ENGLISH

 

 

Enver Hoxha's struggle against Yugoslav revisionism

 

collection of works

 

arranged by Wolfgang Eggers

 

 

 

 

The Titoites

I

II

III

IV

V

 

 

 

YUGOSLAV "SELF-ADMINISTRATION"
- A CAPITALIST THEORY
AND PRACTICE

 

 

 

Khrushchev

Kneeling Before Tito

September 13, 1963

 

 

 

REPORT TO THE PARTY ACTIVISTS IN TIRANA ON
THE ANALYSIS AND CONCLUSIONS OF THE 11th
PLENUM OF THE CENTRAL COMMITTEE OF
THE COMMUNIST PARTY OF ALBANIA

October 4, 1948

 

 

REPORT AT THE 1st CONGRESS OF THE CPA “ON
THE ACTIVITY OF THE CENTRAL COMMITTEE
AND THE NEW TASKS OF THE PARTY”

(Chapter III, "The Party")
(November 8, 1948)

 

 

 

REPORT AT THE 2nd CONGRESS OF THE PLA “ON
THE ACTIVITY OF THE CENTRAL COMMITTEE OF
THE PARTY OF LABOUR OF ALBANIA”

THE STRUGGLE AGAINST TITOISM AND THE
DEVIATIONS FROM THE LINE OF THE PARTY

(March 31, 1952)

 

 

ON THE INTERNATIONAL SITUATION AND THE
TASKS OF THE PARTY (From the report to the 3rd
Plenum of the CC of the PLA)

III. ON OUR RELATIONS WITH YUGOSLAVIA

February 13, 1957

 

 

ON THE ANTI-MARXIST AND ANTI-SOCIALIST
VIEWS ONCE MORE EXPRESSED AT THE 7th
CONGRESS OF THE LEAGUE OF COMMUNISTS OF
YUGOSLAVIA AND IN ITS PROGRAM, AND ON THE
UNCOMPROMISING STRUGGLE WHICH MUST BE
WAGED TO EXPOSE AND DESTROY MODERN REVISIONISM POLITICALLY AND THEORETICALLY

Report to the 10th Plenum of the CC of the PLA
(June 20, 1958)

 

 

OUR PARTY HAS BEEN TEMPERED IN STRUGGLE
WITH DIFFICULTIES
From the conversation during the meeting with
two comrades of the CP of Indonesia

October 30, 1958

(Excerpt)

On the struggle against Yugoslav revisionism

 


SPEECH DELIVERED AT THE MEETING OF
81 COMMUNIST AND WORKERS’
PARTIES IN MOSCOW1
November 16, 1960

Excerpt on

Struggle against Titoism

 

 

Excerpts of the

Report to the 7th Congress of the PLA

concerning Yugoslavia


On the basis of these teachings the revolutionary movement and the proletariat build their strategy and tactics, find and unite with their true allies in the struggle against imperialism, the bourgeoisie and reaction. The terms «third world», «non-aligned states» or «developing countries», create the illusion among the broad masses fighting for national and social liberation that a roof has allegedly been found under which to shelter from the threat of the superpowers. These terms conceal the real situation in the majority of these countries, which, in this or that manner, politically, ideologically, and economically, are bound to, and depend on, the two superpowers and the former colonial metropolises.

The Yugoslav revisionists champion the idea of «nonaligned countries». According to them, falling within this group are those countries which have not aligned themselves through military treaties with the big imperialist and revisionist powers, mainly with NATO and the Warsaw Treaty. But without formally participating in these two military blocs, many of these countries are so completely aligned with the superpowers and the big capitalist countries through a series of treaties and agreements, that the word «non-aligned» has a very hollow sound to it.

This situation of the «non-aligned» movement was borne out by the Colombo Conference. With difficulty it managed to cover up the divergencies and the opposing political aims which individual countries and groups of participating states are pursuing. This time nobody spoke out against or openly attacked the United States of America and the Soviet Union by name and opposed their aggressive and war-mongering policy and activity. However, they did find it opportune and advantageous to attack France!

Many states which pretend to be non-aligned have concluded among themselves defensive and aggressive military treaties in which imperialist powers take part, too.

None of the participants have denounced these treaties.

Soviet social-imperialism is trying to set up the «Asian Security Treaty», tomorrow a similiar treaty on «African Security», etc. A l l these are different forms of organization intended to turn an allegedly non-aligned country into a country enslaved from every viewpoint.

The slogan of «non-aligned countries» gives the false impression that a group of states which have the possibility of «opposing» the superpower blocs is being created.

It gives the impression that these countries, all of them,# without exception, are anti-imperialist, opposed to war, opposed to the dictate of others, that they are «democratic» and even «socialist». This helps to strengthen the pseudo-democratic and anti-popular positions of the leading groups of some states which participate among the «non-aligned», and creates the impression among the peoples of these countries that when their chiefs establish or dissolve relations of any kind and nature with the imperialists and the social-imperialists, openly or in secret, they do this not only in the capacity of «popular governments», but also in the capacity of a group of states «with which even the superpowers must reckon».

* * *

 

Our country maintains normal trade and cultural relations with Yugoslavia which are beneficial both to us and the Yugoslavs.

Our policy towards Yugoslavia has not changed and will not change, provided that the Yugoslav government, too, is correct towards us. The declaration of the Party of Labour of Albania, that in case of any eventual aggression against Yugoslavia by the Soviet Union or some other power the Albanian people will stand by the Yugoslav peoples, will always hold good. But the Yugoslav side must respond to this stand of Albania with just and correct actions towards us.

The Yugoslav state, of course, has the right to pursue whatever policy it finds most reasonable, but the Albanian state, also, has the right to criticize those acts which are detrimental to the good neighbourliness between our two countries. The Yugoslav government makes concessions to, provides facilities for, and admits to its ports the warships of the aggressive naval fleet of the Soviet social-imperialists.

That is its own affair, but it also concerns Albania, the other Balkan countries, and the countries of the Mediterranean basin.

As a true Marxist-Leninist party, our Party has always maintained a correct stand with regard to our Albanian brothers who live on their lands in Kosova, Macedonia, and Montenegro. The endeavours made by some Yugoslav authorities to stir up enmity between the Albanians in Yugoslavia and the People's Republic of Albania are in vain, but they do great harm. We Albanians are still the same now as we were before, we maintain and will always maintain a Marxist-Leninist stand towards the peoples of Yugoslavia, as well as towards the problem of the Albanian population in Yugoslavia. Our fraternal ties of blood and language with the Albanians in Kosova, Macedonia, and Montenegro, the ties of tradition and national customs give us the right, without interfering in the internal affairs of the Yugoslav state and respecting international norms, to concern ourselves to see that they enjoy all the rights, freedoms, and advantages that the other peoples of the Yugoslav Federation have. And this is not a question of some agricultural cooperative in Albania, which has a Macedonian population who enjoy all the rights provided by the Constitution of the People's Republic of Albania, or about some non-existent minority from Montenegro in Albania, as the Yugoslav propaganda claims. When we speak of our brothers living in Yugoslavia, we are speaking about more than one million five hundred thousand Albanians.

It has always been our opinion and desire that the ugly stands and acts of the time of Ranković should never be repeated, that the Albanian population in Yugoslavia should not be persecuted, or left in poverty, that the Kosova region should not be discriminated against in the political, economic, and cultural fields, and that it should be given equal treatment with the other nationalities.

It would be considered as unfriendly policy towards the People's Republic of Albania if attempts, of whatever nature, by the Soviet revisionists to harm our country from Kosova were permitted.

We consider the peoples of Yugoslavia as fraternal peoples, and are convinced that, neither now nor in the future, will they allow the territory of their homeland to be treated like Czechoslovakia. They will accept nobody's yoke, they will not allow the Soviet tanks of the Warsaw Treaty, nor those of US imperialism, to «roll» freely over Yugoslav soil. Despite the irreconcilable contradictions of principle between us and the Yugoslav state and the League of Communists of Yugoslavia in ideology and politics, over which we have not shut our mouth and will not do so in the future, either, we respect and trust the peoples of Yugoslavia, because history has shown that they are valiant peoples.

 

 

ON THE ACTIVITY OF THE CENTRAL COMMITTEE
OF THE P A R T Y OF L A B O U R OF A L B A N I A (Extracts
from the Report submitted to the 8th Congress of the
PLA) (November 1, 1981)

Excerpt concerning Ygoslavia

 

In our relations with Yugoslavia we have always proceeded from the fact that our peoples have been living beside one another for centuries, that frequently in history they have had a common fate, that when foreign invaders have attacked one they have not spared the other. As a result of these things, irrespective of the ideological and political contradictions which have existed and still exist between our two countries and which are already known world wide, irrespective of the ideological polemic which has been and is being developed by the two sides, we always seek to live in peace with Yugoslavia, as good neighbours, without interference in each other's internal affairs and respecting the rights of each.

The policy of socialist Albania towards Yugoslavia has always been constant, unaltered in its foundations and principles. If there have been ups and downs, improvements and deteriorations in Albanian-Yugoslav relations, this has come about not through any fault of ours, but through the fault of the Yugoslav leading circles. The present deterioration in the relations between the PSR of Albania and SFR of Yugoslavia also is a consequence of chauvinist actions of the Belgrade authorities towards the population of Kosova and their incitement of a new campaign of hostility against our country.

As far as the People's Socialist Republic of Albania is concerned, the attitudes and behaviour of Yugoslavs towards it will not make it waver from its principles or make it change course. Its desire is that the state relations in different fields between the two countries should develop normally. However, this will depend on the stand of Yugoslavia towards socialist Albania and on its treatment of the Albanians of Kosova and other parts of Yugoslavia.

The problem of the Albanians who live on their own territories in Yugoslavia is not a problem of a «minority» which has immigrated to or settled somewhere in an «empty» zone as an economic immigration, is not a result of the onslaught of the Ottoman Empire, nor of the natural demographic increase of Albanians, which is worrying the Great-Serb neo-Malthusians. The Albanians in Yugoslavia constitute an ethnos, a people formed centuries ago, who have their own history, language and culture, an autochthonous people who, as is known, were cut up and were separated from their Motherland by the imperialist great powers and annexed to Yugoslavia. This nobody can conceal.

Any other interpretation is arbitrary, a flagrant and harmful falsification of history.

The Albanian people did not allow the fasicst occupiers or anyone else to determine the Motherland of the Albanian ethnos. The Albanians have fought unceasingly for centuries against many savage enemies, much greater in numbers, in order to defend their national identity and their very existence. In all these wars, both in defeat and in victory, in the long years of enslavement, throughout their history, the Albanian people have never lost their national identity and national consciousness, their compactness and unity. In all circumstances they have manifested these things with an extraordinary and exemplary vitality .

The empires and the great powers were quite unable to wipe out the compact ethnos of Albanians, nor were they able to assimilate them or to alter their culture, language, habits and customs. The very existence of the Albanian people proves this. History shows that without any support from foreign powers, which have always been opposed to them, the Albanian people have fought successfully for the freedom and compactness of their nation, to defend their independence as a sovereign state, their culture and their own natural and legitimate rights. At all times they have achieved victory only by fighting and shedding their blood for it.

During the Second World War, the Albanian people and the peoples of Yugoslavia fought together and as close comrades-in-arms against the Italian and the German fascist invaders. The Albanians who live in Yugoslavia also fought heroically together with us and all the peoples of Yugoslavia against the same enemies. Not only did they fight together, but our National Liberation Army went to the aid of the Yugoslav partisans and the Kosova brothers, and the blood of the sons and daughters of the Albanian people was shed on their land. We acted as the Communist Party of Albania taught us, with a high level of consciousness and internationalist spirit. We thought that the peoples of our two countries would win freedom in this way, that enslavement would be eliminated and the tragic mistakes of past history would be corrected. We believed that after the victory everything would be settled in the Marxist-Leninist way. Our communist parties, which led the National Liberation War in the two countries, were a guarantee for this. However, our belief in the «communism and internationalism» of the Yugoslav leaders, our trust in their words, proved to be unjustified.

In fact, the leadership of the Communist Party of Yugoslavia never took a proper Marxist-Leninist view of the question of the future of the Albanians in Yugoslavia, therefore this question was bound to be settled, as it was settled, in a wrong and distorted fashion, in an utterly anti-Marxist, nationalist and chauvinist way.

The wrong solution of this great issue of principle began at the 2nd Meeting of the Anti-fascist National Liberation Council of Yugoslavia, held at Jajce, in November 1943, where the Albanian regions in Yugoslavia were used as a means to adjust the proportions of the territories and populations of the republics of the Federation, and more precisely of Serbia, Macedonia and Montenegro. The future of the Albanians in Yugoslavia was decided apriori from above, without the approval and self-determination of the Albanian people of Kosova and the other Albanian regions of Yugoslavia, and without the slightest consultation with the ally of the peoples of Yugoslavia directly interested in this question — people's Albania. Contrary to the «policy of national equality» proclaimed at the 2nd Meeting of the AVNOJ , the leadership of the Communist Party of Yugoslavia unjustly violated the will of the Albanians in Yugoslavia, expressed at the meeting of the 1st Founding Conference of the National Liberation Council for Kosova and Metohia, held at Bujan from December 31, 1943 to January 2, 1944, which was completely in conformity with the right of «self-determination up to secession» of the peoples who constituted Yugoslavia, and which had been defined in the fundamental documents of the Communist Party and the National Liberation Movement of Yugoslavia.

In regard to consultation with people's Albania on the settlement of this historical problem, the Yugoslav leadership apriori considered it unnecessary. It was against such consultation, because it knew that a principled Marxist-Leninist friendly discussion between the leaderships of our two countries, taking also into account the free will of the Albanians living on their own land in Yugoslavia, would lead to a just solution and not to an arbitrary chauvinist and nationalist solution, such as that which the Yugoslav leadership adopted.

