quotations and texts

arranged by Wolfgang Eggers







The book «Reflections on the Middle East» by
Comrade Enver Hoxha, First Secretary of the Central
Committee of the Party of Labour of Albania


excerpt of the Foreword

Passing from one article to the other, the reader will also see what place Israel occupies and the role it has played and is playing in the context of the anti-Arab general strategy of American imperialism, what efforts the United States of America has made and is still making to ensure «secure borders», that is, borders which include all the Arab territories occupied by armed force, for its «pistol» in this region. The basis of the American-Israeli friendship and the political, economic and military alliances between them has always been and still is their common hostility and wars against the Arab peoples.

In the materials included in this book the attitudes of the Party of Labour and of the People's Socialist Republic of Albania to all the problems which have to do with the Middle East crisis are expressed frankly; the firm principled stands of our country and people in favour of the struggle of the Palestinian people and other Arab peoples against Israel and the two imperialist superpowers.




M A Y 25, 1967

Israel, a state spawned by imperialism and reactionary Zionism in the Near East, is like a pistol amidst the Arab peoples and states, in this zone of economic and military importance. This region has been a centre of clashes between British, French, American and various other imperialists.

While oppressing the Arab peoples, trampling their freedom, independence, rights and sovereignty underfoot, all these wolves have mercilessly exploited the wealth of the countries which make up this region, and in order to perpetuate this exploitation they have built up a broad network of agents, some of whom they placed at the head of these peoples and defended with their colonial armies and their gun-boat diplomacy.

Today Israel and Jordan are two allegedly independent states, but in reality they are two hotbeds of danger created by American and British imperialism, which hinder the Arab peoples in the development and strengthening of their independence.

Israel has continually provoked the Arab countries, has continually created armed border incidents, has attacked Egypt and Syria and has the tendency to expansion and domination. Recently it has provoked Syria and is preparing for war.

There is a smell of oil and gunpowder.

Whenever the interests of the imperialist monopolies in this zone are threatened, the provocateur Israel launches military actions. This is what occurred when the Suez Canal was nationalized by Egypt, this is what is occurring now when the interests of the Anglo-American monopolies and the routes to their oil concessions are threatened.

Herein, in the efforts of the big monopolies to plunder the wealth, especially the oil, of the Arab countries of the Middle East, lies the essence of the conflict between the imperialist powers and the Arab countries and peoples. Therefore, the struggle of the Arab peoples to throw off the savage political-economic yoke of imperialism as quickly as possible is just.

Egypt, Syria, Iraq and Algeria have risen against Israel and also against its allies. Will they come to grips? For known reasons this cannot be answered, but in any case, Egypt expelled the UNO troops, those international gendarmes who defended the Americans and Israeli's interests, from Sinai. It is threatening to blockade the Strait of Tiran which would leave Israel only one entry open, that on the Mediterranean.




M A Y 30, 1967


Notes for an article

Support for the Arab peoples in their struggle against American imperialism and its tool, Israel, is important for the policy of our state because, regardless of the existing regimes, we support the Arab peoples and defend their independence and sovereign rights which are threatened by the American imperialists.

Contradictions exist at present between Egypt and the Americans and it is clear that Nasser's correct action in connection with the expulsion of the UNO troops from Sinai and taking control of the Strait of Tiran has angered the Americans and the British, who are exerting pressure, but getting nowhere. On this issue Nasser won the unity of a number of Arab states, albeit only temporarily and on one issue. This, of course, can be considered a political defeat for the Americans and the British who, you might say, are left with Israel as their only f i rm foothold in this zone. For the time being it seems their struggle will be restricted to a struggle of intrigues and pressures to disrupt the Arab unity which is being created and to break the encirclement of Israel. Later, if they triumph in these directions, they may raise their voices in opposition or undertake some adventure, but the adventure will cost them dear, therefore they are not rushing things. For the time being they will content themselves with keeping Israel undamaged.



JUNE 6, 1967


Yesterday morning the war between the Arabs and Israel began. Each side is accusing the other of starting it. But without doubt Israel began the war.

It has made provocation its normal method.

It committed provocations over the question of the Suez Canal and attacked first, even before its Anglo-French patrons. The Egyptians had nationalized the Canal and were, of course, in readiness.

The aims of the UAR and the other Arab states are known, because they have been declared openly. In fact Israel is a state created by imperialism and international Zionism, making use of the Israelite diaspora. No aims based on altruism or national sentiments impelled the British or American imperialists to create the state of Israel. Their aims were linked with their own predatory economic and strategic interests in the Middle East, to preserve their bases and to have a centre of diversion amongst the Arab states.

In these conditions the state of Israel was created, mostly with emigrants from Poland, the Ukraine, Rumania and other countries, who joined the contingent of Jews born in the country.

The state of Israel is under the domination of Zionist and American reaction.

The aggressive tactic of Israel is typically like that of the Americans. They attacked first to break the «encirclement», to extend their borders and to advance to the Suez Canal, the perpetual dream and ambition of imperialists. He who holds the Suez Canal holds Egypt, holds the key to a vital passage to three continents.

Our merchant ships, too, pass through the Suez Canal, but the liberation struggle of the UAR and the Arabs is a struggle of all of us not just for this reason alone.

Now we must follow the development of the fighting carefully and with vigilance. In the early stages Israel will have the large-scale but disguised assistance of the American and British air forces, which will attack the vital centres of the UAR and the other Arab countries without mercy.

On the other hand, there will be lots of resounding but worthless demagogy from the

UNO, Moscow and the Vatican.



JUNE 7, 1967


The aggressive military forces of Israel are approaching the Suez Canal and putting it in danger. The Egyptian military forces are retreating.



JUNE 7, 1967


Undoubtedly, the Arabs were bound to taste the treachery of the Soviet revisionists. They have supplied the Arabs with obsolete fighting equipment and the Americans are fully informed about the Egyptians' military potential.

The Israelis struck what seems like a mortal blow at the Egyptian air force and, according to communiques, the Egyptians are withdrawing towards the Canal pursued by the Israeli forces.

The American air force has given the Israelis powerful assistance because they, too, had losses.

Nevertheless, they have someone who supplies them, long live Uncle Sam. As we foresaw, however, the Soviets have left the Arabs in the lurch, are not supplying them with aircraft, or supplying a few old «Mig-17s», which means «go and commit suicide in the sky.»

The Security Council Resolution on a ceasefire, approved unanimously last evening under the full American-Soviet agreement, is a second Tashkent, a betrayal by the Soviet revisionists, who make no distinction at all between the aggressor, Israel, and Egypt fighting for its sovereign rights in the Gulf of Aqaba.



