At work. Artist Zhukov.

 

Marx and Engels

on LITERATURE

 

 

Having set a great goal of humanity to specify the path leading from the "realm of necessity" in the "realm of freedom", the creators of scientific communism, Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels, was considered one of the biggest challenges of the future communist society, the full development of all physical and spiritual powers and abilities. They attached great importance to literature, art and aesthetic education as the most important means of enriching people's spiritual world.As the great revolutionaries Marx and Engels saw in art and literature, the most important instrument of knowledge and transforming lives. The aesthetic development of the world's imagination, feeling, imagination of the artist Karl Marx regarded as one of the most valuable abilities, along with his scientific knowledge, "thinking head" moving in another way - from the abstract to the concrete isolation (K. Marx and F. Engels, Selected Works, Vol. T. 12. S. 728).

In the course of their life history and social work, people gradually develop their own specific, human qualities. This also applies to a person's ability to perceive the beauty of the world and himself to serve the art work and as a creator of works of artistic craftsmanship, architectural works, painting, literature and other forms of artistic creativity. Only through the work of a person developing and improving its brain, hand, sensory organs, ability to understand, appreciate and create beauty itself.

Marx stressed that the development of artistic skills and aesthetic sensitivity of art in pre-socialist, class-antagonistic social formations and individuals, and in human society as a whole proceeded unevenly.

As Marx showed in his main scientific work "Capital", capitalism has provided over preceding his socio-economic formations is much broader and more opportunities for free development of science, technology, and the totality of productive forces. But bourgeois society, capitalism brought at the same time to limit social inequality and the exploitation of man by man.

Despite the tremendous advances in science, technology, development of material production, capitalism could not create the art works of equal beauty and perfection of the Homeric epics, dramas of Shakespeare and Renaissance painting, which emerged in the 'childhood of the human society, " remained, in spite of this, the highest artistic "normal" and "pattern" in the art for the later generations - including our people, the socialist era (Marx-Engels Collected Works, Vol. T. 12. pp. 736-737) . Opening wide the way for development of talents and abilities of all members of society, socialism eliminates the inherent conflict between class society of professional development of high art and suppression abilities of the working masses.

Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels, a highly rated realism, truth of life in art and literature. The classical formula of the modern theory of realism were the famous words of Engels on realism as an art image "typical characters in typical circumstances" in their dialectical interaction, due to the movement and development of the historical dynamics of society (Marx-Engels Collected Works, Vol. T. 37. S. 35). Engels suggested the need for the artist to observe the "revolutionary dialectics" in his "poetic justice", ie, to evaluate the characters and events portrayed in accordance with their real-life proportions, scale, nature and historical value (Marx-Engels Collected Works, Vol. T. 36. S. 67).

Having developed the scientific theory of classes and class struggle, Marx and Engels found that in all forms of society, where there are antagonistic classes of society - oppressed and oppressors, all ideological phenomena of life, including literature, have a class character. Therefore, Marx taught a strict distinction between ideas and feelings generated by the selfish interests of the ruling classes, and "free spiritual production of a given social formation" (K. Marx and F. Engels, Selected Works, Vol. T. 26. Part 1. S. 280), which is close people and prepares the humanistic ideals of socialism. The task of the working class and the Communist Party, Marx and Engels (and later Lenin) seen in the relentless struggle with the ideas that support the class rule and oppression, and in the creative development of all true culture, including art, values, accumulated by mankind in the During its long history for further development in the interests of working people.

Boys in 1830, Marx wrote poetry, full of stormy emotions and "frantic romantic". Come down to us as fragments of his tragedies that time, "Oulanem" comic novel "The Scorpion and Felix," verse translations from Ovid, a collection of folk songs, which he made for his bride. Engels, in the 30's and 40's. worked actively as a poet, writer and columnist in a leading German literary and artistic journalism.

The need to further concentrate its efforts in developing the foundations of Marxist philosophy, political economy, development of strategy and tactics of revolutionary struggle, the creation of the "Communist Manifesto" (1847), participation in the revolution in 1848 led Marx and Engels to leave classes in poetry and devote his life to the great the struggle for osvrbozhde-tion of mankind. However, later interest in the problems of artistic creation both of them never waned.

My favorite poets of Marx were Aeschylus, Shakespeare and Goethe, and favorite novelists - M. Cervantes and Balzac. But Marx was interested in not only the works of the most famous, well-known, recognized writers. His knowledge of literature of all ages and peoples have had a truly encyclopedic in nature.

He read in the script and was a brilliant writers of ancient Greece and Rome, constantly re-read Dante in Italian, and Ariosto, appreciated satire, J. Swift, artistic and philosophical prose of Diderot, the fantastic tale by ETA Hoffmann. Personal friendship, working together in the revolutionary press during training and during the revolution of 1848 Marx linked for many years with the German poets Heinrich Heine, G. Herwegh, F. Freiligrath, G. Weerth.

In the years 1851 -1852. Marx carefully studied books on literary history of Swiss scientist ZH.-SH. de Sismondi and German literary F. Buterveka. Kept detailed notes made by Marx and excerpts from books on the history of Italian, Spanish, English, French and German literatures from their historical origins to the end of the XVIII century. Parallel read Marx in the original works of Italian poets, historians and novelists, philosophers and humanists of the Renaissance, the tragedy of Cervantes and Calderon, a French satirical poet and freethinker XVII. M. Regnier. Earlier, in his younger years, Marx studied the works of aesthetic Vin Kelman, Lessing, Schiller, Hegel, as well as numerous works on philosophy, history, cultural history, religion, mythology and art. He also knew the fundamentals of a classic German folklore, and linguistics J. Grimm, philosophical, the historical works of Machiavelli and David N. Vico, the first book, praised the American ethnographer, LG Morgan, who initiated the scientific analysis of the socio-economic system and culture of primitive society. Engels admired Beethoven's Fifth Symphony, "Divine Comedy" of Dante, the revolutionary romanticism of the great English poet PB Shelley, was a scholar and connoisseur of German literature, folklore, revolutionary poetry and satires, creativity, Goethe, realistic literature of the XIX a. In the last years of his life while in England, he maintained close ties with British poets, Chartists, was acquainted with the essayist and playwright William Morris, Shaw, Ibsen was interested in plays, works of Russian novelists of XIX century.

Marx and Engels had studied and knew the Russian language and Russian literature. They read "The Tale of Igor's Campaign," Russian poets and playwrights of the XVIII century.(Including - Lomonosov, Derzhavin, D. Fonvizin) Griboedov, Pushkin, Lermontov, Gogol, N. Nekrasov, N. Dobrolyubov, NG Chernyshevsky, Saltykov-Shchedrin. Commending the Russian literature, criticism, journalism, historical works of Russian scientists of XIX century., The founders of Marxism, they saw a portent of the coming Russian revolution, which they tied his ardent faith in the future victory of the European and the world revolutionary movement.

The ideas of Marx and Engels on literature opened a new era in the history of science, literature and literary criticism. In the XX century. They were further developed in the writings of Lenin.