December 30, 1984
(Excerpts from the Political Diary and other documents on Albanian – Greek Relations, 1941-1984 , Tirana 1985)
“Two friendly peoples” (pages 431 - 444)
1st of September, 2009, re-published by the COMINTERN-ML for the Global Enver Hoxha – Archive.
This is one of the last writings before Comrade Enver Hoxha died ...
Enver Hoxha: “... what I want to touch on in this brief panorama of 1984 is
the general situation and various developments in the international political situation, which exert their influence on our country, too.
In the foreign policy, our country continued the line laid down at the 8th Congress of our Party: unrelenting and continuous struggle against imperialism, and first of all, against the two imperialist superpowers, the USA and the Soviet Union, and their harmful policy towards other peoples, support for the Marxist-Leninist forces, progressive movements and the struggles of different peoples for national and social liberation”.
This is the second and last day of 1984.
For us 1984 was the year of the glorious jubilee, the 40th anniversary of the liberation of our Homeland and the triumph of the people` s revolution; a year of new victories in the construction of socialism, in increasing the prosperity of the people, in strengthening the defence and raising the authority of our country in the international arena. Of course, during this year we have also had to face and get over objective difficulties and obstacles such as the great drought which went on longer than in any other year, and besides this, there were also difficulties and shortcomings for subjective reasons, linked with questions of organization, discipline, etc. But what I want to touch on in this brief panorama of 1984 is the general situation and various developments in the international political situation, which exert their influence on our country, too.
In the foreign policy, our country continued the line laid down at the 8th Congress of our party: unrelenting and continuous struggle against imperialism, and first of all, against the two imperialist superpowers, the USA and the Soviet Union, and their harmful policy towards other peoples, support for the Marxist-Leninist forces, progressive movements and the struggles of different peoples for national and social liberation. In a word, support for the class struggles, and collaboration with neighbouring countries on the basis of mutual benefit, non-interference in one other `s internal affairs and respect for national sovereignty. Likewise, also with the other countries which want to have good relations with our country. With the revisionist countries – co-operation in the field of commercial exchanges without any ideological and political concessions or compromise.
Thanks to the correct policy of our country and the goodwill of the Greek government, improvements have occurred in our relations with neighbouring Greece, some agreements of mutual benefit, which, I think, will open the way to the strengthening of relations and the ancient friendship between our two peoples, were concluded. Our relations with Italy proceeded somewhat better, although there are possibilities to do more in this direction. We have good relations with Turkey and likewise with some countries of Western Europe, with various Arab and African countries etc.
During 1984, apart from the plots and the usual sabotage actions of the imperialist superpowers, we have had to withstand not only the attacks and the anti-Albanian acts of the Great-Serb chauvinists, but also those of Greek reaction and mainly of Greek bishops and the Vorio-Epirote chauvinist circles, who have left no stone unturned to poison relations and hinder the rapprochement between Greece and our country. The Pope of the Vatican, the Pole Wojtyla, has also taken part in the campaign of slanders and attacks against our country and people, and the building of socialism in Albania. It is not difficult to see in this a secret co-ordination with evil intentions between reactionary forces of Great-Serb chauvinism, the Greek fascists and the centre of international obscurantism, the Vatican. But we are accustomed to these slanders, attacks and plots. We know them, have coped with them and smashed them mercilessly. And this is what will occur in the future, too.
World capitalism calls Albania an “anachronism” because it is a country which stands up to and opposes the intrigues, sabotage and lies of imperialism and revisionism. We care nothing for their economic and military potential.
We are optimistic, because we are Marxist-Leninist revolutionaries.
Our foreign policy, our stands, analyses and conclusions about various international events have completely justified themselves. Life itself, the development of events round about us and throughout the world have proved us right and not our opponents and enemies.
But let me return to the positive developments which occurred in our relations with Greece, which had great repercussions on international public opinion.
I want to point out from the outset that what has been achieved, and of course, with goodwill, must be carried further with the revoking of the absurd law on the state of war with our country by the Greek government, is a result of the consistent stand of our country based on the principles of our foreign policy for good neighbourly relations with all the countries around us, on the basis of mutual benefit, non-interference in one another` s internal affairs and without ideological or political concessions. As soon as we announce an official visit to Italy, to Greece, to Turkey, or somewhere else, indeed even when we send athletes to take part in some international contest, as occurred in the case of the International Athletic Meeting in Nice of France, the bourgeois-revisionist propaganda usually sets up a clamour about the “opening”-up” of Albania towards the West. Now they are continuing to blow this broken trumpet.