JUNE 7. 1967


The article «The Soviet Revisionists — Betrayers of the Arab Peoples' Cause», has been sent to the newspaper «Zëri i popullit». The reason for the article is the approval by the Security Council of an anti-Arab resolution which calls for a cease-fire precisely when the Arab countries have been subjected to the military aggression of Israel. The Soviets, too, endorsed this resolution. In the article, we support the just struggle of the Arab peoples.




JUNE 8, 1967



The Americans are supplying the Israelis with aircraft and are bombing the Arab forces with their own aircraft. The Soviets, those false and perfidious friends of the Arabs, are not supplying the UAR with aircraft, or, themselves remain at the controls of the few they do supply.

Why? They are in complete agreement with the Americans.

They want the UAR and all the Arab peoples to bow their heads under the American-Soviet political, economic and military yoke.



JUNE 8, 1967

Published in the newspaper «Zëri i popullit» on June

13, 1967. under the title: «An Agent of the Americans and

False Friend of the Arab Peoples» (Enver Hoxha, Works,

vol. 35, «8 Nëntori» Publishing House, Tirana 1982, p. 430

Alb. ed.).


Tito began to cool off towards Nasser, who understood that Tito was a perfidious liar who hatched up plans to the detriment of the UAR and other peoples. In the UAR Tito's diabolical game was unmasked. There the Americans did not have the success they had in Indonesia and Ghana. So they temporarily discontinued playing the card of Tito and played the card of Moshe Dayan, the card of Israel, instead.

The UAR and the Arab peoples were becoming a threat to American and British imperialism and that is why this time they employed not the Titoite diversion, but the armed attack of Israel.

The facts and history have confirmed what our Party has been saying for decades on end, that Titoism is nothing but an agency of the Americans...

The United States of America, with its demagogic slogan about the «third force» succeeded in getting some countries under its domination, into its clutches. But the firm opposition of the Arab peoples to the American-Israeli imperialist aggression was a significant fact in this direction; it foiled the demagogy of the «third force» in an important zone.




JUNE 9, 1967


Yesterday the cease-fire with Israel was imposed on Egypt. In practice the war came to an end after the aggressive armies of Israel, powerfully supported by American imperialism and indirectly by Soviet social-imperialism, occupied the bank of the Suez Canal. Now the Egyptian people will suffer more than ever. The imperialist and revisionist powers will impose enslaving conditions on Egypt and divide their spheres of influence. The Soviet revisionists in Egypt and the Anglo-Americans in the other countries of the Orient will implant their claws as deeply as possible in the Arab countries.

We must continue to defend the fraternal Arab peoples in these difficult days. The Soviet revisionists openly played the dirty role of partners of American imperialism. In all their activity they assisted the Israeli aggressor and demoralized, discouraged, and threatened the UAR.

The Soviet-American joint resolution taken in the Security Council solely on a cease-fire, without defining the aggressor, without condemning the United States of America and Britain for their joint aggression, and without demanding the withdrawal of the Israeli troops, is complete confirmation of the Soviet-American agreement.

The demand of the Security Council for a ceasefire when Israel had achieved its predetermined objectives, meant the «capitulation of Egypt».

And that is what it is. This is a great lesson for the revolutionary peoples, which shows, first of all, that you must fight valiantly to the end yourself and, above all, have confidence in the strength of your own people and your own organization.

This does not mean underestimation of internationalist aid (the genuine reliable aid of friends).

The Soviet revisionists behaved treacherously with the Arab peoples, just as they did with the Congo, Cuba and Santo Domingo. They will do the same thing with everybody, their line is clearly anti-revolutionary, capitulationist and imperialist. In the future the Soviets will become open aggressors and no longer operate under disguise as they are trying to do at present. That is where the logic of their treachery will lead them because they are progressive, freedom-loving and militant. They have fought for their freedom and independence against imperialist colonizers. This defeat which they have suffered will be a great lesson to them, because they will be even better acquainted with the imperialists and their new games and tricks, and recognize the Soviet, Titoite and other modern revisionists even more clearly as betrayers of the peoples. These peoples will discard many of the illusions which have been created among them and the lies which others have told them. Their misfortunes will temper them. They will not lay down their arms. This is a temporary defeat. The revolution is advancing and will forge ahead amongst the Arab peoples, in Africa and elsewhere.




JUNE 10, 1967


Nasser's resignation is another retreat like that of his army before the pressure of the Israeli enemies. Is this resignation impelled by despair over the defeat, or is it the result of the internal pressure from his opponents? We shall see. Perhaps it is the result of both. However, his speechto the people, apart from other things, includes his admission of the military defeat and his excuses.

Of course, these excuses have some basis in that Israel was assisted by the Americans and the British who were in cahoots with the Soviets.

He said this openly. He speaks of the pressure from Kosygin, who told him not to attack first, because Israel was not going to attack. The fact is, however, that Israel attacked the UAR. The excuses about the surprise and the failure to take the necessary measures do not hold water. At the same time, the resignation linked with his past «revolutionary» activities brought aboutwhat Nasser was aiming at in his speech: the masses rose in demonstrations in his favour, the assembly was hastily summoned and did not accept his resignation. He withdrew it. I think that this was a good thing. Those who would have succeeded him would have been men of compromise, men of the Americans, the British and the Soviets. Nasser fought also against the supporters of the Israelis and got a bloody nose. He will not forget this defeat and will try to restore his personal honour. This does not mean that he will not come to terms with them later, but he has some pride...


JUNE 12, 1967


The Israeli attack on the Arab countries brought out very clearly the state of the armies of those countries of the Middle East. They are not properly organized armies and very far from being people's liberation armies. They were smashed by the Israeli army which, as a weapon of the Zionist bourgeoisie, proved to be more organized, stronger, more disciplined, with a better fighting spirit than those of the Arab countries, which, taken together, greatly outnumber it . . .

The defeat also highlighted the lack of any real unity between the different Arab states in the Middle East. Although the sense of being Arabs and the Moslem religion link them together, this has not been enough to establish unity among them. The alliances and friendships between Arab states have been sporadic, temporary, formal and momentary. The imperialists, through their agents, have done much to encourage this state of affairs in order to impede and damage Arab unity.

Of course, following the liberation of these peoples, the imperialists cannot operate with their intrigues as they did previously. Nevertheless, through their tools, they are operating continuously, directly or indirectly, to weaken the Arab unity which has begun to be felt as a necessity in the face of the efforts of imperialism to maintain the old «divide and rule» policy. Imperialism is aware of this danger and that is why it attacked by means of Israel.

On the other hand, Israel, as a reactionary bourgeois state, is compact and well-organized for aggressive war. Irrespective of their internal contradictions, in face of the «Arab threat», the Israelis are compact. At all times and in everything they turn their attention to the «defence» of their state and leave no opportunity unexploited in their own interest.