After the war, in 1946, a delegation f r om our country, which I headed, paid the first official visit to Yugoslavia.

In the talks which were held with Tito on this occasion, he wanted to know what I thought about the solution of the question of Kosova and the other Albanian regions in Yugoslavia. I expressed the opinion of the Albanian side that Kosova and the other regions inhabited by the Albanians belonged to Albania and should be returned to it.

The Albanians fought to have a free and sovereign Albania, with which the Albanian regions in Yugoslavia should now be united. President Tito replied: «I agree with your view, but we cannot do this for the time being, because the Serbs would not understand us.» This official promise of Tito's on this great issue of principle was not accompanied with any further action on the part of the Yugoslavs. The whole thing was a fraud on their part.

The fundamental error of a nationalist and chauvinist character of the Yugoslav leadership, which was followed by other equally grave errors in connection with the legitimate and natural rights of Albanians who are now accused by the Great-Serbs of being «chauvinist», «nationalist» and «irredentist», lies in the wrong solution at Jajce, in the dividing up of Albanian territories and in the denial of the expression of the free will of the Albanians.

The recent events in Kosova and the other Albanian regions in Yugoslavia have their source in this very wrong and anti-Leninist solution of the national question in Yugoslavia, and especially in regard to the Albanian entity of about 2 million inhabitants, nearly as many as the total population of the People's Socialist Republic of Albania.

Right from the start, Serbian, Montenegrine and Macedonian chauvinism followed a savage nationalist policy of oppression and discrimination against Albanians in all directions, in education, culture, the economy, etc.

Even in the period when there were good relations between our country and Yugoslavia and between the two parties, the problem of the Albanians in Yugoslavia was a# «ball and chain» on the legs of the Yugoslavs. They did not examine the Albanians' demands and causes of complaint, did not settle them politically through understanding, but settled them with violence, with savage administrative measures. The Albanians were accused of nationalism and this was done to cover up the Serbian chauvinism and nationalism. Nothing can cover up or justify the bloody reprisals against the Albanians of Yugoslavia in 1945, 1968 and again in 1981, the discrimination imposed upon them, leaving them in poverty, the national oppression, the denial of their rights and great discrimination in the field of education and culture. The falling into disgrace of the Great-Serb group of Ranković in 1966, and later that of the other Great-Serb group of Nikezić marks the period of the Titoites' political demagogy towards Kosova and the Kosovars. The need to balance the various forces within the Federation led to a certain formal revision of the status of Kosova which, from a simple region of Serbia, was called an «autonomous» region of Serbia.

Whether the Serbs liked it or not, this new situation gave the Albanians in Yugoslavia, and especially the Kosovars, possibilities to extend their schooling, to set up the University of Prishtina, to develop their culture, to learn the history of their people, to establish contacts and educational-cultural and economic relations with Albania, on the basis of the laws of the Federation and official agreements between the PSRA and the SFRY. However, the economic base of the Autonomous Socialist Region of Kosova still remained too weak and was neglected. Its assets were still unscrupulously exploited by the other republics of the Federation, especially by Serbia. All the «solutions», which were presented with great clamour during this period, were unavailing, temporary and useful only to Belgrade and Skoplje. According to the occasion, without saying so openly, they were considered either as «opportunist concessions of Tito's», as occurred among the Serbs, or as «victories achieved thanks to Tito», as they were loudly proclaimed by some Albanian leaders of the Autonomous Socialist Region of Kosova. Meanwhile the masses of Albanians did not nurse many illusions, because what was given them was very little compared with the major rights which they had been denied and robbed of.

The events which have occurred since the death of Tito have shown how wrongly and on what an anti-Marxist course the national question in Yugoslavia, and especially the question of the Albanians, had been settled. A heavy and bloody blow was dealt to their lawful demands, recognized in the Constitution, by the Serbian chauvinist leadership and the whole Yugoslav leadership after the demonstrations which were held in Kosova in March and April this year. Now, apart from the deplorable economic situation, savage national oppression is being imposed on the Kosovars and all the other Albanians in Yugoslavia more than at any other time. A reign of terror has been established over them, the Serbian police and army have been poured in and the jails are packed w i t h young men and women. The measures which are continually being taken are directed not only towards the elimination of any legitimate rights and those few gains which appeared in the development of education and culture, but also towards the denationalization of the Albanians in Yugoslavia. And this is being done by those who claim that they respect the documents of the Helsinki Conference about freedoms and human rights. World opinion must not remain indifferent, but ought to be alarmed about this tragic situation of the Albanian population in Yugoslavia.

After all, what did the Albanians demand in the mass demonstrations which were held in various towns and villages of Kosova?

The Albanians in Yugoslavia have demanded more than once, through peaceful demonstrations and without demonstrations, that their constitutional, economic and socio-cultural situation should be corrected and put on the right road within the laws of the Federation. They demanded the status of a Republic within the SFRY. They did not demand either secession from the Federation or unification with Albania. However, the just and lawful demands of the students, workers, peasants and intellectuals of Kosova went unheeded. Moreover, as at other times when they had presented such lawful and just demands, they were described as nationalist, were persecuted and bloodily suppressed.

Can these problems be solved in this way in our times?

Never. It is impossible to keep a people, whose territory contains great wealth and is plundered by others, in poverty and want. It is impossible to keep a valiant people, like the Albanians, under the threat of tanks and bayonets. It is impossible to distort or eliminate their ancient history and culture. It is impossible to wipe out their patriotic sentiments and love for their Homeland.

If the present Yugoslav leadership proceeds on the course it has chosen and is pursuing, the opposition of the Albanians will continue, will grow and become even more acute. Only a solution of the national question which is well considered by the two sides without passion, a solution which is accepted and approved by the people of Kosova, can eliminate this very complicated situation which has been created not by the people of Kosova, but by Great-Serb chauvinism. The people of Kosova proposed the fairest and most suitable solution in this situation, which is difficult for Yugoslavia and for themselves. The demand to raise Kosova to the status of a Republic within the Federation is a just demand. It does not threaten the existence of the Federation. Instead of being reasonable, the Serbian and Yugoslav chiefs sent in the tanks, shed the people's blood and now they are going ahead on a wide scale w i t h their famous differentiation, that is, police investigations: who was for and who was against demonstrations. To act in this way, first with terror and then allegedly with «differentiation», means to try to intimidate the masses who cannot be intimidated, to eliminate their patriotism which cannot be eliminated, to have the illusion that you have calmed the situation when you have aroused indignation and anger, to think that you have brought «trustworthy people» into the state power which you have purged of «nationalists», etc., when you have only impelled the whole people to silent resistance, who tomorrow will raise their voices with greater force against the atrocities which are being committed.

The Yugoslav leaders do not want to understand this situation.

Because we state these truths openly and demand that the problem of Kosova and all the Albanians in Yugoslavia, which has been settled wrongly, should be re-studied with cool heads, avoiding the use of violence and terror, because we demand an end to the persecutions and the release from jail of the boys and girls of Kosova, they accuse the PSR of Albania of interfering in the internal affairs of Yugoslavia and even of inciting the disturbances in Kosova and elsewhere! And how is it allegedly inciting these disturbances? By means of official educational and cultural relations. They even go so far as to claim that the PSR of Albania is making common cause with Albanian political reaction in exile, which we have always fought with all our strength.

The People's Socialist Republic of Albania has never interfered in the internal affairs of Yugoslavia. The opposite has occurred. The Yugoslav revisionists plotted to bring about the liquidation of the leadership of the Communist Party of Albania and the incorporation of Albania into the Yugoslav Federation as its 7th republic, aiming in this way, through an annexationist and imperialist course, to resolve the problem of the whole Albanian nation once and for all. However, these plots did not succeed and they will never succeed. Albania is not and never will become a means of regulation to calm the conflicts and contradictions between the Yugoslav clans. It belongs to its people, a people full of vitality, valiant and patriotic, who fear no one.

Albania has never made territorial claims against Yugoslavia, and no demand for border re-adjustments can be found in its documents. While maintaining this stand, however, we have not denied and never will deny the fact that a good part of the Albanian nation and people lives in Yugoslavia. We have defended the legitimate rights of our Albanian brothers across the border and we shall continue to defend them in the future with all our might and in a Marxist-Leninist way, and this is not interference in the internal affairs of Yugoslavia. This is our undeniable right.

The question of Kosova is a tragedy. The Yugoslav authorities must cease their terror and persecution of the Albanians, eliminate the national oppression, and recognize all the rights due to them. To solve the problems justly, they must talk calmly, without heat and on terms of equality with the Albanian population in Yugoslavia.

. .

 

 

IMPERIALISM AND REVOLUTION

Excerpts concerning

Yugoslav revisionism

 

 

Excerpts of

The Superpowers



SATURDAY SEPTEMBER 11, 1971

BREZHNEV GOES TO TITO


Notes


Moscow has announced that Brezhnev is going to visit Belgrade this month. Of course, the situation between the "comrades" will be eased, they will embrace each other. Probably the Soviet Union will accord economic credits to its "southern Slav brothers". There is nothing surprising in this. The Soviets have and will certainly continue to have contradictions with Tito, but these contradictions will not go beyond the usual "pressure and blackmail". The psychosis of an attack of the Soviet Union on Yugoslavia (even Tito himself, who did not believe it, trumpeted this in order to alarm public opinion, to show his determination to maintain his "neutrality" and especially to get credits from his western friends and allies), was blown up by the Rumanians because they were and are more in real danger of some Soviet intervention and, naturally, were interested in linking their fate with that of Yugoslavia.

The contradictions between Tito and the Soviet revisionists have not sprung up today. The Soviets want to have Tito "obedient" to them, but they have not achieved and will not achieve this even after his death, with whatever type of leaders emerge in Belgrade, because Tito has prepared his own followers and even his internal opponents well to prevent them from falling under the tutelage of the Soviet revisionists. He has taught them to eat from any trough and to lean towards and assist the trough which has the greatest amount of food. In this situation the wind which is blowing in Titoite Yugoslavia is not favourable to the Kremlin.

Moscow sees that Tito and Titoism play a role which is advantageous to American imperialism, and this role is to the liking of both Tito and American imperialism. The circumstances are as follows: Nobody else can play the card of "socialism" which Tito plays for the Americans. Both the United States of America and Tito know this, while Tito is also well aware that if he does not play this role and joins the ranks of the Zhivkovs, his "individuality" is finished and his role is finished, too.

The Soviet revisionists are megalomaniacs and worried because they are not achieving this aim. Hence, taking advantage of the chaos and confusion which Titoism has caused in Yugoslavia, they intensified their pressure on it. But, when they did not succeed with blackmail, they changed their tune, softened it, and that is why Brezhnev is going there. This is the more "natural" road. Tito will not make concessions over "principles" in violation of his line, but will make some concessions in minor matters. The Soviets will be well aware that they are concessions in minor matters, but they will shut their eyes to this and will accord credits to "comrade," Tito, because by this means they may penetrate more deeply.

The Rumanians are afraid Tito will leave them in the lurch, but they are wrong, because Tito will defend them, not because of their beautiful eyes, but in the interests of Yugoslavia and to weaken Soviet influence. At present the Soviets' tendency is to reduce the tension in Europe and to exert pressure on the United States of America because they are afraid the Americans might preparations to oppose present Soviet policy is not to aggravate matters with Yugoslavia and Rumania, but to placate them, in order to work for the consolidation of the alliance with the United States of America and prevent its rapprochement with China. If they do not achieve this, the Soviets will work at weakening the positions of the United States of America in France, Bonn, etc., and will make preparations against China. It is in the light of these moves that we must see the visit of Brezhnev to Belgrade and later to France, the visit of Podgorny to Hanoi and that of Kosygin to Canada.




MONDAY MARCH 27, 1972

HANDS OFF THE BALKANS!


According to news agency reports, the minister of defence of the Soviet Union, Marshal Grechko, arrives in Belgrade today.

- The visits of ministers of war of big imperialist powers to other countries have never enjoyed the support of public opinion, and this visit is just like all the others. Experience has shown that ministers of war are the most uninhibited bearers of the expansionist and adventurous policy, the most zealous inciters and executors of imperialist aggressions and occupations. The Marshal of the Soviet Union. Grechko. too. is notorious in this direction. His name is closely linked with the counter-revolutionary overthrow in the Soviet Union, with the revival and application of the chauvinist policy of imperial Russia, with incitement of the czarist militarist spirit within the country and neo-colonialism and military blackmail abroad.

- Moscow covets the Balkans as a transit road, as a land bridge connecting it with its forces in the Mediterranean, as a desirable base for its expansionist plans in Europe and other continents. Both Soviet and American warships call frequently at the ports on the Yugoslav coast. The visits of these fleets are called friendly visits, but they contain the seed of danger, not only for the peoples of Yugoslavia, but also for all the countries of the Adriatic region.

- In order to put their expansionist and annexationist plans into effect the Soviet revisionist have always used intimidation and blandishments, rubles and tanks. Time has shown that when they talk of peace, they are preparing for war; when they pledge friendship, they are preparing the dagger to stab you in the back; when they offer help, they are thinking about how to strangle you.

- The Albanian people have always been vigilant towards the aims and activities of enemies of their freedom and independence. Neither the American imperialists, nor the Soviet social-imperialists will ever find them unprepared and unarmed.(Comrade Enver Hoxha used these notes in the article "Hands off the Balkans!" published in the newspaper Zeri i popullit dated March 29, 1972).

