand what I am saying?" "Maybe I understand," Nikolay said, nodding. "Only I don't believe it." The”
Maxim Gorky, Mother


“Jazz may be a thrilling communion with the primitive soul; or it may be an ear-splitting bore.”


“Here is a Man coming and illuminating life with the light of reason, and he shouts: 'Oh, ho! you straying roaches! It's time, high time, for you to understand that all your interests are one, that everyone has the need to live, everyone has the desire to grow!' The Man who shouts this is alone, and therefore he cries aloud; he needs comrades, he feels dreary in his loneliness, dreary and cold. And at his call the staunch hearts unite into one great, strong heart, deep and sensitive as a silver bell not yet cast. And hark! This bell rings forth the message.. 'Men of all countries, unite into one family! Love is the mother of life, not hate!' My brothers! I hear this message sounding through the world!”
Maxim Gorky, Mother


“A man must preserve himself for his work and must be thoroughly acquainted with the road to it. A man, dear, is like the pilot on a ship. In youth, as at high tide, go straight! A way is open to you everywhere. But you must know when it is time to steer. The waters recede — here you see a sandbank, there, a rock; it is necessary to know all this and to slip off in time, in order to reach the harbour safe and sound.”
Maxim Gorky, The Works of Maxim Gorky


“Life flowed on swiftly. The days were diversified and full of color. Each one brought with it something new, and the new ceased to alarm the mother. Strangers came to the house in the evening more and more frequently, and they talked with Andrey in subdued voices with an engrossed air. Late at night they went out into the darkness, their collars up, their hats thrust low over their faces, noiselessly, cautiously. All seemed to feel a feverish excitement, which they kept under restraint, and had the air of wanting to sing and laugh if they only had the time. They were all in a perpetual hurry. All of them--the mocking and the serious, the frank, jovial youth with effervescing strength, the thoughtful and quiet--all of them in the eyes of the mother were identical in the persistent faith that characterized them; and although each had his own peculiar cast of countenance, for her all their faces blended into one thin, composed, resolute face with a profound expression in its dark eyes, kind yet stern, like the look in Christ's eyes on his way to Emmaus.”


“Family life always diminishes the energy of a revolutionist. Children must be maintained in security ,and there's the need to work a great deal for one's break. The revolutionist ought without cease to develop every iota of his energy; he must deepen and broaden it; but this demands time. He must always be at the head, because we--the workingmen--are called by the logic of history to destroy the old world, to create the new life; and if we stop, if we yield to exhaustion, or are attracted by the possibility of a little immediate conquest, it's bad--it's almost treachery to the cause. No revolutionist can adhere closely to an individual--walk thorough life side by side with another individual--without distorting his faith; and we must never forget that our aim is not little conquests, but only complete victory!”
Maxim Gorky, Mother


“Man made another imperceptible step toward his grave; but he saw close before him the delights of rest, the joys of the odorous tavern, and he was satisfied.”
Maxim Gorky, Mother


“Meeting one another they spoke about the factory and the machines, had their fling against their foreman, conversed and thought only of matters closely and manifestly connected with their work. Only rarely, and then but faintly, did solitary sparks of impotent thought glimmer in the wearisome monotony of their talk.”
Maxim Gorky, Mother


“For sadness and gladness live within us side by side, almost inseparable; the one succeeding the other with an elusive, unappreciable swiftness.”
Maxim Gorky, My childhood




biggest collection of pictures across the world











































































































































































































VP Efanov (1900-1978). VI Lenin und AM Gorki





























































































































































































Image result for Maxim Gorky stamp Image result for Maxim Gorky stamp



Image result for Maxim Gorki Briefmarke Image result for Maxim Gorki BriefmarkeImage result for Maxim Gorki Briefmarke


Image result for Maxim Gorki Briefmarke Image result for Maxim Gorky stamp

Image result for Maxim Gorky stamp Image result for Maxim Gorky stamp


Image result for Maxim Gorky stampImage result for Maxim Gorky stamp