The imperialists are well pleased with this line of Israel, which they nurture and assist, and have this state like a loaded pistol in their belts and fire it whenever they need, as the gangsters they are.

If the Americans and Soviets impose a new Munich on the Arabs in favour of Israel, then the Arabs will become even angrier and the war will continue, the preparations for new attacks will continue and the unity of the Arab peoples against the imperialists and the revisionists will be prepared better.




JUNE 13, 1967



The Arab peoples are already convinced from their bitter experience how much such «friends» are worth. And this experience has to do not only with what has occurred these days, but also with the future stands and aims of the Soviet revisionist leadership which wants to take advantage of the suffering of the Arab peoples to strengthen its collaboration and become a partner with the other great power or else to place itself on behalf of the Arab peoples at the head of the coming diplomatic and political struggle for the settlement of the Arab-Israeli conflict.



J U L Y 5, 1967


The Israeli aggression is already known to the whole world, and those who urged and directly aided this aggression are known, too. Likewise, the treachery of the revisionists is recognized. After stabbing the Arabs in the back, the Soviet revisionists were obliged to do what they could to enhance their lost prestige through demagogy. During the period of the Israeli aggression, all the peoples of the world saw once again the dirty face of the Soviet revisionist capitulators, saw more clearly once again that the revisionists are friends of the American imperialists. The peoples saw that the United States of America acts, attacks, enslaves, while the Soviet revisionists beat the drum to conceal the aggression under the din.

In order to compensate for the discredit which they suffered in betraying the Arabs during the Israeli aggression, the Soviet revisionists, «fuming with wrath and indignation» against Israeli and the Americans, took the problem to UNO. «That is where the Americans will see what they can expect from us,» trumpeted the revisionists, and «big brother» Kosygin set out for New York with all his «pots and pans», not forgetting to take along Zhivkov and Tsedenbal.

All of them are rushing to the halls of UNO like the heroes of the legends in «defence» of the unfortunate Arabs. They are sharpening their swords, but they are made of cardboard.

During this period the Americans strengthen and consolidate the positions won through aggression in the Middle East, and the extinguishers of revolutions, the Soviet revisionists, work on the Arabs from the other side to suppress any uprising of them against the two main colonizers.

Everywhere the Arabs say: «You Albanians are our faithful brothers, you alone are loyal and brave friends, you are an example to us.»



J A N U A R Y 6. 1969


The Middle East is populated by various peoples and tribes. They all call themselves Arabs, but do not all have the same origin. The religion that allegedly unites them is Islam, but an Islam divided into various sects of ancient origin which have fought one another for centuries, caused bloodshed among the peoples and became the banners of various leaders in mediaeval and modern times and, indeed, in our time.

Today, the religion which still inspires these peoples in the Middle East, does not present itself so divided by the sects, although these exist and have their followers. There is, you might say, a certain coexistence among them under the general cover of the Moslem religion. However, modern development, the spread of materialist ideas and science, have greatly weakened the influence of religion and have obliged it to preach general ideas and to retain only the formal application of its traditional practices. Nevertheless, we are far from being able to say that the Arab peoples in the Middle East have escaped from the religious belief.

Living amongst these peoples, there are also followers of the Orthodox faith (the Copts) and the Jews. The latter, with the aid of the Anglo- American imperialists, have created their state of Israel, the spawn of the manoeuvres of international capital and Zionism.

The Moslem religion has been tolerant and liberal towards other faiths and, in the course of history, there have been no burning problems amongst them, although I am referring to modern times and not the times of the Crusades.

Now the Arab-Israeli conflict has become an acute problem in the Middle East.

In my opinion, however, the main cause of the crisis in the Middle East is not the existence of the state of Israel. The state of Israel as a dynamic, aggressive, capitalist state, has lined itself up actively with the enslaving plans of world imperialism, especially of American imperialism to keep the whole Middle East in bondage.

From this standpoint, the state of Israel, and this is not the only one, has become the «arrowhead» of American imperialism. Israel is a satellite of the Americans, which follows and applies the American strategy, in general, although in some cases it seems as though Israel «acts on its own», but this is only tactics and pressure which it uses, relying on the support of big Zionist capital and the large numbers of Jewish voters in the USA.

Hence, in the Middle East the problem is to fight American, British, and French imperialism and their tools, one of which is the state of Israel; to fight Soviet revisionist imperialism which, under the camouflage of socialism, is seeking its place in the sun of the Middle East and the African continent.

Arab unity, that is, the unity of the forces ruling in the Arab states, has proved to be nonexistent, and this is natural, because these forces have opposing antagonistic interests and are manipulated by imperialism. The Arab unity in the war against the state of Israel lasted no more than five or six days and collapsed together with their so-called military unity. This proved that the internal organization of the Arab states themselves was exceptionally weak.

The victory of Israel, the imperialist «arrowhead», struck a heavy blow at the facade of Arab unity which was only talk. World imperialism, the American and Soviet imperialists, needed this to strengthen their colonialist positions in this region again, to redivide their spheres of influence, to smash the possible genuine Arab unity, to attack the revolution, to remove the threat of it, etc.

Now they are all trumpeting that the main danger to the Arab peoples is Israel, and allegedly, their revenge is being prepared under this slogan. In fact, under such slogans new, heavier chains are being prepared for the Arab peoples.

To prepare his «revenge» Nasser is relying on the Soviet revisionists who are now established in Egypt, Syria and elsewhere. The allegedly independent policy of the UAR is controlled by Moscow which supplies it with some weapons which the U A R is unable to use as it likes and when it likes. Hence, the U A R is at the mercy of the Soviets, like a liver hung around a wolf's neck. Israel is secure from this aspect, because it is stronger militarily, more compact, because it is based firmly on the victory which it achieved, because it is supported by American imperialism and indirectly by Soviet social-imperialism. Israel knows that as long as the United States of America and the Soviet Union, which decide everything in the Middle East, have not decided to attack one another, its cause is triumphant. In this situation, any settlement in the Middle East will be made by the Soviets and the Americans first in their own interests, second, in the interests of Israel, and always to the detriment of the Arab states and peoples...

At present everybody is presenting plans for the settlement of the Middle East problem.