 

* * *

 


SUNDAY MARCH 16, 1980

THE POLICY OF "NON-ALIGNMENT" - A CASTLE BUILT ON SAND


The Yugoslav foreign Policy is just as confused and vacillating as its internal policy. The "war horse" of the Titoites is the policy of "non alignment", but this "horse" is lame in two legs and with the death of the ageing knight-errant Tito, it too, will die.

Indeed this policy, if it can be called a policy, is a fiction, a castle built on sand, but not without definite purposes. It is a modus vivendi invented by world capitalism to preserve its neo-colonialist empire by deceiving the peoples that allegedly the policy pursued by the leaders of these countries which are called "non-aligned" but which, in fact, willingly or unwillingly are all satellites, to some extent, of American imperialism and other capitalist powers, is an "independent policy outside blocs".

Naturally the two imperialist superpowers, the United States of America and the Soviet Union, could not include the countries of their spheres of influence in the military blocs of NATO and the Warsaw Treaty because then the superpowers would be in danger at all times of being involved in military or economic conflicts which would no longer have a local character, because they would be turned into spheres of influence for the other members of the blocs, too, and they would incite not only local wars, but also a world war.

These countries which call themselves "non-aligned" or which, as the Titoites claim, pursue a non-aligned policy, or the countries of the "third world", or, more exactly, those of the spheres of influence of one or the other industrialized capitalist country, are, you might say, floating states, states which have continual vacillations in their economic policy, because their policy is an appendix at the mercy of the great surgeon, who operates on it or does not operate on it according to the circumstances which develop.

All these countries and their states are hopelessly in debt hence their economy is a sick appendix of big world capital which makes the law in these countries, dictates their policy, maintains or brings down the cliques which lead them, according to the needs and the policy of joint companies of big finance capital.

The peoples of those countries suffer from every standpoint. The big capitalist powers have built such a structure and infrastructure there that they can ensure the oppression and exploitation of peoples whom they deceive by means of the slight-of-hand of an allegedly democratic parliamentary game, creating among them the impression that they are free, independent and sovereign.

In Gjirokastra the people say: "The sheep and goats of Zere, the fame of Hasan Qere" (one does the work, the other gets the credit). This is what occurs with the policy of "non-alignment", too. This policy is applied and financed by American imperialism, is approved in general by its allies and trumpeted by Tito. Earlier it was trumpeted by Nasser, Nehru, Nvkame Nkruma and Sukarno as well, but with their death or departure from the scene, only one "Trojan horse" is left, he who was allegedly the leader of the policy of "non-alignment". This was Tito of Yugoslavia. In reality throughout all his activity Tito has never been anything but an agent of American imperialism, which kept him on his feet for predetermined aims, and his Yugoslavia was nothing but an example of "a socialist" country independent of Moscow, an element "of importance" on the international chessboard and an example for the countries newly created after the Second World War, which had changed their former overlords and had placed themselves under the influence of new colonizers, the American imperialists, who had emerged powerful from the war, in order to be shown what course they must pursue in order to live on the crusts which US imperialism would provide for them.

The investments made by the Americans, the British, the French, the Germans, and others in Yugoslavia have been very large and fruitful for the capitalists, both in the economic and political fields and also from the standpoint of strengthening their military positions. For American imperialism and world capitalism Yugoslavia was a political bastion against the Soviet Union and the former people's democracies and, at the same time, a military glacis between NATO and the Warsaw Treaty. I say it was a political bastion, because this capitalist state, created during the post-war period, by pretending that it was building a specific socialism, was to serve as an urger and subversive element among the satellite countries of the Soviet Union, was to be a disrupter of the -unity of the revisionist Soviet Union with its satellites and with the other revisionist parties of Eastern and Western Europe.

Hence Tito, with his "non-aligned", policy, invented by American imperialism, together with the other leaders of the policy whom I mentioned above and who are now dead, was supposed to create a flock of sheep, with no head and no feet, but with a label reading the "non-aligned" countries, with a specific policy which allegedly distinguished them from and put them in opposition to the policy of blocs. All those countries which were allegedly non-aligned, but were under the economic and political influence and the protection of imperialism and capitalism, nurtured the illusion that in their repeated meetings they allegedly expressed their "great" will and opposition to the policy of big powers and blocs.

In this game of international policy, however, the Soviet Union did not lag behind the United States of America. It, too, had its spheres of influence which comprised allegedly independent states on various continents, in which not only the policy of the Soviet Union, but also its economic investments, played an important role. These states were permitted to take part in this world, and to develop a pseudo non-aligned policy. What was there to lose? Neither the Soviet Union nor its satellites lost anything because this -non-aligned. world did not take any commitments. In relation to the country on which each of these states was dependent, each one of them and each clique which ruled in them pursued that policy which ensured them the biggest profits, and when they found the favourable moment they could go over to another dependence, that is, become part of another sphere of influence. Naturally this gave rise to frictions, a thing which became apparent in the voting in the United Nations, where previously the votes had been divided according to blocs, while later they began to vacillate from side to side. Irrespective that these votes had no importance, the game was played behind the scenes between the big powers. In the United Nations the voting machine is similar to that in the parliaments of bourgeois-democratic countries.

In these "non-aligned" countries, however, it is not only the influence of blocs which was felt, as Titoism claims when it says that there cannot be "complete freedom" as long as blocs exist, but also the influence of individual members of these blocs, which had both political and economic contradictions within the blocs and each sought to safeguard and increase its sphere of influence at the expense of its allies, whether in NATO or in the Soviet bloc. Thus the policy of "non-alignment" did not hinder France, Britain, the Federal Republic of Germany and other states from spreading their influence widely once they had strengthened their political and economic positions after the Second World War and especially in the recent decades. In connection with the spheres of influence, NATO did not operate as a military bloc, but each member of this bloc operated in its own zones as a separate economic-political power.

Naturally the contradictions within NATO are manifested outside it. NATO does not see the interests of its members from the angle of its monolithic "unity". This is quite apparent in the opposition which is developing between the Federal Republic of Germany and the United States of America, between the United States and France, between France and Britain, etc., indeed matters have gone so far that Brzezinski is demanding that the NATO member countries should assist the American policy to safeguard the economic-political-military influence of the United States, not only in the zone of Europe, but in all parts of the world where American imperialism has invested its economic means and has spread its political forces.

The American policy has suffered defeats in the world and this has been reflected in the so-called policy of the "non-aligned" countries. Thus, at the Havana conference opposition was displayed among participating countries which are allies of both blocs. The pro-Soviet countries like Cuba, Somalia and others supported the policy of the Soviet Union, while the group which allegedly follows the policy of Belgrade defended the American policy under the camouflage of the "non-aligned" policy, the policy "outside blocs and in opposition to the blocs". This whole meeting, like the former ones, was a masquerade and those that will be held in the future will be the same, too, because every capitalist state, large or small, which is part of the "non-aligned" world pursues a foreign policy in tune with that of the power that finances or supports it and with which the fate of the governing clique is linked.

At present, seeing the weakness of the American policy in the world, the France of Giscard D'Estaing and West Germany have begun to make a powerful display of their policy of economic, political and military expansion, and both these states, not to mention Japan and Britain, have their zones of influence and have under their dependence states which are called "non-aligned", which pursue the policy which is dictated to them by these powers. Thus the Titoites can prattle about their theory of "non-alignment", thinking that allegedly they have found the much desired formula to safeguard the power of American capital and other industrialized capitalist states, but this no longer carries any weight even as a fiction.

The last "horse" of this bandwagon invented by American imperialism is dying and this dada of theirs will die with them. The Yugoslav "collective" leadership will no longer be able to wave this banner of "non-alignment" and deceive the peoples and, in fact, they have never deceived them. Even the vassal cliques of world capitalism have never regarded Yugoslavia as anything but a valet of American imperialism. With the death of Tito, this valet will disappear and that will be the end of this joker which world capital has brought into play at any moment.


* * *


MONDAY JUNE 1, 1981

ON THE SECRET SOVIET-GREAT-SERB COLLABORATION


Theses for an article ("The events in Kosova and the secret Soviet-Great-Serb collaboration" was published in Zeri i popullit. 5 June, 1981).

The Soviet revisionists have not said a word about the tragic events caused by the Great-Serb clan of Belgrade in Kosova (Reference is to the demonstrations of the Albanian students and workers which took place in Kosova in the spring of 1981, and which were violent suppressed by the Great-Serb chauvinist clique of Belgrade), as if nothing had happened.

Their Bulgarian lackeys have kept their mouths closed, too. The whole world spoke, published reports and comments, while the Soviets and the Bulgarians remained silent. Why?

Because they want to tell the world:

a) "We are not the sort who meddle in the internal affairs of others, as you are continually accusing us".

b) "Let the Albanians and the Yugoslavs settle their own problems".

These are two formal aspects, for appearances' sake, of the stand of the Soviets and the Bulgarians, which impelled Yugoslavia to shut its mouth against them. But this makes us Albanians tear the mask from them. This stand of the Soviets is a fraud, but a badly disguised fraud. When their interests require, they interfere in the internal affairs of others, not only with words but also with armies. The present chiefs of the Kremlin have demonstrated over and over again that they are not distinguished for tact and correctness in international relations.

One cannot and must not judge the current Soviet policy from its tactical stands, but from its expansionist and hegemonic strategic objectives, to which all their actions, their diplomatic silence and the rumble of tank tracks, the pacifist slogans and their undercover plots, are subordinated.

What is the reality which we must expose?

1) The Soviets are greatly interested that the relations between Yugoslavia and Albania should be exacerbated, to the maximum if possible.

2) Such a situation would bring the Soviets a series of advantages: it would further weaken the Socialist Federative Republic of Yugoslavia, which is disintegrating and in the grip of profound national, economic, political and state contradictions; it would harm the People's Socialist Republic of Albania, which is an unyielding bastion against Soviet modern revisionism, American imperialism and world reaction; it would upset that present stability which has been established in the Balkans and threaten the South-eastern flank of NATO with disturbances and insecurity.

3) In this secret game the Soviets are supporting the Great-Serb clan of Belgrade against the Albanians of Yugoslavia and against the People's Socialist Republic of Albania. They are saying nothing about what is occurring in Kosova in order to support the Great-Serb clan and avoid weakening Serbia, so that it can impose its hegemony over the rival Croat-Slovene clan, which is pro-Western and pro-American.

4) The Great-Serb clan is for bureaucratic centralism. The Croat-Slovene clan is for Titoite self-administration. The self-administration system has weakened the Great-Serb clan both economically and politically. Rankovic and his clan were liquidated. The Soviets supported the clan of Rankovic in his time, and went so far as to describe this "singer of the Soviet anthem" (This is what the Soviets called Rankovic who, during drinking bout With Soviet "comrades" in Moscow, sang the Soviet anthem) as "more positive".

After the death of Tito the Serbian clan is seeking revenge against the Croat-Slovene clan. Profound contradictions, which are growing even deeper, exist between the two most powerful clans. The Soviets are together with the Great-Serbs in the plot. Soviets, silence over the suppression of the Albanians by the Serbs assists the Serbian clan to weaken the Croat-Slovene clan and transform the self-administration system into a unified bourgeois bureaucratic system. The Soviets are keeping a tight rein on the Bulgarians and the Macedonian question. They use the Bulgarians as pawns which they advance or withdraw according to the circumstances which are created.

We must expose this big savage Soviet-Great-Serb plot. It is fraught with the greatest danger for the People's Socialist Republic of Albania and the Balkans.

World opinion in general and the chancelleries of the world are pro "the Republic of Kosova", and approve our stands, are opposed to this plot, are for the current status quo in the Socialist Federative Republic of Yugoslavia and against Serbian hegemony. The "Republic of Kosova" weakens the savage Serbian chauvinism, strengthens the status quo of the Yugoslav Federation, and ruins the strategic plans of the Soviets.

 

 

REFLECTIONS ON CHINA

Volume I

Excerpts concerning

Yugoslav revisionism

 

TUESDAY

OCTOBER 15, 1968

CHOU EN-LAI'S INCORRECT VIEWS ON REVISIONISM


Even after all this struggle against Titoism and the Khrushchevites, even after the Cultural Revolution, Chou En-lai continues to make mistakes.

The fact that he arrogantly told us to go to Moscow after the fall of Khrushchev, is well known. The question was that we were to reach a reconciliation with the Brezhnev-Kosygin revisionist group, in which the Chinese had great expectations.

Our reply to his proposal, dignified both in its content and tone, is also well known. Chou En-lai went to Moscow without us and there he suffered the ignominious defeat of which I have spoken earlier. Later we were told: «We made a mistake in going to Moscow and in proposing it to you, too», etc., etc. However, these were only words, because Chou is repeating the same mistake.

Speaking with Beqir Balluku about the international situation, and especially the situation created in the Balkans after the invasion of Czechoslovakia, Chou En-lai proposed that we should enter into negotiations with the Titoites and sign a treaty of friendship and mutual aid with them!

How did these Chinese comrades come to think so wrongly and to follow the course of Liu, who preached that «in order to fight American imperialism we must unite with the modern revisionists»?! How did these Chinese comrades come to think that in order to fight the Soviet revisionists we can unite even with Tito, an inveterate open agent of the American imperialists, a rabid enemy of Marxism-Leninism, simply because at a given moment, he has temporary contradictions with his ideological friends, the Soviet revisionists?!

No, Chou En-lai who expresses these opinions is not on a principled course. The treacherous revisionist line of Liu Shao-chi is being kept alive by Chou En-lai, who has not purged his brain and his heart. I say he has not purged himself, because Chou En-lai is a clever man, his stand cannot be the reflection of an immature idea, or one he has taken without his having gone into it thoroughly. If the other Chinese comrades have approved this stand, too, they have made a grave mistake.