How greatly mistaken are those who are permanently wrong in connection with our decided and clear-cut policy. We have followed this policy which we are following today from the founding of our People` s Republic. We have always been for rapprochement and understanding with our neighbours. It is the others who have not shown understanding or have responded hesitantly to our policy of good neighbourly relations, because, as our people say, “they have had the devil in their bellies”. Thus, whenever the lofty interests of our Homeland have required we have been in favour of such “opening.up” and we will remain in favour of it in the future, but we will not be for “integration”, “the selling out of the freedom and assets of the Homeland”, or “links and alliances” with aggressive political-military groupings of either superpower. Let nobody deceive himself about this.
There is propaganda that we have been obliged to undertake this “opening-up” because of our internal needs, to get over the difficulties which emerged for us after our “breaking away” from China and to acquire modern technology. Such allegations are fairy tales. First of all, it is not true that we “broke away” from China. No. It was the Chinese revisionist and capitalist leaders who undertook anti-Albanian actions and unilaterally breached the agreements on economic cooperation with our country and they did this because we tried to convince them that they were applying a counter-revolutionary foreign policy and sliding ever more deeply into reprehensible actions and alliances with American imperialism. And we knew what the consequences of such a stand by our Party and country towards China might be, hence we were aware that we would have economic consequences, just as we had when we denounced the treacherous actions of the Khrushchevite revisionists. Therefore, we had taken the necessary measures.
We did not begin to trade with other countries this year or last year, but we have done so since the time we founded our new state. This trade has been based on the principles of mutual benefit, “I supply you - you supply me”, without credits or debts conditioned with political concessions, excluding here the period when we thought that the Yugoslavs and Soviets, and later the Chinese, were our friends, and as internationalists and socialist countries had the duty to assist us, as the small country we were, and we accepted credits determined to repay them in full, which we did in fact, and today we have no debts to anyone. On the contrary, they are indebted to us, because with their actions they behaved like betrayers, revisionists of Marxism-Leninism, and sabotaged and damaged our economy. Their credits represented a very small percentage in the economic and financial potential of our country. Hence, we have been and are for balanced trade exchanges without any political obligations, without at any moment or in any circumstances putting up for auction, the lofty national interests of the country, of socialism and Marxism-Leninism.
Now, as I said, they are bringing up the improvement of our relations with Greece as an example of our “opening-up” towards the West. It depends on how and from what stand-points this question is looked at, or from what position and for what aims it is commented on, because the improvement of our relations with Greece was done at certain moments and in given political circumstances which are created by unforeseen factors or come as a result of previous actions on the basis of the given Strategy. Our country, too, has its strategy and tactics in its foreign policy. They have been defined and publicly proclaimed at the various congresses of the Party.
In the concrete instance of our relations with Greece, we have always been in favour, indeed, we have sought and have waited patiently for the establishment of good neighbourly relations with that country, because such a thing is in the interests of our two peoples. Now, when the Yugoslav chauvinists, who are inveterate anti-Albanians, in unison with imperialism, international reaction and every other fascist force, are leaving no stone unthrown against socialist Albania, leaving no plot unhatched in order to hinder our constructive work, we were obliged to and took the necessary defensive measures. We were not going to allow the Titoites to act as they liked with our rights, to try to isolate us, to sabotage us as they did even by holding up our trucks which were transporting goods to the markets of Western Europe, and so on. So, in these circumstances we discussed and reached an agreement with the Italian government on the establishment of the ferry line for the transport of our goods to the countries with which we have agreements; we talked and achieved positive results with the Greek government about the signing of a number of agreements of mutual benefit; we decided on the opening of the border point of Kakavia, as a friendly gesture, etc. The lofty interests of our Homeland called for these measures and we took them without permitting any concession or making any compromise to the detriment of our ideology and policy and without any infringements or interference at all in the internal affairs of others.