These plans carry the name of the «settlement» of the state of war between Israel and the U A R and other countries. The Soviet revisionist diplomacy is in action. Gromyko personally went to Nasser to impose the Soviet plan, of course, co-ordinated with the Americans. In the final analysis, this plan will be in favour of Israel which will gain rights and concessions. Whether or not the Arab chiefs submit to it depends on Israel's demands. The demands of Israel, too, are co-ordinated with the immediate and long-term interests of American imperialism. The Soviets are trying to get the whole thing concluded quickly, because they are afraid of possible complications, of the Israeli attacks, and if there are complications the Soviet revisionists will be exposed in the eyes of the Arabs for the second time, because they will certainly leave them in the lurch, as usual. On the other hand, the Soviets want to consolidate the positions they have gained in the UAR and elsewhere, and they can do this rather in «peace and quiet» than in a minefield. However, Nasser and others like him, in themselves, are people who vacillate this way and that, and they might turn their backs on the Soviets and make approaches to Washington.

Since they will be making concessions to Israel, Nasser and company would prefer to have guarantees from the patron of Israel, that is, from the United States of America. The Soviet revisionists see this danger and that is why Gromyko hastened to Cairo and, of course, others more important than he may follow him.

Nasser, who had cooled off towards Tito, has now begun to move closer to him. This is a bad sign for the Soviets. The Yugoslav agent of the Americans does not go into action without aims and objectives set by his patron. For the United States of America the problem is not simply one of gaining rights for Israel, but also of securing and strengthening its own positions, and even clearing the Soviets out of the whole territory of Africa.

The United States of America wants to repair the mistake it made in leaving the way open to them. This is what the struggle is all about. In this struggle the cliques in the Middle East are mere pawns in the tragic game of American imperialism and Soviet social-imperialism to the detriment of the Arab peoples.


APRIL 8, 1969


«Zëri i popullit», April 9, 1969 (Enver Hoxha, Works, vol. 40, «8 Nëntori» Publishing House, Tirana 1983, p. 395, Alb. ed.).

Apart from theIsraeli military aggression, the Arab peoples also have to cope with the grave plots which the United States of America, the Soviet Union and their tools hatch up one after the other. An article which I prepared in recent days entitled «Imperialist-Revisionist Deals behind the Scenes Against the Arab-Peoples» has been sent to the newspaper «Zëri i popullit». It is to be published tomorrow.

The article makes three main points:

a) The heads of American imperialism and Soviet social-imperialism have held a series of meetings and talks behind the scenes during which they prepared the terrain for holding a four power conference (The USA, the Soviet Union, France and Britain) at the rank of their permanent representatives to the Security Council.

Their first meeting was held on April 3 in New York. The official communique published after this meeting points out amongst other things that «they commenced the examination of the problem of how they (the four powers) could assist the peaceful political settlement in the Near East».

b) The imperialist-revisionist propaganda is giving a great deal of publicity to this meeting as an «important event», as «an expression of their desire» for the establishment of peace in the Middle East, etc. It is trying to create the impression among the Arab peoples and among public opinion in general that this initiative of the two powers, the USA and the Soviet Union, is allegedly intended to establish peace and stability in the Middle East and to put an end to the conflict between Israel and the Arab countries.

c) The secret four-party talks in New York have nothing at all to do with any «desire» of the imperialist powers for peace and stability in the Middle East. They are nothing but imperialist and revisionist bargaining to lure the Arab peoples into a trap and to impose the neo-colonialist plot on them. Therefore Arab public opinion has rejected the «foreign guardianship» and has condemned the so-called peaceful settlement of the Middle East question by the four great powers. Life is more and more convincing them that for the realisation of their aspirations they must not base their hopes on the phoney aid and support of false friends, the Soviet revisionists, or on the unprincipled imperialist-revisionist talks.




JANUARY 5, 1970


We, of course, will not take part in the international parliamentary meeting which the Arabs propose (on the urging of the Soviets). We must justify this to them and tell them that we are not going to reduce, but will increase our aid to the Arab peoples who are fighting for their freedom against Israel and imperialism.



J A N U A R Y 16, 1970


The struggle of the Arab peoples against Israel has been reduced simply to the partisan war which the Palestinians are waging against the occupiers of their homeland. The others, you might say, are only talking, delivering «fiery» discourses, holding conferences and meetings at every level, taking and rescinding decisions, but Israel and the United States of America learn what they decide immediately and thus everything is nipped in the bud.

Israel is poised over the Arab countries like a hawk: the Arabs kill one Israeli, the Israels kill twenty in reprisal, the Arabs damage one Israeli aircraft, the Israelis burn 50 aircraft on the ground, the Arabs capture one Israeli border guard, the Israelis capture twenty-two Arabs on the following day. A 7-ton modern Soviet radar locator on the shores of the Suez Canal was dismantled, loaded into helicopters and taken to Tel-Aviv.

Nasser has placed himself under the orders of the Soviets just as the kings and heads of state of Jordan, Saudi Arabia, etc. are under the order of the British and the Americans. Hence, the only ones who are really fighting in the Arab world are the Palestinian partisans. They have become dangerous to all, therefore some want to fight and exterminate them, while others want to get them into their clutches. The Nasser group is smiling at them but wants to run them, because by means of them it wants to show that it is fighting, but it also wants to dominate them because they may upset the opportunist deals which that group is making. The Soviets, who work to extinguish national liberation revolutionary wars, want to get tight control of «Al-Fatah» and the other Palestinian partisan groupings, and direct them, in the interests of their imperialist policy as they are doing in Egypt. This is what occurs wherever national liberation wars are being waged: when the aggressors are being smashed and defeated and the peoples are triumphing, the Soviet revisionist intervene with demagogy, promise alleged supplies of arms and other aid, but they do this to extinguish the war, to ensure that the victory is lost and to rescue the aggressors. This is what the Soviets are doing now with «Al-Fatah». Allegedly they are on the side of the Palestinians, allegedly they want to help them, but without doubt they want to dig their grave. We must expose them in this anti-Palestinian activity.

«Al-Fatah» must never fall into their trap.



JANUARY 20, 1970


«Zëri i popullit», January 21, 1970 (Enver Hoxha, «Against Modern Revisionism, 1968-1970 (Collection of Works)», «8 Nëntori» Publishing House, Tirana 1979, p. 565, Alb. ed.).

I re-read the article, «The Armed Struggle of the Palestinian People Is Invincible». I added a paragraph in which I pointed out that, while providing some weapons, the Soviet revisionists, among other things, will try to take over the leadership of the Palestinian national liberation war, because the arms will be supplied on conditions and these conditions will be accompanied with their «advisers», «specialists», spies and saboteurs. The article will be published tomorrow in «Zëri i popullit».



FEBRUARY 18, 1970


By continually bombarding the Egyptian positions, the Israelis, at the same time, are discrediting the Soviet Union, which poses as the defender of Egypt and the Arab peoples. In fact, the Soviet Union is supplying the Arabs with obsolete defensive weapons and not offensive weapons, and in each aircraft, there is a Soviet airman who does not allow the aircraft to take off without the orders of the Soviet staff in Egypt. Of course, such control is exerted in the Egyptian military detachments, too.