But why should they come to make such a mistake?

First, there is ideological unclarity among the Chinese comrades. They are not very clear on what modern revisionism, both Titoite and Khrushchevite revisionism, is and where its great danger lies. As to Chou, he is the primary and main one who is unclear on this, because he is acting very wrongly in these matters.

Second, on Tito and Titoism they still have the view that, «Tito was not wrong, but Stalin was wrong about him». And when circumstances bring about that Tito has contradictions with the Soviets, the Chinese comrades soften towards him, their old opinion of Tito and against Stalin predominates and leads them to the wrong opportunist course. (Here the line of L iu Shao-chi of alliance with the revisionists emerges, but this time not against the Americans, because Tito is their agent, but only against the Soviets.)

Third, from these and other facts it turns out that the Chinese comrades do not base their struggle against the Khrushchevite revisionists fully on Marxist-Leninist principles and do not fight them at any time and in every field, consistently, from this basis, but in their struggle, have certain tendencies to chauvinism, territorial claims against the Soviet Union, and ill-founded judgments about the alleged mistakes of Stalin in the international communist movement. As a result of these mistakes the Chinese comrades do not analyse the problems and events correctly, and do not take correct decisions on a number of capital problems.

Fourth, for the Chinese comrades, whoever appears to be against the Soviets is their possible ally, regardless of who the pseudo-ally, even a temporary one, is. Such a strategic and tactical line, which is not guided by the Marxist-Leninist principles, is to be condemned.

What are they proposing to us in fact? To reconcile ourselves to Titoism, to embrace the most ferocious enemy of Marxism-Leninism, socialism and communism, the most ferocious enemy of our Marxist-Leninist Party and our socialist Homeland; to embrace Tito, to reconcile ourselves to this person who, for twenty-five years on end, has striven with all his might to oppress, destroy, and enslave our Homeland, and make it the 7th republic of Yugoslavia! Hence, Chou En-lai is telling us to betray everything sacred to us, our glorious war, our people and Marxism-Leninism.

To advise a sister party and a fraternal state to enter into such alliance with Titoism, because, at the present juncture, the latter has some disagreements with the Soviets, which might easily be smoothed over tomorrow, or to hope that Titoism might be a «Trojan horse» to help penetrate the «third world», all this is the strategy and tactics of a bourgeois policy.

* * *

 

SATURDAY
OCTOBER 18, 1969
THE CHINESE BECOME ADVOCATES OF TITO
At a dinner which the Chinese ambassador and his
councillor gave for some workers of our press and radio on the inauguration of the Hsinhua building in Tirana, they told them, «the question that Tito is an agent of imperialism is not a contemporary issue»; while a personality of the Foreign Ministry had told Haki, in Peking, «Tito was a victim», of whom, is self-evident. Our comrades gave them the proper reply, but these tendencies of the Chinese comrades are strange. We must be vigilant!

* * *

 

DURRËS, SUNDAY

JULY 26, 1970

TITO IS PLAYING HIS «PRO-CHINESE» CARD SKILFULLY


The revisionists are crowing: «We are improving relations with China, steadily eliminating our disagreements, and this is necessary because we have a common enemy — imperialism, and must put aside what divides us and pursue what unites us.» The Hungarians and likewise the East Germans and the Czechs are speaking in these terms.

Of course, the exchange of new ambassadors between China and the Soviet Union, Yugoslavia, Hungary and Poland, and tomorrow Bulgaria, East Germany and Czechoslovakia, opens the way to these «perspectives». The Hungarians, not to mention the Rumanians and the Yugoslavs, are enthusiastic. They are pleased that their trade has increased with China, which they regard as a market on which to dump the goods which do not sell, and thus, foster illusions among the Chinese about the deepening of contradictions with the Soviets, contradictions which exist in fact, but which simply serve the Hungarian anti-Marxists to link themselves more closely with Tito and the West. Tito is playing his «pro-Chinese» and «anti-Soviet» card skilfully, in other words his old game of undermining communism, of undermining the Soviet revisionist empire and strengthening the so-called «third grouping» — the grouping with American imperialism.

The Chinese comrades are guiding themselves by the illusions they nurture about the anti-Sovietism of all these revisionists, which brings no ideological or political benefit to our great cause.

It is a fact that the Soviet revisionists are being weakened through the differences they have with the other anti-Marxists, and this should be encouraged, but the blandishments of anti-Marxists must not be trusted, their promises and lies must not be believed. They are all liars and the fact is that they are quite unable to conceal their policy. A Bulgarian minister told one of our diplomats:

«The Soviet Union offered China a credit of a billion dollars, but China did not accept it. It did not do well», said he, «just as you Albanians did not do well in not replying positively to Soviet proposals to carry on trade».

Anything could occur in this situation of the beginning of the softening in the Chinese stand.

We consider the sending of Chinese ambassadors to these countries a proper action on the part of China but when things reach the point that these ambassadors believe the blandishments of local revisionists and tell our ambassadors that among these leaders China is well spoken of, means to have a predisposition to listen willingly to these traitors and believe them.

The danger and the evil could lie here. It is possible that these are the dispositions of ambassadors, but if such dispositions are subjective they should not be served up to us.

Our permanent task has been and is: trust and check up, be vigilant and rigorously apply the Marxist-Leninist line of our Party!

 

* * *

REFLECTIONS ON CHINA

Volume I

Excerpts concerning

Yugoslav revisionism

 

 

MONDAY

DECEMBER 23, 1974

NO, CHINESE COMRADES, WITH THE YUGOSLAVS WE ARE NOT «LIKE THE TEETH WITH THE LIPS»


Yu Chang, Deputy-Foreign Minister of China, who was in our country for the celebration of the 30th anniversary of Liberation as a member of the delegation led by Yao Wen-yuan, went from here on a «friendly» visit to Belgrade. There he had meetings and «cordial» talks with officials right up to the prime minister.

When he returned to Peking, Yu Chang had a meeting with our ambassador, Comrade Behar, to whom he spoke about these talks. He told him that «the Yugoslavs see the world situation as complicated. The Soviets are exerting pressure on them», «the Soviets are organizing not only the supporters of the Cominform, but also the ustashi», «the Yugoslavs are resisting them», etc. In this direction the Yugoslavs filled the Chinese with tales and they were pleased about these Soviet-Yugoslav «deep contradictions». Then they spoke about the «third world», in which the Chinese take part, and the «non-aligned world», in which the Yugoslavs take part. As a conclusion, «the Yugoslavs were satisfied with our explanation, and now they understand the Chinese position on this problem properly»... Because they had not understood it before!!!

And in these talks, they did not fail to discuss the stand of Albania towards Yugoslavia, with the Chinese allegedly using our statements. The Titoites, for their part, did not fail to spread their «incense», saying that they «wished Albania well», that they wanted to live «in friendship», that their ports were opened not only to Soviet ships but also to American ships, that those were economic questions, while from the military angle they were vigilant, etc., etc. And «our friend» Yu Chang told Behar in conclusion that he had told the Yugoslavs that this was how the friendship should be between the Yugoslavs and the Albanians, because the two sides were «like the teeth with the lips».

The «Chinese Pope» gave his blessing to the «Yugoslav-Albanian friendship» with a base revisionist Confucian parable.

It is hard to know whether he said this from stupidity or because he was carried away in the «flood» of stereotyped formulas which they use, or because he wanted to tell the Yugoslavs:

«We have a hand in this policy and approve it in as much as we consider you to be in such intimacy and close interaction with each other like the teeth with the lips.»

How asinine! What perfidy! This «biblical» figure of the Chinese means that, according to him we are at one with the Titoites in head, in heart and in body, that we follow the one policy and the one ideology! How can one call this foolishness?

How can you call these things a slip of the tongue?! He not only said this to the Yugoslav Prime Minister, Biyedich who joyfully approved it and himself repeated this «gem», but also to our ambassador. Naturally, we will never be in agreement with what he said and its implications, but will be opposed to it, because the Titoites are enemies, renegades, revisionists, agents of imperialists and revisionists.

To hell with Yu Chang and the comrades who think like him in China. Apparently, revisionism has deep roots in China, and the great broom has not cleaned things up there as it should have done and where it should. Not only is rubbish stuck in the corners in China, but some of this rubbish has been elevated to high positions of trust and is acting openly. Who knows what else Yu Chang discussed with the Yugoslavs, but the fact is that he came away satisfied. Let him keep his satisfaction to himself, because it does not go down with us.

 

* * *

 

TUESDAY

OCTOBER 7, 1975

CHINA AND YUGOSLAVIA


The leaderships of these two states have fallen in «love»!

Old acquaintance and sympathy. The Chinese and Mao himself were very pleased with the struggle which Tito waged against Stalin, cheered him in this struggle and described it as right.

From Mao's own mouth came the words: «Tito was not wrong, but Stalin was wrong». That Mao said this is completely true, not because he said it to us, but because even today Chou Enlai, Keng Piao and others are making propaganda against Stalin.

«Yes,» say the Chinese (to the gallery), «Stalin was a great man, but he made mistakes.» What mistakes did he make? «His view of the question of China was not correct», «his view of the question of Tito was not correct, either», «nor was his view of the question of the Soviet Union», «the question of international communism», etc., correct.

Then if he made these mistakes, as the Chinese claim, why do they say that «Stalin was a great Marxist-Leninist»? But who was Khrushchev, whom the Chinese now consign to the cesspool? «The Lenin of our times», said Mao at the Moscow Meeting of 1957. An evaluation of «genius» about the traitor on the part of Mao!

The Chinese have maintained an unprincipled stand towards Tito and Titoism, too. If we see pronounced zigzags in the Chinese line on the political and ideological definition of the revisionist activity of Tito and Titoism, this stems from the opportunist policy of the Chinese. They had to speak well about Tito, because that was their conviction, but they had also to «expose» him, because others were exposing him, and even Khrushchev threw the odd stone at him. The time came when the Chinese ceased the polemic against Tito and their de facto political and ideological rapprochement began (although, in appearance, they still do not maintain ideological and party relations).

When China took its pro-American and anti-Soviet stance, this policy was manifested in all its relations with the foreign world. Imperialist America, the fascists Pinochet and Franco, Tito and Ceausescu, renegades and adventurers, German revanchists and Italian fascists are its friends. For China ideology has no importance. It looks at nothing from the class viewpoint, sees nothing from the angle of the world revolution and the liberation of peoples! According to the Chinese leadership, only one enemy exists for China and the world — Soviet socialimperialism.

The bitter and tragic fact is that they forget the other enemy — American imperialism.

The anti-Marxist tactic of the Chinese is alliance with the whole of world reaction, even with declared and branded fascists, provided they are opposed to the Soviets. Not only is this anti-Marxist, but it shows that their analyses of the development of world problems are carried out by the Chinese in such a wrong and crazy way that they leave one aghast. Every political action of the Chinese brings grist to the mill of imperialism and world reaction.

The Chinese imagine (there is no other way their actions can be interpreted) that the whole world thinks and is convinced that China is red and revolutionary. This policy which China is pursuing has a «revolutionary» aim: to unite the «third world», the «second world» and American imperialism against the Soviet social-imperialists. And from their actions it turns out that in order to achieve this «ideal» they must not take much account of principles. «We now defend the United States of America,» the Chinese justify themselves, «because it is weaker than the Soviet Union, but with this we must also deepen the contradictions between the Soviet Union and the United States of America». What ideas of genius!! The world allegedly proceeds as China wants!! The earth goes round, the continents with their peoples and states allegedly follow such a policy as China wants!! What madness! The whole of world reaction, with the exception of Soviet reaction, is urging China on this wrong course and applauding it. The Chinese leadership is puffed up with pride like a turkey-cock, but allegedly a . . .modest one.

Having deviated from a principled Marxist-Leninist class policy, China, naturally, must base itself on the political conjunctures, on the manoeuvres and intrigues of reactionary governments.

Let us come to the Chinese-Yugoslav friendship. This is now real, but it will suffer defeat if the Chinese see pro-Soviet tendencies in the Yugoslav policy. As we know, the policy of Tito, in essence, is anti-Soviet and pro-American. But Tito feints and dodges, he always has done this, and has shown himself to be an adventurer and an acrobat. Tito pursues an anti-popular, anti-socialist, hence, anti-Marxist policy, and has captured the position of the «leader» of the meaningless «non-aligned» bloc.

In reality, Tito is pursuing the policy of those states which are linked with the superpowers in fact, although they do not take part in their treaties and military pacts.

Tito runs errands and receives cheques and favours from all. He enslaved Yugoslavia, created the new wealthy stratum there, lives like a king himself and poses as a «great political thinker». Not everybody believes Tito's nonsense, but when they need to use him they boost him, and when he is no longer useful to them, they cast him aside, or will do, like a squeezed lemon.

There is no doubt that the Soviets want to have Yugoslavia under their yoke, and for this they employ every means, every policy, every conspiracy, every manoeuvre; they flatter Tito, write and speak well about him, promise him and give him credits.

The old fox Tito is making approaches to and smiling at them. When they are unable to achieve their full aims, the Soviets snarl. Then Tito assumes the pose of the cat which sharpens its claws and raises its whiskers against the Soviets, while miaowing for help in the direction of the Americans.

Such is the Titoite policy which greatly pleases the Chinese.

Why? First, because they are of one mind with Tito, and second, because in essence he is pro-American and anti-Soviet, and third, because the Chinese have to increase their friendship with Tito in order to «deepen the contradictions between Yugoslavia and the Soviet Union». Brilliant tactics!!