During this year the Greek reactionary forces, the representatives of the Orthodox-Church, the Vorio-Epirote reactionary circles and their supporters, the American imperialists, caused us worries. They exerted pressure, organized provocations, going so far as the blowing up of vehicles of our embassy in Athens and threatening demonstrations in front of it under the pretext that the Greek minority in Albania were being badly treated, etc. At these grave moments, certain circles, including the Titoites, hoped that we would fall into the trap of reaction, that is, would break off diplomatic relations with that country. But we did not fall into this trap. We knew that such situations were temporary, that they expressed the confusion and defeat of reactionary anti-Albanian forces, both Greek and foreign. They were not and could not be the work of the friendly Greek people, together with whom we have fought more than once for the same aims. And we were not mistaken. After all this furious storm came the calm days when the Greek government itself took the first steps for correct relations, for rapprochement and good neighbourliness. On this basis and in joint agreement these results which I mentioned above were achieved. All this was in the interest of the Greek people and in the interests of our people.
Positive for us is the fact that the Greek reactionary forces, the bishops, the most reactionary representatives of the Vorio-Epirote circles, and their supporters and backers in the USA were isolated, the honest and progressive Greeks rejoice. The Yugoslav Titoites, who encouraged and expected outbursts between Greece and Albania, were isolated and suffered fiasco; their propaganda in the international arena, “Albania is opposed to peace and represents the warmongering country in the Balkans”, etc., suffered complete defeat.
Now the Greek press is writing that the slanders of reactionary circles about the mistreatment and lack of rights of the Greek minority in Albania are without foundation, and that the Greek minority in our country lives in normal conditions, enjoys all constitutional rights, is happy, etc.
Neither do we forget the lessons of the bitter history of our country. More than once in the past the bourgeoisie, the reactionary chauvinist and fascist groupings of neighbouring countries have collaborated for the partitioning of Albania in spheres of influence and have clashed when one of them has attempted to violate “the joint secret agreement about Albania”. Although many years have passed since that time and Albania is no longer what it was and does not allow anyone to “interest himself” in its fate, the policy of these reactionary circles towards socialist Albania has not undergone any great alteration.
We also notice that our policy of good neighbourly relations with mutual benefits towards this or that country arouses jealously and anger in this bourgeoisie and these reactionary circles, as though Albania were their “domain”. The Yugoslav chauvinists are displaying such astonishing jealousy and anger over the further improvement of our relations with Greece and Italy and the strengthening of our relations with a number of European countries, the countries of the Arab world, and so on.
Why is this surprising to them ? This is their own affair. Why are they disturbed ? We have not consulted, do not consult and never will consult Belgrade or any other capital for that matter, about what we do or what we intend to do in the interests of our country and our socialist Homeland.
Once again they are nurturing and propagating vain hopes, as they did when we put the Krushchevites and the Chinese revisionists in their place, that the days has come for “someone else” to plant his feet in Albania, for Albania to fall under the control and influence of the Americans or the Soviets, the French, the British or the Germans, not through force, but through “kindly” offers “on favourable terms” to assist us to “progress”, to enable us to “correct” and “modernize” our industry and economy, and so on and so forth. We have no need for that kind of “modernization” about which Tito and the Yugoslav Titoites boasted so loudly, for that which the Chinese revisionists talk about now, or the bourgeoisie and the other revisionists suggest, modernization through credits, through strangling debts accompanied with humiliating and enslaving conditions. We will never place such chains around the necks or our people. Today we have built up an advanced economy capable of marching ahead with its own forces, hence, capable of being modernized and equipped with advanced technology from its own quality which are required all over the world.
The question of Albania and its future is discussed also among the leading circles of NATO and Warsaw Treaty. Both of these groups, time after time urge this or that country to offer us “sincere aid” to emerge from the difficult situation. They are pitying the rider because his legs hang down.
We tell all short-sighted dreamers bluntly that neither one nor the other, neither the Soviet social-imperialists nor the American imperialists, or any one else can ever again plant their feet on Albanian territory, will ever again gain the right to have bases or military concentrations here. We have our experience with foreign military bases. For as long as the Soviet military base in our country, established in the framework of the erstwhile socialist camp, had purposes of defence, we accepted it, but when Krushchevite revisionism bared its aggressive imperialist teeth we denounced it and got rid of it. In this case we performed our internationalist duty. It behoves the neighbouring peoples to act against the foreign military bases which they have on their territories and which are directed against neighbouring peoples and countries, otherwise they themselves face great dangers.