JULY 28, 1970


I gave instructions about our stand in connection with the beginning of the compromise between Nasser and the Americans over peace with Israel. Our propaganda work must continue:

in defence of our earlier theses for the exposure of the «Rogers Plan» and the Soviet-American plot, and to defend the liberation war of the Palestinian people for their rights. We must portray the conflict between Egypt and the other Arab countries as it is.



JULY 29, 1970


A delegation of «Al-Fatah», Movement for the National Liberation of Palestine, is coming to our country these days for an official visit. Yasser Arafat personally asked our embassy in Cairo for permission to send a delegation.

We have sympathy and respect for the Arab people of Palestine, because they are a brave people who are suffering. At the moment they are the only Arab people who are fighting all round the borders of Israel, while some Arab leaders, from those of Egypt to those of Lebanon, are merely talking, holding conferences, preparing... for compromises, etc.

The Palestinians, expelled from their land by the British colonialist government and from UNO in favour of Israel, are living in tents, in great hardship, in camps in Jordan, Lebanon, Syria and elsewhere. The latest Israeli aggression increased the number of Palestinian refugees, so the only road of salvation left to them was that of the partisan war. And they began it, attacking the Israeli aggressors from outside, from Jordan, Syria and Lebanon, and from inside, in the territory occupied by Israel.

Thus, thanks to the struggle of the Palestinians, the Palestinian question has become an important national and international issue, which both the friends and the enemies of the Palestinian people are compelled to bear in mind and cannot fail to take into account.

Despite its nationalist tendencies, the «Al-Fatah» organization is progressive and democratic and the biggest and most powerful organization which, at the moment, has a correct line of struggle for the liberation of Palestine and the defeat of the anti-Arab, annexationist policy of the state of Israel, concocted by international Zionism and supported by the imperialists. This organization is not against the masses of the Jewish population whom, in its program, it accepts as citizens of the new Arab state of Palestine.

However, although the representatives of the feudal bourgeois cliques ruling in some Arab countries pose as pro the Palestinians' struggle, they do not look kindly on this movement of resistance and, since they are unable to liquidate it, want to have it under control.

The resistance of the Palestinians has become a serious political and military obstacle, which these cliques are obliged to take into account.

The King of Jordan, an agent of the British and the Americans, has made two or three attempts to liquidate the Palestinian partisans, who are stronger than this sold-out king. At these dangerous moments for the Palestinian guerrillas they ought to fight him to the end, to unite with the people of Jordan, in order to continue the war against Israel and American imperialism.

The Soviets and the Americans are making the law in the Middle East. The Egyptian leadership has fallen completely under the influence of the Soviets. Hussein of Jordan is a dyedin-the-wool traitor, the Syrians are posing as somewhat «concerned», while the Lebanese trim their sails to the wind.

Nasser agreed in general to discuss the «Rogers Plan», which means to enter into negotiations and compromises and, in the end, «to make the peace» so greatly desired by Israel, in favour of that country and its American patron and in disfavour of the Arab peoples, especially the Palestinian people, against whom the savage attacks of the gendarmes of the ruling cliques sold out to foreigners, will commence later. With the signing of the «peace» the Soviets will turn this into a «colossal victory» for themselves. They will try to remain in Egypt and to dominate it. There is the danger that the Egyptian ports may become the ports of the Soviet Mediterranean fleet which emerged from the Black Sea. From the Mediterranean the Soviet revisionists intend to extend their colonies in Africa «in peaceful ways», in order to cross the seas and reach India. This is how they dream of achieving the empire of Alexander the Great, by conquering the peoples through the threat of arms from land and sea, through rubles and through their demagogy of a falsified socialism.

The «Soviet-American peace» in the Middle East will be a defeat for all the Arab peoples and an especially great obstacle for the Palestinian people. This kind of «peace» is a victory for the Soviet-American imperialists in general and for Israel in particular.

What will happen with the Palestinian people will be what happened with the Albanian people before the First World War. As is known, at that time large parts of Albania were divided by the imperialists of Europe among Serbia, Montenegro and Greece. And after they had thoroughly dismembered our Homeland at the Conference of London and through secret treaties, the Tzar's Minister, Sazonov, in order to satisfy the appetite of Prince Nikola of Montenegro demanded that the city of Shkodra be handed over to the latter. On this occasion, one of the other wolves, the representative of French imperialism, said something which went down in history: «Sazonov wants to set fire to Europe to fry an omelette for Montenegro».

The enemies of the Arab peoples, the American imperialists and Soviet revisionists, will act and speak in a similar way when it comes to the question of the territorial rights of the heroic Palestinian people.

Only the armed struggle through to victory settles accounts with the wolves who attack peoples.




From the talk with a delegation of the «Al-Fatah» Movement for the National Liberation of Palestine

August 3, 1970

Enver Hoxha, Selected Works, vol. 4, «8 Nëntori» Publishing House, Tirana 1982, pp. 576-600, Eng. ed.

"You cannot permit international Zionism to create in your country a state such as Israel, which oppresses the Palestinian people." (Enver Hoxha , page 581)

"The international alliance with the workers and the peoples of the whole w o r l d has also great importance for the struggle of your people and the achievement of victory over the occupiers". (Enver Hoxha , page 583)



SEPTEMBER 21, 1970


It is clear that the Soviets and Hussein have agreed that the war with Israel had to be stopped, agreed with the Americans and the «Rogers Plan» that the resistance of the Palestinians had to be placed under control and suppressed.

The question is that the Palestinians must not lay down their arms, but must continue the fight on two fronts.

On the internal front against armed Arab reaction, and on the external front against the sworn enemies of the Arab peoples, the American imperialists, the Soviet social-imperialists, Israeli Zionists, and so on.



SEPTEMBER 30, 1970


Nasser was an Egyptian nationalist who acted to incite Arab nationalism and establish himself as the leader of the Egyptian people. He suffered defeat in his attempts to bring about the unification of Egypt with Syria. His internal policy weighed heavy on the people, to whom it brought no economic advantage. On the contrary, the Egyptian bourgeoisie made the country still more povertystricken by plunging it heavily into debt to the various imperialists. The defeat of the Egyptian army by Israel in the last war lowered Nasser's prestige. During this period, however, Nasser knew how to manoeuvre between the Americans and the Soviets and to enhance his own authority among the colourless and unstable leaderships of the other Arab countries. The defeat in the war with Israel threw him into the lap of the Soviets.

Now, with the death of Nasser, it is self-evident that the position of Israel is strengthened, while the position of the Arabs, and especially the Palestinians, is weakened.