Yesterday, Djemal Biyedich, the Yugoslav Prime Minister, arrived in Peking where he received a «warm and affectionate» welcome, with crowds, with cymbals, with slogans and banners.

Certainly, even Mao will receive him. The leading article of «Renmin Ribao» eulogized «Barabbas» and Titoite Yugoslavia.

In order to disguise the game, it did not use the term «socialist Yugoslavia», but by stressing the great economic successes and the stands of the Yugoslav leadership against capitalism, imperialism, and hegemonism, this term was clearly implied. Hence, according to the Chinese, Titoism is in the same «progressive political» position as China.

China has placed itself in the «third world», while Tito is in the «non-aligned world». Among them is Rumania, too, because it is allegedly anti-Soviet. While being aligned, Rumania poses as «non-aligned» with the Chinese, with Tito, and the Soviets. The difference between the «third world» and the «non-aligned world» is like six of one and half a dozen of the other.

The «Renmin Ribao» article referred to dwells on the famous analysis, «Soviet imperialism is threatening Europe and especially the Balkans with war and aggression». The Chinese issue the «call»: «Europe and the Balkans, you are in imminent danger, therefore, unite with one another, put aside whatever quarrels and differencies you have, rely on the United States of America, NATO, and the European Common Market. You, Balkan countries, are almost in the wolf's mouth, therefore unite with Yugoslavia, with Tito at the head». In other words, they are telling us Albanians: «You are wrong that you do not trust the Yugoslavia of Tito, the Rumania of Ceausescu, the Greece of the colonels, the Turkey of the Demirels, and why not, even the Bulgaria of Zhivkov, as we do. You Albanians are not doing well in failing to participate in this Balkan dance». With these stands which they maintain the Chinese want to tell us:

«Why do you Albanians need to look at the essence of matters? Look at the signboard over the shop door and be satisfied».

The Chinese military attache in Belgrade told one of our diplomats that «the Chinese delegation was warmly welcomed by the Yugoslav armymen»; they «showed the delegation everything », spoke «openly and frankly» to them, «demonstrated their weapons», etc. The Chinese military attache wants to convince us that the wolf has become a lamb, but he forgets that the wolf always remains a wolf, and indeed there are cases when the dog reverts back to the wolf as in Jack London's novel.

While they postpone the date of the visit of our delegation for more than two years, the Chinese welcome the Yugoslav Prime Minister, Biyedich. With this stand they want to tell us:

«We do not want to accept you, because we have political and ideological contradictions with you, while with the Yugoslavs we Chinese have no contradictions (and the facts show this with the visit of Biyedich)».

Naturally, the Soviet revisionists and their running-dogs do not like Djemal Biyedich's visit to China, and knowing this, Teng Hsiao-ping made the occasional allusion, at the dinner which he gave, to «a superpower which wants war», or something like that. At this the Soviets and their friends got up and left the hall. The Chinese think that they deepen the contradictions in this way, but they are wrong. Tito put things right from the other side. You, Chinese, just live on with your illusions, fulfil the material demands of the Yugoslavs and continue the road on which you have set out, because Tito has seen countless such games! Tito is a master of such tricks.



FRIDAY

OCTOBER 10, 1975

MAO TSETUNG RECEIVES DJEMAL BIYEDICH


Biyedich was warmly welcomed in China. Teng Hsiao-ping praised Tito for «his manly stand against brutality», which plainly speaking, means against Stalin. What a disgrace for the Chinese to praise the hostile gesture of Tito against such a great Marxist-Leninist as Stalin! But according to the Chinese, it was Stalin who was wrong, and not Tito.

Even Mao Tsetung warmly welcomed Biyedich. To all this pomp and circumstance we devoted only «one line» in our press, just one line and nothing else. We did this to let the Chinese know that we are not in agreement with them, not because Biyedich went to China, but because by remaining completely silent about the request we have presented three times on end for our delegation to go to China, they have not accepted it.

The Chinese are tricksters, too. At the Koreans' reception for the 30th anniversary of the Korean Workers' Party, Teng Hsiao-ping and all his group went up to Behar in a demonstrative way and shook hands with him alone. They did this to say to us and those present that «it is true we are talking with the Yugoslavs, but with the Albanians we are close friends».

 

* * *

 

SATURDAY
MAY 14, 1977
SAIFUDIN IN YUGOSLAVIA


The Chinese parliamentary delegation, headed by a certain Saifudin, Candidate Member of the Political Bureau of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China, is making a friendly trip to Yugoslavia. It was received by the president
of the Skupshtina who, with the greatest goodwill, told it about the heroic struggle of the Communist Party of Yugoslavia, which is now called the League of Communists of Yugoslavia, and about the role of the «great Marxist» — Tito.

 

* * *

 



FRIDAY

JUNE 3, 1977


KOREA AND CHINA ARE PREPARING TO WELCOME TITO


Our embassies in Pyongyang and Peking inform us that the press and news agencies in Korea and China are every day carrying out propaganda exalting revisionist Yugoslavia and its president, the renegade Tito. The objective of all these agencies is to propagate openly that Yugoslavia is allegedly a country which is «successfully» building socialism on the basis of «selfreliance», that it is allegedly a progressive country, etc. This is a big fraud on a world scale but from one aspect we think it is good that this is happening because the genuine Marxist- Leninists, honest people who have followed all the many aspects of the development of the Yugoslav state, will understand what ideology is guiding the Korean Workers' Party and the Communist Party of China and will reach the conclusion for themselves that the ideology guiding both these countries is revisionist.

As it seems, these two countries are preparing their internal opinion for an eventual visit of Tito to Korea and Peking. According to the Yugoslav ambassadors, Tito has promised that he will go to Korea, but first has to prepare his visit to Peking. Apparently, with the visit of the Chinese parliamentary delegation, which expressed such enthusiasm about the Tito

regime, the Chinese and the Titoites reached agreement that Tito is to visit Peking, but the date of this visit has not yet been announced. Nevertheless, the preparations in this direction are being made, and this w i l l be very good for us because we have done everything to prove both to China and Korea as well as to the whole world, that Titoite Yugoslavia is a capitalist country, as we have said all along.

(Enver Hoxha, Reflections on China, Volume II, page 516, Tirana, 1979, edition in English).

 

* * *



TUESDAY

JUNE 7, 1977

WHY IS TITO GOING TO CHINA?


Various news agencies are writing that in August the President of Yugoslavia, Josip Broz Tito, will go to Moscow and Pyongyang and afterwards to Peking. The Italian Minister of Foreign Affairs, Forlani, who was received by Tito, announced this through the press in Belgrade. Today, the Yugoslav news agency, Tanjug, also gave this news. The visit of this renegade to Peking will be made precisely at the moments of the great turn which China has taken towards close friendship with the United States of America and all the rest of the capitalist world against Soviet social-imperialism which the Chinese leadership proclaims is the main and only enemy of socialism and the# freedom of the peoples.

Thus Tito, this renegade from Marxism-Leninism, an agent of American imperialism and servant of the world capitalist bourgeoisie, will be welcomed with great enthusiasm and pomp by another renegade from Marxism-Leninism, Hua Kuo-feng.

Under his rule at present, and nobody knows for how long, Hua Kuo-feng has a population of 800 million, a whole continent, and the renegade Tito, who is an old fox who knows how to manoeuvre in order to grab capital and liquidate socialism, will feel himself at home in Pyongyang and Peking. In Pyongyang, I believe that even Tito w i l l be astonished at the proportions of the cult of his host, which has reached a level unheard of anywhere else, either in past or present times, let alone in a country which calls itself socialist.

However, Hua Kuo-feng, too, who took the place of Mao Tsetung, has begun a deafening propaganda campaign to build up his own cult, since the triumph of the military putsch he organized. Apart from other things, day by day, not just one but scores of different delegations are going to China, some to sing the praises of this person, others to sing the praises of the state power which he has established, or of the struggle which Hua Kuo-feng has been waging for eight or nine months against «The Four», calling them «gangsters», «robbers», «whoremongers», and whatever you like. Groups of businessmen from imperialist America and other capitalist states are going to China to make investments and to secure markets for their goods.

Together with Hua Kuo-feng and K im Il Sung, there we shall see Tito. China and Korea were two countries which Tito had not visited, hence he is going to fulfil this desire, too. The stamps of China and Korea were missing from his collection, while he has not included the stamps of Franco and Pinochet, but tomorrow he might put these, too, in the album of his travels, to hatch up intrigues under the cloak of a great world policy. In fact Tito should be given his due. Regardless of the fact that he is a vile traitor, he is clever at intrigue, at doubledealing, at forming and dissolving combinations. Therefore his trip to Peking is not just a simple visit, but is to demonstrate his «majesty» to China, to say to the Chinese people and the Communist Party of China: «See! I am what I am, and your Chinese leadership kowtowed before me. Since your leadership is Marxist-Leninist and is kowtowing before me on my visit to Peking, that means, it is kowtowing to a great Marxist-Leninist who was the first to stand up to Stalin and is standing up to all the world capitalists, American imperialism, Soviet social-imperialism», etc. This is what Tito wants to tell them.

Tito is certainly going to China to hold political and economic talks. In regard to economic questions, Tito has hopes of solving some problems of the crisis which has gripped Yugoslavia.

The first arrow from his bow will be aimed at this, but his next arrow will be aimed at the further strengthening of the links of the Hua Kuo-feng group with American imperialism, not that the Hua Kuo-feng group has not entered into close and friendly relations, which are developing in all directions, with the American capitalists, with the big American concerns and trusts, but the help of this American agent might serve both Washington and China.

In China Tito will give and receive promises. He is not going empty-handed, either from the side of the Soviets or from the side of American imperialism. Before he goes to Peking he will certainly have balanced the proposals he will make to the Chinese with the two superpowers, which naturally, are each trying to exert their direct influence on the development of events in China, but Tito, too, will be working on this from his own angle.

I think that Tito's work in China will be in favour of American imperialism and in the disfavour of Soviet social-imperialism.

No doubt he will go about this work very craftily, which will be to the liking of the Chinese and they will accept it with great pleasure. If Tito is to carry proposals on behalf of Brezhnev for a detente with China, hence for a certain accord, or the beginning of an accord between China and the Soviet Union, Tito will do this, and it is to his advantage to do it, because it is his greatest desire to continue, through his treachery, to play the policy of the balance between American imperialism and Soviet social-imperialism, of course, putting a few extra kilos on the American side.

Tito will receive a pay-off from the three sides, from the two old superpowers and the new, rising superpower, which is «gold plating» the emblems of the «socialist» Republic of China.

It is claimed that Tito is to go to China as president of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia and not as general secretary of the League of Communists of Yugoslavia. This is a tale which serves to conceal the treachery of the Chinese leadership which does not want to disclose its revisionist features immediately.

It wants to hide behind the mask of so-called Maoist Marxism, but the reality is different. Mao himself, was pro Tito and against Stalin, irrespective of the fact that he declared the opposite, that Tito had become incorrigible and must be ranked with Hitler and Hirohito. His successors, or Hua Kuo-feng, to whom Mao Tsetung allegedly said, «With you in charge, I feel at ease», «corrected» this renegade.

It is a fact that, with his visit to China and Korea, Tito is building up his authority as a renegade in the international arena. Of course, he is building up his authority in the world of capitalist intrigues, in the world of the enslavement of the peoples, and this title will stick to him.

Meanwhile, K im Il Sung thinks that the visit to Korea of Tito, whom he considers a great man, will give him even greater credit in the eyes of his own people in order to strengthen his personal cult. K im Il Sung has great hopes in Tito and will welcome him with great cordiality and pomp, because he knows that Tito is the envoy of Carter, of the Americans. K im Il Sung wants to have contacts with the United States of America, to establish diplomatic relations with that country, so that it softens its stand towards Korea.

As for the question of the unity or joining together of the two Koreas, this is a problem which will not be solved at present.

But if this unification is not carried out on the Marxist-Leninist road, it is self-evident that it will not be carried out in favour of socialism.

Therefore Tito is going to Korea to carry out negotiations on behalf of American imperialism with K im Il Sung and not to get credits, because there are no strong-rooms in Korea from which Tito can get them. Korea is so deeply in debt itself that it is unable to meet its repayments.

In regard to the «third world», K im Il Sung pretends to be not only a member, but possibly, also, its leader. He also has pretentions that the «Juche» ideas, i.e., K im Il Sung thought, should be spread throughout the world with great speed. All these pretentions do not upset Tito who, as we know, poses as the leader of the «non-aligned world», of the «non-aligned states». The two «leaders» will kiss in Pyongyang just as harmoniously as their two worlds match each other. The two sides, will have the blessing mainly of American imperialism but in certain directions, of Soviet and Chinese social-imperialism, too.

The leadership of the Communist Party of China has betrayed. In Korea, too, we can say that the leadership of the Korean Workers' Party is wallowing in the same waters. As for Tito, it is known that he is an inveterate traitor. This, naturally, is a great evil which is being committed against the revolution, it is a retrogression and a heavy loss for Marxism-Leninism. But this evil which is occurring and which does not depend on us, since it is occurring, also has its good aspect and this good aspect is that these individuals, these groups, these cliques, are exposing themselves, and the genuine Marxist-Leninists, the revolutionaries, the world proletariat which is suffering, which is fighting in demonstrations and strikes in which people are killed, see that their oppressors, the capitalists, the imperialists and the agents employed by them, who pose as communists, as Marxist-Leninists, are conspiring to the detriment of the revolution and the peoples. Hence this great betrayal will open people's eyes and the struggle of the peoples and the Marxist-Leninists against these traitors will develop quantitatively and qualitatively. The time will come when, in different countries, the proletariat of the respective country, with its own genuine Marxist-Leninist party, will attack the power of capital. Marxism-Leninism has not died, neither has it grown old, it is always revolutionary, it is young and is the motive force of the world today. The revolution, led by the proletariat, is that great force which will transform the world and not that

nondescript «third world» which Mao and the Maoists are boosting.