Their direct and indirect pressures, as well as those which they may be, no longer have any effect. We are afraid of no one, we are a threat to no one, and likewise, we allow no one to threaten us, but we have demanded our rights, will go on demanding them and will defend them to the end. We have been patient, but we brought us death and devastation during the Second World War, who caused us material damage, must answer for this materially. Those who are keeping our stolen gold must return it to us. The enemies of socialist Albania and its ancient, heroic and indomitable people are wearying themselves in vain waiting for such an “opening-up” which would lead to our falling into their clutches.
We shall forge ahead. We do not deny that we have difficulties. They are difficulties of growth, but also linked with the obstacles which the imperialist, the social-imperialists, the revisionists and the chauvinists and reactionary forces of all hues place in our way. However, now we are accustomed to this state of affairs. We have achieved our victories which have become the basis for our further advance with our own forces, with our own assets, with the sweat and knowledge of our own sons and daughters. And this is how we will advance in the future, too, because today we are stronger and have more experience than in the past, we are always on the up and up, we have our glorious Party, which leads us with Marxist-Leninist wisdom and determination, we have our working class, a sound intelligentsia, a healthy, revolutionary youth, we have a marvellous people. Full of optimism, we are preparing the 8th Five-year Plan of our economic and cultural development which, precisely because of the conditions in which we live and work, is based entirely on our internal material, financial and human resources. Albania has chosen its own course and nothing, no force, neither the blandishments and promises, nor the pressures and plots of superpowers and their allies and vassals can turn it from this course .......
As we have said, the present international situation is complicated, indeed, very complicated and grave. We are going through a period of dangerous provocations. The armaments race between the superpowers has grown and extended into the outer space, and with the preparations for the so-called star wars, is posing an extremely grave threat to mankind; the hotbeds of local wars have increased, the policy of armed aggressions, of the threat of the use of modern destructive weapons by the United States of America and the Soviet Union, has been intensified: the liberation wars of the peoples of Asia, Africa and Latin America continue to be sabotaged; the just struggle of the Palestinian people and the other Arab peoples continues to be sabotaged; the fascist forces continue to increase and grow stronger, etc., etc. Nothing impedes the two superpowers from elbowing out one another even in the cases when millions of people fall victim to ill-administration or natural calamities, as is occurring in Ethiopia, where under the pretext of the famine which is threatening some millions of lives, whose urgent needs for food the Soviet Union, the «great ally» of Ethiopia, is in no position to cope with, the imperialist states, and in the first place, the United States of America, have intervened in order to give their «aid».
I have written sundry notes and analyses in my Diary about all these problems. Today I want to dwell a little on the development of events in China, on the evolution of this country towards capitalism and its links with the world capitalist system, and on the deals between the two imperialist superpowers.
Our Party's forecasts about the road on which the Deng Xiaoping clique and company would lead China and its people is being confirmed to the hilt.
China has ended up completely in the orbit of world capitalism. Its links with the United States of America, in particular, are all-sided, they extend into all fields. Political, economic and military delegations are shuttling back and forth. Time and again, for the sake of making some demagogic noise, there is the odd word about some «disagreement» and «discordance», whereas, in fact, there is only agreement and accord between them.
The western capitalist-monopoly world is fully satisfied with the internal developments in China. Why should it not be satisfied? By decision of the plenum of the Central Committee of the Chinese revisionist party, it was officially decided to change the existing economic structure with the main objective of opening China up to the outside world, that is, to foreign capital; Titoite self-administration has been established in factories and plants; private property and even the use of hired labour has been restored in the rural areas; the private market and trade and the right of the private exercise of handicrafts have been revived; political rights have been recognized to 20 million Chinese, former rich peasants, landowners, counter-revolutionaries and evil elements; special economic regions, foreign capitalist enclaves, have been created in almost all the big coastal cities; the international banks and the big monopolies have been given the right of opening their agencies in Beijing and in the main Chinese cities, and many many other things.
In November of this year, Dalian, one of the big cities of China, was the venue of the «International conference on foreign investments and their legal aspects in China», with the participation of 250 Chinese and American experts, firm managers, legal experts and bankers, among them there was also the former American secretary of State, Cyrus Vance.