OCTOBER 1, 1970


This whole gang was interested in making the Palestinian fighters cease their armed resistance. Of course, the means and methods which each of them employed to achieve this aim differed according to the particular circumstances and interests, but the objective was the same — to eliminate the Palestinian resistance which opposed the «Rogers Plan» and the Israeli- American aggressor politically and with weapons, inspired the awakening of the Arab consciousness and kept the Arab uprising alive.

If this revolutionary situation were not ended the positions of American imperialism in the Middle East would be endangered, while if the war with the Arabs had continued for a long time, not only would Israel be in danger of losing the war, but its very existence as a state would have been at risk.

Meanwhile Nasser wanted to have the Palestinians under his command as a means of active blackmail against Israel and a means of bargaining with the Americans.

It is clear that the Arab national bourgeoisie is wavering and ready for compromise.

Arab reaction, supported by the Soviets and Americans, is reacting strongly, but the Arab revolutionary movement has not laid down its arms. The living proof of this is that the Palestinians are fighting, resisting and are in the vanguard of the struggle. The «cease-fire agreement» with Hussein was concluded at a difficult moment for them, but it seems they are not going to observe it. In fact, they are continuing their attacks on Israel; they are carrying on their fight. Of course, this will exacerbate the conflicts with Arab reaction and clashes with it are inevitable. The fact is that the Arab masses are courageous, but divided, not of a high political level, and unorganized for war, because there is no progressive, revolutionary leadership, although this will certainly emerge from the revolutionary struggle.



NOVEMBER 4, 1970


The People's Republic of Albania and the Albanian people have fought and will continue to fight with all their might against the American imperialists, Israeli Zionism and the Soviet revisionists, and will always be close comrades-in-arms of the Arab peoples.



NOVEMBER 30, 1970


The governments in the Middle East have become like those of Latin America, but with a difference because in this zone of the world there are «two masters of the house», the Americans and the Soviets, who have implanted their claws, make the law and bring down and form the governments of these countries, while continuing the refrain of «peace and compromise with Israel».



FEBRUARY 21, 1971


The opening of the Suez Canal in the present conditions will certainly be done more in favour of the United States of America and Israel, than of Egypt. Apart from this, this step threatens to lead to other repeated concessions to Israel and to the benefit of American imperialism in the Middle East...

The opening of the Canal also means the perpetuation and further consolidation of the victories Israel has achieved at the expense of the Arabs as well as the application of the policy of holding endless talks and discussions.

The question of the «war with Israel» is a «marvellous» trump card for the Soviets and they are making the most of it. The weapons which they supply to Egypt, and keep firmly under their own control, are only defensive and not offensive weapons, while Israel is not only well prepared for war, but its weapons are both offensive and defensive and it is playing the card of the threat of war cleverly, making Egypt accept the conditions of the ceasefire and the Soviets afraid of an armed confrontation with the Americans, or even with Israel, because this brings them great political, economic and military difficulties. Therefore, the Soviets are not for military involvement in the Middle East, but for coming to terms, unconcerned that these terms are to the detriment of Egypt.

As for the national liberation war of the Palestinians, the Soviets want to liquidate it at all costs like any other liberation war, to disarm the Palestinian partisans and expel them from the other Arab territories, to send them into Israel under Israeli bondage, allegedly to continue the partisan war there from inside.

Thus, the re-opening of the Suez Canal, which belongs to Egypt, has become a move in the game of chess, which is being made not in Egypt's interest, but in the interests of the Soviets and the Americans, for the sake of their immediate and long-term interests.

In its anti-Arab plans, the United States uses Israel as its pistol, which it fires whenever it needs without getting its own fingers burned directly, and Israel has been trained and organized for war, has been educated in an aggressive fascist spirit such that it cannot exist except under the rules of a gangster life. Israel, for its part, has found both the patrons and the partners appropriate to realising its aims.

Naturally, in this situation, when the two imperialist superpowers, which are deeply involved in the life and running of different Arab countries, are predominant in the Middle East, for the time being it is improbable that the United States of America, Israel and the Soviet Union will be confronted with a coalition of Arab peoples, that can cope with and foil their plans.

The Arab peoples must organize the struggle against the American imperialists, their Soviet pseudo-allies and those who brought these pseudo-allies to their countries and sold their souls and the homeland to them. This correct line, which ensures the truly free and sovereign future of the Arab peoples, cannot be achieved except by armed struggle, by fighting the United States of America, Israel, the social-imperialist Soviet Union and all their open and secret allies.

The victory will not be won without great sacrifices and without further losses and defeats. But the armed struggle and the defeats will also bring the great and final victory, the victory of the people and not the victory of reactionary cliques...



MAY 13, 1971


Rogers, the American Secretary of State, was in the course of a visit to many states of the Middle East, including Egypt and Israel. It was clear that Rogers went to Egypt to arrange the terms of a compromise between Israel and Sadat on the settlement of their differences. Hence, this was something new. The United States of America, the friend of Israel, was becoming the direct intermediary for a compromise with the Egyptians, officially eliminating the Soviet Union from these negotiations.

We shall see what strength the Soviets have to plot and undermine within Egypt and what aid and support Washington and Israel will give el-Sadat.

It is in the interests of Israel to get international guarantees for its borders before it is too late, to make some minor concessions for the time being, and «promise» further concessions in return for Egypt's breaking with the Soviets, the liquidation of the Palestinian problem in favour of Israel, etc.



JULY 19, 1972


Last evening the Egyptian president, Sadat, delivered an «important» speech in which he stressed the conflict between Moscow and Cairo.

He has sought Soviet offensive weapons «in order to declare war on Israel», and in order to keep Egypt under their control and completely exploited from every angle, the Soviets, of course, have refused. So Sadat is exerting political blackmail against them, demanding the withdrawal of Soviet advisers from Egypt (and there are no less than 20,000 of them) by July 27. This is a heavy slap in the face for the Soviet social-imperialists, which ruins their plans and is a very important event.

The fact is that the expulsion of the Soviets is a victory for the Egyptians, notwithstanding that it will take a long time to liberate the territories occupied by Israel.


J U L Y 21, 1972


Apparently, the Egyptian leaders expected a violent reaction from the Soviets, but their fears have been calmed and now that they have got away with their blackmail, they are operating through talks with the Soviets, with the Americans, with the French and even with the Israelis behind the scenes. In this situation Sadat is swimming «at his ease»; in his speech he told his people and the public at large that «the attack on Israel was not made because the Russians did not supply us with weapons, so we have to find them elsewhere, therefore, you must wait until other sources are arranged».