Yesterday, at the dinner which the Chinese leaders put on for Nimeri of Sudan, Li Hsien-nien said among other things, «Imperialism and social-imperialism are not a great force.

Today it is we, the third world, that are the greatest force in the world». What is this «greatest force in the world» going to do?

Li Hsien-nien, this «great politician», did not explain this, but with this «great force», he wanted to say, «We, the Chinese, 800 million strong, are in this third world, too, therefore we are building up to a great force and you, the Sudanese and other semi-colonial peoples, must unite with us because we shall lead you». This is what the statement meant in other words.

Hence in these conditions and situations, which are difficult for capitalism and imperialism, the anti-communist and anti-Marxist snakes are twisting and turning both in Washington and in Moscow and Peking, where the cliques in power are in difficulties.

Changes have taken place everywhere, great switches of policy are being seen, and all these changes do not speak of the strength but of the decay of imperialism and its replacement with socialism.

The defeat which the international communist movement has suffered is temporary. The mountain has to be climbed, but the proletariat will climb the mountain with the banner of Marx, Engels, Lenin and Stalin.


* * *

 

TUESDAY

AUGUST 30, 1977

THE WELCOMING OF TITO WITH GREAT HONOURS IS UTTERLY DISGRACEFUL


The first news from Peking says that Tito arrived there by special aircraft. At the airport he was welcomed by Hua Kuofeng, Ten Hsiao-ping, Li Hsien-nien and many other «outstanding» Chinese leaders, as well as by thousands and thousands of citizens of Peking, singing and beating gongs. Along the whole 30 kilometres from the airport to the city the road was packed with people who cheered for the «hero» Tito, while in Tien An Men Square, a hundred thousand dancers, dressed in national costumes and carrying all sorts of flowers, placards and what have you, had been assembled.

In the morning news, the Italian radio said that up till now there had never been such a reception for any head of state.

However, we hear that in Korea, too, apart from the equally magnificent and pompous welcome, which was given him in the streets of Pyongyang, and in the great square, where Tito was cheered with indescribable enthusiasm, after a trip around the lakes, after many lunches and dinners which were put on in palaces and voyages on yachts, K im Il Sung awarded Tito the «Order of Hero of the People's Democratic Republic of Korea», gave him the jubilee sculpture of the «Fighter Against Imperialism», made him an Honoured Citizen of Pyongyang, and even awarded him the Silver Dagger which, according to their custom, symbolizes the «defender of happiness and security»!

Those who are turning on such a resounding welcome for this renegade from Marxism-Leninism are such pseudo-Marxists that they have made themselves door-mats for him. The bourgeois leaders never demean themselves the way these revisionists do. They are making themselves a laughing stock by displaying such lack of dignity.

 

 

* * *

 

 

TUESDAY

AUGUST 30, 1977

TITO «MEETS» MAO IN THE MAUSOLEUM


Last evening I saw the Italian and Yugoslav television broadcasts in connection with Tito's visit to Peking. Italy did not give this visit any importance. It showed just a few sequences and nothing more, while Yugoslavia was very interested and gave a longer broadcast. I noticed great confusion at the airport, one could not make out where Tito and Hua Kuo-feng were. They both appeared a couple of times, then all that could be seen were the flowers of the people and the school pupils that had gathered at the airport. A great confusion of people, police, Hsinhua correspondents, rushing around, pushing one another, and not allowing the main personages to appear, struck the eye. Tito appeared briefly with Hua Kuo-feng tagging along behind. The great nervousness of the Chinese was obvious. Apparently they were afraid that something might happen to Tito, therefore they had filled the airport with plainclothesmen.

Even when the limousine drove into Tien An Men, a lack of order and discipline was apparent. The scene was quite different in Korea, where nobody moved from the footpaths and the squares. They danced, pranced and waved their flowers and every movement was done in an orderly way.

Even the dinner which the Chinese gave in honour of Tito looked as if it were a private dinner, whereas in reality it was put on in magnificent fashion, in the Great Hall of the People's Assembly, where Hua Kuo-feng and Tito delivered speeches.

Hua Kuo-feng spoke about the warm friendship with the peoples of Yugoslavia and about the heroism of the Yugoslav peoples in the fight for their common aims, etc., but did not mention the construction of socialism in Yugoslavia. Contrary to Tito, who said that war could be avoided, he expressed the opinion that war was inevitable. Hua Kuo-feng also spoke about the great role of Tito in the leadership of the «non-aligned world» and did not fail to say that Tito was the outstanding leader of this «world». Meanwhile Tito, without making explicit mention of the «third world», to which Hua Kuo-feng remains loyal, called this an artificial division and delivered a long tirade in defence of the «non-aligned countries», which, as he put it, «are the only force which can resist imperialism and demand from it that it should not interfere but should help», etc., etc.

It is very clear that their friendship is warm. Hua Kuo-feng said that Mao Tsetung spoke very well of Tito in 1975, saying that he had a steel will. This morning Tito went to lay a wreath in the Mausoleum of Mao Tsetung. Tito, the modern revisionist, was the first of all the leaders who have visited Peking to lay a wreath in the mausoleum.

From the speech which Hua Kuo-feng delivered, it is clear that he is trying to sit on two stools, proclaiming himself with both the «third world» and the «non-aligned world». This has a definite aim. Hua hopes that after the death of Tito, China will lump together Tito's pseudo-world of the «non-aligned» and the «third world», bring about their unification and be the sole leader of these two so-called worlds which, in reality, are the same thing.

I have written somewhere in one of my notes that at present Tito's pseudo-theory of «non-alignment» is to the advantage of American imperialism and the Soviets, because it puts itself in the service of neo-colonialism. Tito who defends such a theory does not deny the contradictions that exist between states, nor those between «non-aligned» states and the imperialism of other capitalist powers. But Tito does not assert this, because he does not want to defend such an evident and important thesis of Marxism-Leninism which no force in the world can oppose. With the term «non-aligned countries», Tito is superior to Mao Tsetung who has divided the world in three because, as I stressed at the 7th Congress of the Party, and as is brought out in the article, «The Theory and Practice of the Revolution», and in all my writings, the «third world» of Mao Tsetung eliminates the fundamental contradictions which exist between socialism and capitalism, between the proletariat and the bourgeoisie, that is, between labour and capital, the contradictions between these dependent states and imperialist powers, and the contradictions between capitalist countries themselves, in a word, the four main contradictions of our epoch.

Hence, from this point of view, the «world» of Mao Tsetung and Hua Kuo-feng is inferior to Tito's «non-aligned world».

Tito calls his «theory» a universal theory, around which all these «non-aligned» states, with their contradictions, with governments of every different type, with different regimes, should rally, because they have to unite to cope with acute political problems and to create a new economic situation in the world. In other words, they must live in peace, in peaceful coexistence, and according to Tito, a more appropriate division of the world's wealth must be made.

In dividing the world in three, Mao Tsetung and Hua Kuofeng have their own aims. They wipe out the contradictions and preach alliances amongst these «three worlds» in order to fight Soviet social-imperialism, which according to them, is the only aggressive superpower. The Chinese have said that the Soviet Union is still unexposed as an imperialist, or social-imperialist revisionist state. Therefore, the Chinese, while considering themselves genuine Marxist-Leninists with this theory, while fighting social-imperialism as the main danger, want to continue the ideological exposure of it with their anti-Marxist Chinese ideology, so that they become the banner-bearers, are considered to be the main Marxist-Leninist leaders who allegedly defeated one superpower — the Soviet Union, and after they have gathered strength from every possible source, will then turn on the other superpower — American imperialism! When?

In the sweet by and by. Thus, the Chinese will «regulate» the situation in the world in peaceful ways without wars, without classes, without the exploitation of man by man! In fact, all this is a fable, which some people believe at present, but which, day by day, will be shown to be a lie. I say a lie, and not utopia, as the revisionist Carrillo says about his «socialist» views when# he says that, if Marx, in his time, had heard of these views, he would have said that these were utopian.



AUGUST 30, 1977

TUESDAY

THE CHINESE, TOO, WILL TRY TO MAINTAIN THEIR «MARXIST» DISGUISE


China with its theory of the «third world», Tito with his theory of the «non-aligned world», and Carrillo and company with «Eurocommunism» have marked tendencies towards an alleged re-examination of the analysis of the situation in the world. They want to form another revisionist ideological bloc, separate from Soviet modern revisionism. As to Marxism-Leninism, this does not come into the question at all, and is disregarded by both the new revisionist bloc and the old Soviet bloc.

The Soviet bloc, with all its satellites, the modern revisionists, who are members of the Warsaw Treaty, disguise themselves under the slogans of Marxism-Leninism. Tito, likewise, disguises himself under the slogans of Marxism-Leninism, although, as is known, he is in no way a Marxist, but a pseudo- Marxist of the same order as the pseudo-Marxists of «Eurocommunism». He is of the same category of renegades as those of the «Communist» Party of Italy, the «Communist» Party of France, the «Communist» Party of Spain, the «Communist» Party of Great Britain, and all those parties which, in fact, fight the ideas of Marxism-Leninism with their revisionist theories and activity. They want to be united in pluralism, that is, to be free to build «socialism» in the way which pleases each of them. The Communist Party of China, which, from the ideological aspect, is very similar to Titoism and the parties of «Eurocommunism», must be counted among them.

With this false front it presents, the Communist Party of China is aiming to create a new grouping under its leadership, just as Soviet modern revisionism has created its own grouping which it is trying to keep together. That is to say, under an hypocritical disguise, it is allegedly building socialism in diversity, and disguising itself with the term Marxism-Leninism, but its theory and activity are not based on Marxism-Leninism and moreover it is against Marxism-Leninism. The Communist Party of China poses as if it desires the independence of each pseudo- Marxist party and accepts that each of them should carry on its activity as it pleases, regardless of the «obsolete dogmas» of Marxism-Leninism, as Carrillo describes them. In reality, the Communist Party of China dreams of becoming the leader of this grouping if not today, tomorrow, when it becomes a great power. It thinks that its pseudo-Marxist theory will predominate through multilateral alliances with the other revisionist parties and the new dependent parties that it is creating all round the world.

Tito, too, is striving to create his own hegemony. In its plans, the League of Communists of Yugoslavia has always had the aim of exerting an influence on the whole international communist movement with its ways and forms. In this case, when we say «communist», it is anti-communist that must be inferred, because what Tito wants is not a communist movement.

All this stagnation, all this confusion, is created to prolong the existence of capital and to combat the ideas of Marx, Engels, Lenin and Stalin. In other words, the revisionists are striving in various ways to ensure that the communist parties, the world proletariat and the proletariat of each country abandon the ideas of Marxism-Leninism, abandon the true science of the revolution, of the dictatorship of the proletariat and the class struggle, which lead to socialism. They are also striving to create certain pseudo-Marxist, pseudo-socialist and pseudo-democratic views, allegedly suitable for the period through which mankind is passing. To all these anti-Marxists, the phenomena of the present period are not like the phenomena of the period in which Marx, Engels and Lenin lived and wrote, and allegedly the forecasts and discoveries of the laws of the revolution and society on their part are not being confirmed in the development of human society today. This is the general essence of the anti-Marxist theory. Thus, on the basis of this pseudo-Marxist theory, it is possible that a hundred and one different theories can be built up, and the aim of each of them will be to fight against the proletarian revolution, while at the same time, posing as if it is proletarian ideology.

This is the aim of all these anti-Marxist groupings that call themselves communist, from Titoism, Khrushchevite revisionism, «Eurocommunism» down to Chinese revisionism. A name may even be found for the «communism» of Asia which corresponds to «Eurocommunism». But the Chinese are not satisfied with finding a name suitable for Asiatic «communism».

They want to put themselves forward as the leaders of world Marxism-Leninism. But this disguise has become tattered and will certainly become even more so, although, like the Soviets, they will make every possible effort to patch up their disguise with «Marxist» paint for as long as possible.


* * *

Hua Guo-feng and Tito

 

 

THURSDAY

SEPTEMBER 8, 1977

THE REVISIONIST WIND OF TITO IS BLOWING TOWARDS THE EAST


This evening I saw the return of Tito from the Soviet Union, Korea and China, on Belgrade television. A triumphal welcome in Yugoslavia. Tens of thousands of people had turned out at the airport, the red carpet stretched for hundreds of metres, while the car into which Tito climbed, was encircled by ten or fifteen motocyelists and followed by a column of countless cars. The whole cortege, with Tito at the head, passed through a multitude of people, placed on both sides of the road, who stirred up and excited, cheered their welcome for Tito. The welcome in Belgrade was the crowning of the pompous welcomes put on for this renegade by Brezhnev, Hua Kuo-feng and Teng Hsiao-ping, and by K im Il Sung, who brought out the whole population to greet this renegade from Marxism-Leninism, who forms and dissolves agreements between traitors, between revisionists and between imperialists, at the expense of the revolution.