From 1979 until today, purchasers' loan credits from foreign governments and international organizations have reached to 12 billion and 500 million dollars, and direct foreign investments to 8 billion dollars. The Chinese minister of Finance, as the HSINHUA news agency reports, at a meeting with a delegation of the commission of the American Senate for banking, housing and town-planning, declared that «China will continue to open its doors to all countries, big and small», and that «measures have been taken and will continue to be taken to protect the interests of foreign investors.» According to him, «until the end of 1984 the foreign trade companies have invested up to 3-4 billion dollars for the setting up of enterprises with joint or separate capital in China.»
That is how the counter-revolutionary clique of Deng Xiaoping flung open not only both doors, but all the four doors of China to international monopoly capital and, in the first place, to American capital.
What are the consequences of such a situation?
About the internal situation in China we hear today the same things as those we hear about the United States of America and some other capitalist countries: the youth are going down the road of full degeneration, and violence, hooliganism, rape, etc., etc., are becoming widespread.
Deng Xiaoping and his followers, who have apparently eliminated their rivals for power, are trying under sundry disguises, including here even some theses of scientific Marxism and Mao Zedong's thought grafted on Buddhism, to find and apply a «socialism with Chinese features», that is, a monstrous socialism originating from the grafting of classical capitalism on Titoite modern revisionism.
The West describes these efforts, changes and decisions of Deng Xiaoping and his clique in China as «victories of the course of Deng Xiaoping», whereas the Titoite revisionists, in their newspaper Politika, appraise them as China's entry «into the epoch of the most revolutionary changes in its socialist history»!
The turn in the capitalist direction in China, just as occurred in Yugoslavia, the Soviet Union and the other former socialist countries, leads to the deepening of the polarization in policy and in the economy between the ruling class of the new bourgeoisie, which is growing ever richer, on the one hand, and the working masses, which are becoming ever poorer, on the other. Deng Xiaoping says that in China there is no room for the «emergence of a new bourgeoisie and for millionaries». Nonsense! The example of Yugoslavia, which he has as his guide, shows not only that a new bourgeoisie, just as oppressive and savage towards the peoples as the capitalist bourgeoisie in any other country, is emerging and fattening, but also that millionaires who make the law in every field are emerging, too. We have this example in the Soviet Union, where a new revisionist bourgeoisie has emerged which is fattening at the expense of the glorious peoples of this country which formerly was the cradle of the proletarian socialist revolution. China has been ruled by a cunning bourgeoisie and by internal and external millionaries. This rule today is expanding and growing ever stronger.
In the case of China we have to do also with a specific characteristic due to its very great geographical extension, its huge population and its colossal natural wealth. The imposition of capitalism and its mercilessly enslaving laws on the Chinese working masses will create much greater problems there than in Yugoslavia. The Titoite capitalist economy, for instance, until now has needed 20 billion dollars in order to remain on its feet. The Chinese economy will need several hundred billion dollars, which, just as in Yugoslavia, will bring along the shackles of capitalist enslavement, the ruthless plunder of the national wealth and political subjugation up to the loss of national independence.
Will the hundreds of millions of Chinese, the Chinese working class, the proletariat and the long-suffering peasantry, tolerate this subjugation? Will Deng's rivals for power in the Chinese leadership allow him to go in this career?
Our Party has never made unfounded allusions and forecasts. The analyses it has made hitherto have been based on concrete events and facts about China or any other country, relying on historical and dialectical materialism, on Marxism-Leninism. As I have written above, they have never proved to be false, but have been confirmed fully for the overwhelming part of them. We are convinced that the ideas expressed here in connection with the future course of events in China, after the rapid career of Deng Xiaoping towards the restoration of capitalism, which Deng calls «socialism with Chinese features», will find their confirmation in practice.
As for the «tense» relations between the United States of America and the Soviet Union, that is, between the two imperialist superpowers which think to be the only ones who can ravel and unravel all the problems of the world, can rule and repeal any decision on any question which it is up to other peoples and countries to solve, there was an «easing» in the end of 1984. To this end, after Reagan's election for a second term of office as president of the USA, the «red and black» direct telephone lines between Moscow and Washington were ticking to give the world the «good tidings»: At the beginning of 1985 Schultz and Gromyko will meet in Geneva in order to come to an accord about starting negotiations for concluding an agreement on stopping the armaments race of nuclear missiles «on earth and above the earth», that is, a «gentlemen's agreement», or, better say, an agreement among hucksters.