OCTOBER 7, 1973


Yesterday the war of the Egyptians and Syrians against the Israelis began. As it seems, the Arabs launched the attack, although this has no importance because they are within their rights, and Israel was taken by surprise. The Egyptians crossed the Suez Canal and, according to them, established themselves on the right bank of it, capturing the Israeli fortifications of the Barlev line. The Syrians, likewise, assaulted the Golan Heights and Hebron and occupied the Israeli positions there. A great air battle is going on between them. You cannot put much trust in the communiques.

Now the question stands as follows: the Arabs have the advantage. Are they going to retain and develop it, and how? Has the Six-Day War of 1967 served as a lesson to them? So far Israel has not taken them by surprise as before.

As to what will happen later, we shall see. Likewise we shall see the level of the Arabs' preparation and their tactics and strategy, as well as those of Israel. The Arabs seem a less alarmed than theIsraelis. Can it be that there is some major co-ordinated joint manoeuvre afoot? The Arabs launched an offensive to win certain positions from which to return later to «the UNO dance» and fall into the traps of the United States of America and the Soviets. All gain a little; in order to avoid losing everything all must lose a little and continue the «no war, no peace» situation, continue the discussion! This we shall see. We are following events vigilantly. We shall defend the Arabs with all the means of our propaganda and expose Israel, the United States of America and the social-imperialist Soviet Union.



OCTOBER 12, 1973


The Egyptians are advancing in the fighting in Sinai and up till now no wavering is apparent among them. The Syrians, too, are fighting well, with attacks and counter-attacks. Both sides say that fighting is going on in the Golan Heights about 45 Km from Damascus. Israel is boasting that it «will take Damascus, has destroyed the Syrian army,» etc., but it has achieved neither of these objectives and is suffering heavy losses in tanks and aircraft. In fact the Syrians have taken and are holding on to the Israeli's first line of defence.

The myth of the «blitzkrieg», of Israeli «invincibility» has been smashed. Israel is in difficulties and the direct aid which the United States of America has begun to give it shows this.

The unity of the Arab countries seems better than at other times, but the agencies of American and Soviet imperialism are at work within their ranks. They are trying to extinguish the fire, which is not to their advantage, because it threatens their dominating and exploiting interests.

The two superpowers are in a fix and are afraid this situation will become more complicated, fearing that the victory of the Arabs or the Israelis may endanger the domination of the Americans or the Soviets. Therefore, both of them are pretending to help, but are preparing «the big pumps to extinguish the flames», because in this way they preserve the status quo of «neither peace nor war» and strengthen their domination.

What the Arabs are doing now is positive and revolutionary. Brezhnev, Tito and all their ilk, along with the whole capitalist world, are against the Arab peoples. Therefore, we and the revolutionaries all over the world must help these peoples in their struggle.


OCTOBER 25, 1973


In the article we denounce the new Soviet- American agreements on the Middle East which were concluded in the Moscow talks between Brezhnev and Kissinger and which subsequently took the form of a Security Council resolution on a cease-fire between the combatants in the Arab-Israeli conflict. They are another dangerous plot of the two superpowers against the Arab countries and the peoples' liberation movement.

The «concern» which they allegedly showed for the solution of the Arab-Israeli conflict is concern to protect their hegemonic interests.

We go on in the article to point out that the liberation struggle of the Arab peoples, like all the peoples' revolutionary movements, is contrary to the imperialist interests of the two superpowers which will, therefore, try to snuff out these movements by means of diplomacy, pressure and dictate and if these means are insufficient, even by means of force. Objectively this liberation struggle is aimed not only against the Zionists, but also against the American imperialists who finance, arm and throw the Zionists into attack as well as against the Soviet revisionists who want to take advantage of the situation to get a firmer foothold in the Middle East. Therefore the Arab peoples are fighting not only for the liberation of the territories of which Israel has robbed them, but also for liberation from the interference, pressure and dictate of the American imperialists and Soviet social-imperialists.

The stand which the American imperialists and Soviet revisionists have taken now is further evidence of a notorious fact, which has become even more obvious, that the American imperialists and Soviet revisionists are the greatest enemies of the Arab peoples.



FEBRUARY 13, 1974


The delegation came to Albania on January 31, 1974.

Today I was informed about the talks which our comrades held with the Palestinian delegation of «Al-Fatah». The talks were cordial.

The Palestinians must continue to fight ceaselessly and in conditions which are very difficult for many reasons:

Although they are fighting for a common cause, they are divided. Naturally, the various currents which exist within their ranks are unable to co-ordinate even their minimum common program on this war and its aims. From what we hear, because they have published nothing, their program is to liberate Palestine from the Jews.

What is to become of the Jews and the state of Israel?

At present the Palestinians are fighting from the territories of others, since these others are at war with Israel. Nevertheless, even now they cannot fight properly or as they would like to.

They are obliged to submit to the policy of the Arab state from whose territory they operate.

But what are the Palestinians going to do when these Arab states cease the war against Israel, as they undoubtedly will? The prospects are gloomy and difficult for this war which must be continued in new conditions.



JUNE 5, 1975


Today the re-opening of the Suez Canal, which was closed on June 5, 1967, because of the Israeli military aggression, was announced.

However, the conditions in which it was re-opened are onerous, to the detriment of the struggle of the Arab peoples and in favour of Israel and the two superpowers.



APRIL 20, 1976


Notes for an article

The article of the newspaper «Zëri i popullit» of April 30, 1976 «The Expulsion of the Fleets of the Superpowers from the Mediterranean, a Significant Action for the Consolidation of Independence and General Security».

The development of events shows that the Arab peoples must be very vigilant. They can ensure their genuine freedom and independence, the liberation of the territories occupied by Israel and the rights of the Palestinian people, only by resolutely opposing the aggressive, hegemonic policy of the two superpowers.




November 24, 1977



SEPTEMBER 19, 1977


Published in the newspaper «Zëri i popullit» under the title «The Just Cause of the Arab Peoples Is Invincible», November 24, 1977.

Theses for an article about the visit which Anwar el-Sadat is to make shortly to Israel

. . .

The aggressors must be isolated, must be exposed and combated. One such aggressor against the freedom, independence and territorial integrity of the Arab peoples is Israel. It has shed the blood of the fraternal Arab peoples and occupied their territories. Every day Israel is relentlessly attacking, killing and massacring such a glorious people as the fraternal Palestinian people, whom the Zionists, supported by the American imperialists, have left without a homeland.

Today the heroic Palestinian people are scattered and living the miserable existence of the homeless given shelter by their Arab brothers. Although fragmented and massacred, this nation has a high awareness of the need to fight and a fine fighting spirit. It has never given up the fight to win its freedom and rights and regain its homeland. The Albanian people nurture a great love, respect and admiration for this long-suffering, but valiant people, and have unshakeable confidence in their ultimate victory.