The Chinese and the Koreans brought out the people like a mob of sheep which bleated and gambolled. The Chinese think that they can throw dust in the eyes of the peoples with the theory that allegedly «Soviet imperialism must be unmasked because it is still disguised under the cloak of Marxism-Leninism». There is no reason for this, because the Soviet revisionists are being badly exposed and everyone knows that they are not Marxist-Leninists, but revisionists, social-imperialists, renegades from Marxism-Leninism. Even if, for the moment, we accept this «theory» of the Chinese, it cannot be justified that these same Chinese put on a triumphant welcome for Tito, a renegade, a go-between of world capitalism, a saboteur of the revolution, and welcome him with such a fuss and give him such publicity that they raise his reputation and his work to the skies. Is he not exposed? Yes, he is exposed, and moreover, the Chinese themselves have exposed him. Then, what can be said about these activities? We criticized Khrushchev. All the water of the Volga river cannot cleanse him of his sins; and it is the same with Tito. Now that Tito has gone to China not just the Amur but even the Yangtze cannot wash him clean, or the new Khrushchev of China, either. On the contrary, the whole of China is becoming aware of the stench of Hua and Teng. The Titoite wind of the West is blowing towards the East.

At the same time as Tito landed in Belgrade, the minister of agriculture of China, who was going to Belgrade to gain experience from the development of capitalist agriculture in Yugoslavia, landed from another aircraft. They will do the same thing in regard to «self-administration», too. The Chinese will send tens, or even hundreds of delegations to gain experience in everything, with the intention of applying this revisionist anarcho-syndicalist Titoite experience in China to the best of their ability, while maintaining the disguise that they are allegedly building socialism, just as Tito is doing, but a Chinese «specific socialism» like Yugoslav «specific socialism».

The Chinese will do this because they are partners with Tito, and they will act in complete unity together with this renegade in the internal arena and in the international arena.

 

 

in German language

ON THE COMINFORM

(PDF) 

also available in

HTML-FORMAT

 

70th anniversary of the Cominform-Bureau

founded on 23rd of September 1947

published on occasion of the 109th birthday of comrade Enver Hoxha

written by Wolfgang Eggers, 16th of October, 2017

 

Table of Contents

 

PART ONE

1. The place of the Cominform in the history of the communist world movement
-
a critical revision of revisionist historiography -

2. The Cominform
- Timetable - Organizational structure - Participants - Tasks - About the 3 Conferences - Dissolution of the Cominform

PART II

3. Relationship between Comintern and Cominform

4. The revisionist "Shdanov -thesis" of the two world camps

5. The Cominform and the question of the People's Democracy as a "modern type" of the dictatorship of the proletariat
- proletarian or bourgeois democracy? the revisionist degeneration of the People's Democracies - causes.

6. The Cominform and the national question
- Fight against the revisionist "specifically-national road to socialism" -

7. The Cominform in the fight against Tito's "Balkan Federation"

8. The Cominform in the Fight against Titoism

9. The Cominform and the revisionist degeneration of the Communist parties in the capitalist countries

10. The Cominform and the Revisionist degeneration of the CPSU (B)

11. The Cominform and Maoism

PART III

12. The Cominform, Enver Hoxha and the PSR ALBANIA

13. The Cominform and its solid place in the era of world socialism

 

 

 

WHO IS RESPONSIBLE FOR THE CRIMES OF GENOCIDE IN KOSOVA?

 

Article published in the newspaper «Zëri i popullit»
August 31, 1966

 

 

On the Kosova

(Excerpt of the report of Enver Hoxha – presented on the 8th Congress of the PLA – November 1981)

PDF

 

 

WHY WERE POLICE VIOLENCE AND TANKS USED

AGAINST THE ALBANIANS OF KOSOVA?

 

Article published in the newspaper «Zëri i popullil»

April 8, 1981

 

 

 

THE STATUS OF A REPUBLIC FOR KOSOVA IS A JUST DEMAND


Article published in the newspaper «Zëri i popullit»

May 17, 1981

 

 

 

 

QUOTATIONS OF COMRADE ENVER HOXHA

ON KOSOVA

 

The problem of the Albanians who live on their own territories in Yugoslavia is not a problem of a «minority» which has immigrated to or settled somewhere in an «empty» zone as an economic immigration, is not a result of the onslaught of the Ottoman Empire, nor of the natural demographic increase of Albanians, which is worrying the Great-Serb neo-Malthusians. The Albanians in Yugoslavia constitute an ethnos, a people formed centuries ago, who have their own history, language and culture, an autochthonous people who, as is known, were cut up and were separated from their Motherland by the imperialist great powers and annexed to Yugoslavia. This nobody can conceal.

Any other interpretation is arbitrary, a flagrant and harmful falsification of history.

 

 

Kosova and the other regions inhabited by the Albanians belonged to Albania and should be returned to it.

 

 

 

 

The Albanians have fought unceasingly for centuries against many savage enemies, much greater in numbers, in order to defend their national identity and their very existence. In all these wars, both in defeat and in victory, in the long years of enslavement, throughout their history, the Albanian people have never lost their national identity and national consciousness, their compactness and unity. In all circumstances they have manifested these things with an extraordinary and exemplary vitality .

 

 

 

 

It is impossible to keep a people, whose territory contains great wealth and is plundered by others, in poverty and want. It is impossible to keep a valiant people, like the Albanians, under the threat of tanks and bayonets. It is impossible to distort or eliminate their ancient history and culture. It is impossible to wipe out their patriotic sentiments and love for their Homeland.

 

 

 

At the London Conference of Ambassadors of the Great Powers, in 1913. Albania was partitioned. Despite the many protests through diplomatic channels and the armed opposition of the Albanian people, a large part of its northeastern territory, Kosova and other Albanian-inhabited regions, was annexed to the Kingdoms of Serbia and Montenegro.

The Peace Conference of Versailles, in 1919, ignoring the just demands of the Albanian people, reconfirmed the partitioning of the Albanian territories, as was decided by the imperialist powers in London, and left them to the Serbian-Croatian-Slovenian Kingdom, which it created.

in February 1945 a military administration was established in Kosova. At this time, while most of the Kosova brigades were fighting in Croatia and Slovenia for the liberation of the whole of Yugoslavia, the Serb-Montenegrin 52nd and 46th Divisions, the Macedonian 50th Division and others poured into Kosova. Thousands of Albanians accused of various crimes were killed and massacred.

The people of Kosova neither requested nor decided that Kosova should be annexed to the Republic of Serbia.

 

 

 

Three times you have inflicted heavy bloodshed on the martyred Albanian people living in Yugoslavia, 50 thousand of whom fought shoulder to shoulder with the Yugoslav brothers and with the fraternal Albanian people who sent their own liberation shock brigades to Yugoslavia to fight against the nazi-fascist occupiers, the Ballists, the Cetnici and Ustaše. Despite this war, you shed their blood in 1945, in 1968 and again covered them in blood in 1981.

The Albanian people have their own history going back to many centuries, a history full of struggles for freedom, for existence. The enemies tried to exterminate them, but failed. The Albanian people fought and lived through the centuries. They remained a compact ethnic entity, although divided and fragmented.

 

 

 

The Albanian Nation Is One, It Has the One History, Culture and Language.

The demand of Kosova to be granted the status of a Federal Republic is a just one.

We may even live poor, but we want to live free.

The Albanian people have done no one any harm, only good. But no force will deprive them of their legitimate rights.

The Albanian worker of Kosova, who works deep in the mines, does not accept that the underground wealth should be exploited while the wealth on the surface be abandoned, that his brothers should be impoverished and killed by bullets.

 

 

 

We have loved the Serbian people and still do. We hate only Serbian chauvinism, Albanian chauvinism, and any other chauvinism, because we are Marxist-Leninists, because we are internationalists.

 

 

 

 

We are said to have interfered because we publicly condemned the massacres that were perpetrated in Kosova, because we told the truth about thousands of people being killed, wounded and arrested there! Did the Yugoslav leaders expect us to send them our congratulations on these crimes and atrocities? We are said to have interfered because we said in our articles that the people of Kosova have the right to demand the status of a Federal Republic!

 

 

 

We have defended the legitimate rights of our Albanian brothers across the border and we shall continue to defend them in the future with all our might and in a Marxist-Leninist way

 

 

The Yugoslav revisionists plotted to bring about the liquidation of the leadership of the Communist Party of Albania and the incorporation of Albania into the Yugoslav Federation as its 7th republic, aiming in this way, through an annexationist and imperialist course, to resolve the problem of the whole Albanian nation once and for all. However, these plots did not succeed and they will never succeed. Albania is not and never will become a means of regulation to calm the conflicts and contradictions between the Yugoslav clans. It belongs to its people, a people full of vitality, valiant and patriotic, who fear no one.

 

 

The problems of the Balkans are the same as those which are worrying Europe as a whole, but here, because of the strategic position which this peninsula occupies and

the old feuds, the conflicts are more acute and the dangers greater.

The situation is made even more complicated by the fact that the superpowers, proceeding from their hegemonic interests and their desire to transform the Balkans «permamently into a powder keg», are trying to arouse chauvinits passions and sentiments, to pit the Balkan peoples and countries against one another, to prevent the relations between them from developing normally and in a positive direction, and to undermine the strengthening of friendship between neighbouring peoples.

The dangers in the Balkans are increased especially due to the participation of some countries of this region in the military and economic blocs of the superpowers, the

existence of foreign military bases, and permitting the American and Soviet fleets to enter their territorial waters and stay in their ports, etc.

Such developments create tensions and are fraught with dangers for the Balkan peoples. In every direction and aspect they are in opposition to the sincere efforts and desires of the peoples of the Balkans for the establishment of trust, understanding and genuine collaboration between the countries of our peninsula.

The People's Socialist Republic of Albania upholds the view that at present the genuine aspirations of the peoples of the Balkans, peace and stability in this zone, can be served best by not allowing the imperialist superpowers to interfere in the internal affairs of the countries of our region and by taking concrete and constructive steps for the positive development of relations on the basis of the good neighbour policy. The situation in the Balkans would be greatly improved if the Balkan countries undertake officially not to allow the superpowers to threaten or endanger other neighbouring countries from their territories. In the future, just as in the past, socialist Albania will consistently adhere to this policy and will make every effort to ensure that mutual respect and genuine understanding prevail in its relations with the neighbouring states.

 

 

 

 

 

 

The Great-Serb clan is powerful, but for tactical reasons is obliged to surrender the leadership to the Croat-Slovene clan in order to stabilize the situation through a more complete opening up to the West. At present the West is greatly concerned to see the advances the Great-Serbs are making to the Soviet Union.


The savage oppression of the people of Kosova and other Albanians who inhabit their ancestral territories in Yugoslavia continues. However, the resistance of the Albanians is continuing, and increasing, too. They are defending themselves very well and putting up great opposition to the injustices and terror imposed on them by the Great-Serbs, Macedonians and Montenegrins. Their just resistance has turned the problem of Kosova into a disturbing international problem unfavorable to Yugoslavia. But the terror and the efforts being made there to denationalize the Albanians are continuing. Nevertheless, the Serbs will never succeed in this.


The fairest solution to the problem of Kosova and that of the other Albanians who inhabit their own territories in Yugoslavia is the one that the 8th Congress of the Party of Labour of Albania put forward (In his report to the 8th Congress of the PLA, Comrade Enver Hoxha, dealing with the problem of the demand of the Albanians in Kosova for their province to be given the status of a Republic within the Yugoslav Federation. pointed out: "Only a well-considered solution of the national question,... a solution which is accepted and approved by the people of Kosova, can eliminate this very complicated situation which has been brought about not by the people of Kosova, but by Great-Serb chauvinism... The demand to raise Kosova to the status of a Republic within the Federation is a just demand. It does not threaten the existence of the Federation". (Enver Hoxha, Report to the 8th congress of the PLA, Eng ed., "8 Nentori" Publishing House, Tirana 1981, p. 213)). The Great-Serbs and the Federative Socialist Republic of Yugoslavia attacked this solution, while world opinion approved it and considered it correct. The Yugoslavs were denounced both within their country and abroad for their actions against the people of Kosova and the People's Socialist Republic of Albania. They brought great discredit upon themselves with their slanders and the hostility they displayed towards the People's Socialist Republic of Albania. We emerged triumphant, because we defended a just cause. The People's Socialist Republic of Albania and the policy of our Party emerged full of dignity on the international arena and our positions were further strengthened. Today the voice of Albania is listened to with sympathy and attention is paid to its policy.

 

February 1982

 

 

 


Albania has always supported Kosova and the population of other Albanian regions of Yugoslavia in their legitimate rights, but Kosova, all the Albanians who rose in demonstrations, do not realize what colossal assistance they gave Albania by forcing the Yugoslav UDB to play its trump card and destroy its last «great hope» of overthrowing the Marxist-Leninist leadership in Albania, which had continually unmasked and was relentlessly unmasking the Titoite betrayal, self administration, non-alignment, this filthy agency of American and British imperialism, of international reaction, of social-democracy and whoever else you like.

Together with Mehmet Shehu, the agencies of the imperialists, social-imperialists and others, like the Yugoslav UDB, received a blow which they wil feel for a long time. The big main tumour was removed, the sound body of the Party was thoroughly cleansed. However, the Party knows that small microbes that remain may infect separate cells, new microbes may form in its sound body.

Therefore, we must never lower our vigilance.

 

1982, September

 

 

 

 

It was not in my intention to speak today about our relations with Yugoslavia, because we have expressed the stand of our state towards that country a thousand times and we stand by what we have said. However, I am obliged to speak about them, because the Belgrade chiefs not only have turned a deaf ear to what our Party and Government have pointed out, but have built up a whole campaign of slanders and attacks against socialist Albania and its policy which is as clear as the light of day, with all their propaganda and diplomatic means. For at least 40 years on end, not to go further back, the Belgrade chiefs have incited the southern Slavs, and especially the Serbs, to live in constant enmity with the Albanians inhabiting their own territories in Yugoslavia, as well as with independent socialist Albania. This hostility towards the Albanians, this savage chauvinism and contempt towards them, this unrestrained tendency and appetite to annex Albania is something atavistic in them. What makes the issue still more dangerous is that the other southern Slav peoples lack the courage to stop this wave of savagery.