The «good tidings» were instantly accompanied by reciprocal smiles, propaganda and demagogic statements about the «desire and goodwill» of the United States and the Soviet Union for «peace», «disarmament», etc., etc.
However, the peoples today are not easily deceived by these repeated «rapprochements» and «cooling» between the two imperialist superpowers, with the «smiles and grins» of their topmost representatives. Experience has taught them to expect nothing good and favourable from the superpowers, pretenders to world domination.
What is hidden behind the recent diplomatic and political steps of Moscow and Washington? What are the rulers of the United States of America and the Soviet Union hatching up against the peoples and the world? Why will they sit at the table of top-secret negotiations in Geneva? Only to defend the interests of their predatory policies.
Fearing the superiority one might have gained over the other in the feverish armaments race of conventional and sophisticated weapons, in the first place, they will try to worm into each other's secrets of a general or specific character about some weapon or system of weapons, to the extent this is possible, of course, because, as our people say, the snake never shows its feet. Second, they will try to bring pressure to bear on one another through the threat of the use of new weapons, for a redivision of the spheres of political, military and economic influence, etc.
Since the division of the spheres of influence between them on the earth has already ended, now they are trying to elbow one another out of new spaces, that is, the struggle has begun for the division of spheres of influence in the endless outer space, the occupation of this or that planet of the solar system in order to prospect for and find even there valuable strategic minerals which they need for their war industry, and set up military bases from which they can strike at one another.
The superpowers have filled the outer space with spy satellites, with missiles and anti-missiles equipped with systems of lethal lazer rays, with means of communications, etc. A real chaos with high risks of collision. The imperialist-revisionist chiefs will meet in Geneva in order to talk about this, too, and try to put some «order», to reach a kind of modus vivendi in the «administration» of this infinite space, until the psychosis of losing the race overcomes them again.
At the same time, with the demonstration of the potential of their weapons and with the noise they make about the threat these weapons pose, they try to intimidate the peoples of the world who fight for national and social liberation, and the revolutionary forces, the proletariat and the other working masses.
Thus, the two superpowers strive to maintain an equilibrium of their destructive military forces, so that the one is as strong as the other in amounts of armaments, means and effectives, so that they can impose themselves on the other countries and peoples, and can cope with the deals for the division and redivision of the spheres of influence through huckstering, without the risk of the outbreak of a war that would lead to their mutual destruction and annihilation.
Our Party has expressed its opinion long ago: there is and can be no disarmament by the imperialist superpowers.
They neither want disarmament nor think about it, otherwise, they would have to give up their policy for the conquest of the world, the colossal profits they make from the armaments race, stirring up and organizing hotbeds of fratricidal wars and sabotaging and disrupting the just wars of the peoples and the social revolutions. Yes, they are for «disarmament», but for the disarmament of the freedom-loving peoples, the world proletariat, and the working masses, so that they can carry out their sinister plots more rapidly and more easily.
The illusions and hopes which the bourgeois and revisionist ideologists want to create about the blessings that may be expected from the American-Soviet meetings in Geneva or elsewhere, are very dangerous and fraught with grave consequences for the destinies of the peoples, for their freedom and national independence. The show of the economic, political and military might of capitalism, whether American or Soviet, despite all its weapons, should not intimidate the peoples who are languishing under colonialist and neo-colonialist domination and fighting to win their freedom, the genuine Marxist-Leninist forces and the revolutionary proletarians. Capitalism is strong only when it is not fought with force and resolve. Its «strength» is smashed to pieces when confronted with the colossal strength of the revolutionary and freedom-loving sentiments and aspirations of the proletarians and the peoples. Socialist Albania will never get caught in the cobweb of the demagogic propaganda about disarmament. On the contrary, it will employ all the means at its disposal to ceaselessly strengthen and increase its defence capacity in order to be in a position to cope with any aggression which might come from its enemies of all hues.