In the time of the National Liberation War we sincerely loved the Yugoslavs, and respected and honoured Tito more than he deserved. We sent large partisan units which fought side by side with the Yugoslav and Kosova Albanian partisan units in Southern and Central Yugoslavia. Hundreds and hundreds of heroic sons and daughters of Albania were killed or wounded for the liberation of Yugoslavia, but now a Serbian dog called Sinan Hasani, comes out and dares to insult the blood they shed. He even goes to such lengths as to claim that the Yugoslavs formed our Party, they organized the Albanian National Liberation War and gave Albania everything. But let the dog bark, that is what he is paid for.

Both in the past and right up to this moment when I am speaking to you, Tito and company have always rejected our hand of friendship and done everything in their power to cut it off. Openly or through their secret agents, for forty years on end Tito and his successors have constantly hatched up plots to destroy socialist Albania, to wreck our Party, to physically liquidate some of its main leaders. This they tried to do through their longstanding agent, the traitor Mehmet Shehu, too. But all their plots failed and they will always fail. In the past the Serbian Kralj . Karadjordjević, together with Wrangel's Great-Russian bands, brought to Albania his agent — the bandit Ahmet Zog, who, as a great traitor to the Homeland, gave Yugoslavia Shën-Naum of Pogradec and Vermosh as a gift in return for this assistance. The Belgrade chiefs want to do the same thing today with the criminal terrorist gangs of a certain hooligan and trafficker in arms, drugs and white slaves, Leka Zogu, [ (3)Son of the former king Ahmet Zog ] to whom, astounding though it may seem, a country friendly to us gives shelter and allows him to give interviews to the press and to call for the overthrow of the people's power in Albania.

We have facts to prove that it was the Yugoslav Titoites who sent to our coast Xhevdet Mustafa's group of gangsters, whom we wiped out mercilessly without giving them time to draw breath or see the sun of Albania. At the appropriate moment the world will be told the details of this affair and what it was intended for. However, the dangerous thing about it is that the Yugoslavs, violating the sovereignty of two countries friendly to us and without their knowledge, trained these criminals and landed them in our country. To train terrorist gangs and send them into another country is a grave criminal act condemned in the practice of international relations.

Now we have only this to say to the Yugoslav Titoites:

don't play with fire, because if a conflagration breaks out, you will get yourselves burnt in it. For our part, we defend ourselves and we know how to do so, we know how to fight and triumph over any enemy. But we do not like this ominous course, full of dangers, which you are following. Nevertheless, if you force our hand we shall give you the reply you deserve. But we tell the Yugoslav leaders not to take this hopeless course which is fraught with many dangers for our two countries, for the Balkans and perhaps even for Europe. You, the southern Slav peoples, are responsible because, instead of making the Great Serbs see reason and forcing them to change course, to adhere to the principles and practice of good neighbourliness with socialist Albania and to establish normal, peaceful relations with the Albanians living in Yugoslavia, you allow them to fan up the flames. We are convinced that there are progressive elements among the other southern Slav peoples, as well as among the Serbs. There is no other way to solve the problems apart from a change in the political stand towards Albania and the Albanians living in Yugoslavia. We shall continue on the course set by the 8th Congress of the Party of Labour of Albania, the main report of which the Yugoslav leaders have read upside down. Our proposals were as wise as they were conciliatory, whereas your course i s fraught with many dangers for Yugoslavia, which we want to remain as it is. You do not pay serious attention to our words which are an expression of the sincere feelings of the Albanian people. So much the worse for you. The world will charge you with grave responsibility.

Some governments of European countries and the United States of America are trifling with our feelings and interests. We say to them that nobody is allowed to trifle with Albania and its interests, as was done in the past.

The old times when the fate of our country could easily be trampled underfoot and Albania could be attacked and partitioned have gone by for good.

We shall continue, as always, to defend our Albanian brothers living on their own territories in Yugoslavia, with all the strength of our hearts, in their rights which the Constitution recognizes to them. Let the Yugoslavs and world opinion have no doubts about this. This is recognized by international law and this is how all those states which have national minorities outside their borders act.

At the 8th Congress of the Party of Labour of Albania we made our stand towards Yugoslavia clear and we remain unshakeable in this stand. The destruction and disintegration of Yugoslavia will never come from us. We are for the stability of the Federation. But with the Great-Serb, Macedonian and Montenegrin chauvinists our conciliatory words go in one ear and out the other. Their eyes have been blinded by their chauvinism and megalomania.

When we appealed for reason and common sense, they pressed on with even more savage terror against the Albanians living on their territories in Yugoslavia. They have thrown into jail thousands of heroic young men and women of Kosova whom they torture barbarously and to whom they apply a thousand insulting epithets. We tell the Yugoslavs to free the young people from prison, for the Albanian cannot tolerate for long such violations of the honour and rights of his young men and women. Let them not fill the cup, because the response may have very dangerous consequences.

All Kosova and the Albanian regions of Yugoslavia have been placed under savage chauvinist military pressure.

Now the «differentiation», which means making Albanians spy on Albanians in favour of sinister Serbian forces, is going on on a large scale. But the people of Kosova cannot accept this shameful course, because it leads to fratricide; while the Great Serbs will rub their hands in glee.

The Serbs are inciting blood feuds among Albanians. Kosova is being plunged in poverty and covered with graves. People do not know where their sons and daughters are. The Albanian intellectuals are being decimated, insulted, humiliated and thrown out in the street. Only in the time of the Inquisition have such persecutions occurred. No, the Albanian people living in Yugoslavia will not allow anything of their sacred national heritage to be suppressed.

Never at any time or in any place has the Albanian bowed in submission to or fled from the enemy when his freedom and legitimate rights have been violated.

You, gentlemen of Belgrade, have sent 60 thousand Serbian soldiers to Kosova to suppress and kill the people of Kosova and to intimidate socialist Albania. But we are not intimidated, we are ready, vigilant to a man. You speak with the language of force, while we try to speak with the language of reason. But we know how to speak in the language of force, too.

Albania is a sensitive strategic key point. Europe must keep this in mind. Some sneer at our fortifications, while arming themselves to the teeth with every kind of weapons, and others underrate our strength. So much the worse for them. Certain journalists whose pens are for hire, certain café politicians with their «analyses of strategic plans», and the Great Serbs in the first place, spread the idea and insinuate that in these or those circumstances, indeed in all circumstances, Albania will be gobbled up by the Russians, will lean to the Soviets, etc.

We tell the Great Serbs, the secret firm friends of the Russians, that there are two ways for the Russo-Bulgarian revisionists to attack Albania in order to reach our part of the Adriatic coast. The one way is through the Vardar and Kosova and the other through the Straits of Otranto.

In the first case, without the slightest doubt, the whole Albanian people living in Kosova and other regions of Yugoslavia — in Skoplje and Kaçanik, in Tetova and Gostivar, in Llap and Plava-Gucia, will meet the aggressors with guns. The whole of Yugoslavia will be ablaze and the Russo-Bulgarian revisionist invaders, if they ever succeed in reaching our Alps, will be in the same shape as the German nazis after the battle of Stalingrad.

In the second case, we Albanians hold the key to the Straits of Otranto. Sazan Island and the Karaburun Peninsula — and do not fear that I am revealing any secret, are rocks clad in iron and concrete which the Soviet naval fleet cannot pass.

If our Russo-Bulgarian enemies and others want to embark on such adventures they ought to know that the Albanians are not a state of three million, but a nation of s ix million people. Ours was a small people in the time of the Second World War, but although alone and unarmed, they defeated and liquidated a considerable number of Italian fascist and German nazi divisions. Now the times have changed in favour of socialist Albania, hence: Hands off Albania !

Albania threatens nobody, it wants to live in friendship with the others but, if anyone violates its rights and borders, it will retaliate in kind. Likewise, it will reply in the sternest manner to the injustices or insults anybody might employ against it.

I am speaking openly and this is the firm opinion of all our people. We say what we think; others have not failed to speak against us and moreover to slander us. We make no unfounded statements and do not indulge in slanders.

Herein lies our strength, and that is why the progressive peoples respect socialist Albania just as we have great respect for them. For this just and benevolent stand we offer them our heart-felt thanks.

Messrs the Yugoslav leaders arrogate to themselves the right to raise their voice about the «injustices» the Bulgarians, the Greeks or the Albanians allegedly commit against the Macedonians of Pirin and Aegeus or the tiny Macedonian minorities in Albania, while we, according to them, have no such right. They accuse us of «interfering in their internal affairs» when we defend the rights, under the laws of the Federation, of our brothers, whom they not only deny their rights, but whom they kill, imprison, and force into emigration, while Serbian and Montengrin colonists are brought into their birthplace to replace them.

It was Mr Stambolić who launched the slogan of an «ethnically pure Kosova» which the «Albanian nationalists» allegedly demanded. This is not a slogan of the Albanians, but of the Great Serbs, launched in order to drown Kosova in blood. The Serbs and Montenegrins were rightly frightened by this policy of terror and began to flee from fear and because of the poverty that prevails in Kosova. The Great Serbs are now trying to saddle the Albanians with this crime, although they themselves are responsible for the exodus of Serbs and Montenegrins.

Recently the Yugoslavs, assisted by their friend — Russia, have been gathering up «Macedonians of the Aegeus» from all over the place in order to have them as a vanguard for Greece. One fine morning we shall hear that Alexander the Great was a Slav, too. Why shouldn't they do even this? They have a precedent in the Great-Russian «historian» of the 19th century, Vasilyevsky. In his book on Byzantium he goes to such lengths as to write there in black and white that since the modern Greeks are Orthodox christians, they are Slavs, hence they do not originate from the ancient Greeks who gave mankind one of the most brilliant civilizations in the world. With the full conviction of a Great-Russian chauvinist, Vasilyevsky states quite boldly in his book: «The modern Greeks are of Slav origin.»

 

November 10, 1982

 

 

 

The Yugoslav Titoites are sworn enemies of socialist Albania. For 40 years on end they have striven with all manner of means to impede our advance. We won because right was on our side, because we were confident in the line of the Party, and relied on Marxism-Leninism. Yugoslavia is up to the neck in debts, although recently we are hearing the Titoites using the phrase «we are building socialism with our own forces». But the world is not blind and can clearly see that Yugoslavia is building capitalism with foreign forces. They do not say this, but we say this to them every day. This has made them to launch even more vicious attacks on us.

Those who are financing Yugoslavia and propping it up say so openly in their press, indeed they have admitted to us verbally, that they are giving Yugoslavia «oxygen» to breathe, otherwise, it would die. The capitalist states are competing as to who will grant more credits to this insatiable monster. This competition enriches foreign and domestic capital, while the people languish in misery and poverty. There prices are constantly rising and inflation is soaring. Likewise, unemployment and national oppression have increased.

Titoite Yugoslavia has been transformed into a chessboard for the game between two opponents, the United States of America and the Soviet Union. The outcome of this game is «check-mate» for Yugoslavia, but also a threat to peace and security in the Balkans, Europe and the world.

The world today, comrades, is going through a turbulent situation, the threat of war is great. Everybody admits this publicly. But what is done to prevent this? There is much talk, indeed regional and international meetings are held about it. But what comes out of them? Nothing.

On the contrary, the danger of a nuclear war is increasing and the capitalist-revisionist world is feverishly arming.

Who is inciting this histeria of a new war? On the one hand, NATO, led by the United States of America, and on the other hand, the Warsaw Treaty, led by the Soviet Union.

What are the so-called non-aligned countries doing in these circumstances? Some of them, egged on by the superpowers, are fighting amongst themselves in Africa , the Middle East, Asia, Central America, and elsewhere. In these countries peoples are shedding their blood for the interests of the superpowers, which are dividing and redividing the spheres of influence, inspiring and carrying out plots against the peoples, inciting the slaves of the dollar or the ruble to encroach on the borders of one another.

Currently, the leaders of Titoite Yugoslavia are trotting about in all directions trying to envenom the situation, screaming that «the threat to Yugoslavia, the Balkans, and Europe comes from socialist Albania,» «from the dictatorship of Enver Hoxha,» «from Albania's non-participation in the Helsinki Conference, the Madrid Conference,» or any other such meetings which have yielded and are yielding no result, on the contrary, now we see that nuclear missiles are to be stationed in Europe and the menace of the outbreak of a world war is imminent.

Can a world war which threatens to break out be avoided if the policy of the Soviet Union, the United States of America, NATO, the Warsaw Treaty, the European Common Market and Comecon is not opposed and exposed?

Can a world war be avoided by getting into debt to the one and the other, by smiling now at the one now at the other, by resorting to blackmail against and making concessions to the one or the other? No, in no way! On the contrary, this leads to catastrophe.

Our defence of the rights of our Albanian brothers in Yugoslavia does not mean, as the Titoites claim, that we wish Yugoslavia ill . No. We have proclaimed our stands clearly and publicly. We have never interfered in the internal affairs of Yugoslavia. It is the Yugoslav Titoites who have plotted and continue to plot against the freedom and independence of the Albanian people and socialist Albania.

We are aware of and always bear in mind the aims of all those why organize secret plots of a fascist-clerical and annexionist character to destroy our regime and partition Albania. However, it must be clear to all that they will never succeed in their sinister aims. The Albanian people will smash all plots and hostile activities, just as they did with the hated criminal band of the multiple agent Mehmet Shehu. We constantly weed our garden, other weeds may crop up, but we have «herbicides» to fight them.

 

September 30, 1983

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Enver Hoxha

on TITOISM