The two imperialist superpowers are compelled to take a «wise» and «logical» course, because they have another great worry, which came out very clearly during 1984, namely, the alarming situation in their rear area, within the political, military and economic groupings of NATO and the Warsaw Treaty, the European Common Market and Comecon. With this I am referring to the opposition not only by the peoples of the member countries of these groupings to the dangerous political activities and economic pressure, the trampling underfoot of the national independence and dignity on the part of the United States of America and the Soviet Union, but also by some governments and leading circles in these countries. Of course, opposition by these governments and leading circles is not an expression of a revival of genuine national feelings, but rather a manifestation of fear of the further extension of the revolutionary spirit and actions of the peoples, the working masses of the European countries.
On some occasions we have seen that the dictate of the one or the other superpower on this or that «ally» has become so intolerable as to arouse open disagreements with the «big boss» who tightens the screws continuously on them. It is not accidental, for example, that the stationing of the «Euromissiles» («Pershing-2» and «Cruise» by the American imperialists and «SS-20» by the Soviet socialimperialists) in the Federal Republic of Germany, Italy, Britain, Czechoslovakia, and the German Democratic Republic did not proceed without resistance, without much political and diplomatic pressure and manoeuvring. Indeed, the government of some country, as is the case of Holland, Belgium, Denmark, etc., continues to this day to make resistance and accept the stationing of these missiles on its own territory only on some conditions. The «allies» are now clearly understanding that in an eventual conflict between the two superpowers, their countries are destined to become the battlefields of a thermonuclear war. Thus, they see that Washington and Moscow may suddenly and perfidiously raise atomic mushrooms, with their uncalculable consequences, in the skies and over the territories of these countries at any moment in order to avoid reciprocal strikes of the territories of the United States of America and the Soviet Union.
Faced with this mortal danger, heads of state and government of the NATO member countries have gone to Washington to demand «explanations», to get «guarantees» and express the opposition of European public opinion to the unwise and arrogant actions of the United States of America. For their part, the president and vice-president of the USA, the secretaries of the State and Defence Departments are shuttling back and forth in the capitals of Western Europe in order to convince their «allies» to accept the accomplished fact, through economic and political pressure and dictate, even through the threat of withdrawing the American military forces from Western Europe and leaving it exposed to the pressure of a possible aggression on the part of the Soviet social-imperialist armies.
The situation within the so-called socialist community has been no less troubled. Some of the «allies» of the Soviet Union are demanding more freedoms to link up with the rich countries of Western Europe and carry out economic «reforms» of the Titoite type; some demand more rights within the framework of the military Warsaw Treaty. News agencies and the press, in general, are talking, and there must be some truth in all this, about «disagreements» within the Comecon, about «voices» raised against excessive dependence on the Soviets, and about a «lack of desire» to renew the Warsaw Treaty, or demands to soften at least some of the conditions which make absolute the dictatorial and one-sided control and direction by the Soviet officers.
There is no smoke without fire. In Poland the fire and the smoke have leapt up over the roof. At the moment of the exacerbation of the grave economic crisis which has the capitalist and revisionist world in its grip, the Soviet Union has many a time used the economic relations with its allies in the Warsaw Treaty as a means of political pressure on some «disobedient» ally, or too inclined towards the West which, of course, has caused reactions.
Honnecker, Ceausescu and Zhivkov had planned to pay official visits to the Federal Republic of Germany, with whose leading political, economic and military circles they have traditionally had good relations and are ready to renew them to the highest possible level. None of them denies the fact that they are especially attracted by the economic potential of Bonn. But Moscow intervened and the visits were put off sine die [* Indefinitely (Latin in the original)]. Some of the «personalities» I mentioned made a protest, raised their voices, showed signs of discontentment, kicked up a little, etc., but gave in under the threat of the Moscovite conductor's baton.
Hence, there are «prodigal sons» within the political, military and economic groupings of the two superpowers.
Some are more vexatious, some are mellow, some act openly and some in disguise. Anyhow, life is proving what our Party has said many years ago, namely, that these kinds of grouping are like basketfuls of crabs quarrelling and biting one another without mercy or ceremony.
The perspective, the prognosis, is gloomier still. The forecast for the year 1985 for the two superpowers has no clear sky, but an overcast one accompanied with local rain and snow fall, as well as storms and strong winds!
Taken from the «Diary»