To come to terms and reach a compromise with Israel, to neglect and violate the interests of the Arab peoples, especially the interests of the Palestinian and Syrian peoples, deserves condemnation. The Albanian people, as close and faithful friends of the Arab peoples, consider this to be a pro-imperialist activity which is aimed against the interests of the Arabs, and encourages the imperialist-Israeli aggression.

All the sound elements amongst the Arab public, the Palestinians, Syrians, Algerians, Iraqis, Libyans and even the Egyptians, have expressed their opposition to the agreement and compromise with Israel. Likewise, all who are genuine fighters against American imperialism and Soviet social-imperialism, against reaction and oppression, all who are for the freedom of the peoples and their liberation struggle, have unequivocally condemned and criticized the surrender to Israel and have taken a clear-cut stand against the compromise with Israel.

It is noticeable, however, that the card of the «non-aligned» is not being played at all. This is not accidental. The concrete events, the development of the class struggle, have brought out clearly the falsity of «theories» or «movements» intended to deceive the peoples. What can the partisans of the «non-aligned» movement say when the protagonists of such compromises, who are also the standard-bearers of «non-alignment», display openly that they are committed to and dependent on imperialism, that they are playing its game, that the policy which they pursue is formally independent, but in reality is dictated by others and defends interests alien to the Arab peoples.

Likewise, there is no activity apparent from the so-called third world. The supporters of this theory, who loudly proclaim and try to prove with quotations that they are helping the struggle and the interests of the peoples of the world, are not showing that they defend the just cause of the Arab peoples, not coming out in support of them. Why is this? Can it be that the interests and the territories of the Arabs, the future and the existence of the Palestinians must be sacrificed for the sake of the alliance with the «second world» and the United States of America? Or perhaps, this is required by the supreme interests of imperialist superpowers, which the small nations and ordinary people are quite unable to understand?

Our Party and the Albanian people scornfully reject all the imperialist calculations. Our people have always supported the just cause of the Arab peoples and will be beside them in any situation, good or bad, in their rejoicings and victories, as well as in their griefs and temporary defeats. Ours is a small nation, but it is an unwaveringly loyal brother to those who are fighting for freedom and justice, like the Arabs and the peoples of Africa.

We observe that the overall policy which the imperialist superpowers are pursuing has been constructed in conformity with their interests as each tries to establish its own hegemony over the peoples and continents more firmly and quickly. Each of the imperialist superpowers struggles to impose its own policy on other countries or groups of countries, both when it has its claws deeply implanted there and when it is taking just the first steps in its expansion.

The Soviet social-imperialists are working to deceive the leaderships of various African countries by presenting themselves as champions of freedom. They sell arms to these leaderships and gain the right to establish military bases for their own interests of imperialist domination. This is what occurred in Somalia. At the same time, however, another imperialist power, the United States of America, manoeuvred rapidly and by means of its agents, credits, weapons and dollars did everything possible to upset the plans of the Soviet social-imperialists a little later.

It is the peoples who are the victims of these dangerous games of imperialist interests. We see that the peoples of Ethiopia and Somalia, two freedom-loving and peace-loving peoples, each with an ancient culture, who have suffered every kind of atrocity at the hands of the Italian colonialists, have gone to war and are killing each other. Do these peoples want this war? Not at all. Could they solve the disagreements between them without the need for war? Of course, they could find suitable ways to settle them. Then, why are they fighting? It is clear that they are urged to fight by others, the imperialist powers and superpowers, for their predatory and hegemonic interests.

While the blood of suffering peoples is being shed and hatred built up between them, there are imperialist and capitalist powers which sometimes take one side and sometimes the other, sometimes applaud one country and sometimes the other, without making the slightest gesture to help these long-suffering peoples to attain peace and the possibility to build their lives in complete freedom and independence.

The policy of our Party is clear. It supports the interests of the peoples and their national liberation struggle. We speak to the fraternal peoples openly, telling them candidly how we judge matters. They must guard against the intrigues of the imperialist superpowers, who usually come pretending to be friends and wellwishers, while their real aim is to dominate and lay the foundations for the establishment of their hegemony. This is going on in Angola, Zaire and elsewhere. It has been going on for a long time in the Middle East where a grave tragedy is being played with the destinies of the fraternal Arab peoples. In this region the imperialist superpowers are pulling all the strings, alternating with one another, to fulfil their ambitions for expansion and exploitation.

Can the policy of the American imperialists, who are defending and supporting their most aggressive satellite, Israel, be considered a nonaggressive policy of retreat? At the present time an aggressive war is being prepared step by step, by means of regional wars, by inciting isolated acts of aggression and local wars. If the American imperialists declare they are for the status quo, this does not mean that they have given up their aggressive expansionist aims, but that the status quo is in favour of the interests of American imperialism and its ally, Israel.

We oppose and condemn Carter's attempts to camouflage his aggressive policy. We unmask all those who want to present the policy of the status quo as a policy, not of aggression, but of defence. American imperialism has still not lost its teeth and its claws have not been clipped.



DECEMBER 10, 1977


There are also the Palestinian Arab people and the Israeli people in this region. In the past there were not many Jews in this region, but with the passage of time, especially after the creation of the state of Israel, their numbers grew fairly considerably. If I am not mistaken, today Israel has over 3.5 million inhabitants, but the Israeli psychology and inspiration, especially in the field of organization, have led to the strengthening of this state from all standpoints, not only economic and financial but also military. The main support of the state of Israel is American imperialism, without overlooking the other imperialist states.

Apart from Israel, through the big oil monopolies, American imperialism has Saudi Arabia— the country richest in oil in this zone, the Emirates of the Persian Gulf and Iran, under its influence. In practice American imperialism has the oil-fields in all these countries under its control.

American imperialism is ready to go to war in order to hold on to this great wealth, but before becoming involved in war itself, it embroils others to fight for its interests. Thus, when it saw a possible threat to its sphere of influence in the Middle East, it sooled onIsrael, which launched several successive military attacks on Egypt and Syria, which relied on Soviet socialimperialism, allegedly to conquer Israel, because it had occupied some of their territories and had driven the Palestinians from their own territories, forcing them to live as refugees in other Arab countries, as they are doing to this day.

This, was in the interests of the policy of the Soviet social-imperialists, because their true aim was to get control of the great oil wealth in the Middle East by means of Egypt and Syria.

Nasser fell into the trap of the Soviets, he advocated the total liquidation of Israel and, under a false pretext, established himself in North Yemen. His policy of dependence on the Soviets brought Egypt and its people the damage we know.

Anwar el-Sadat followed the policy of Nasser, linked himself more closely with the Soviet Union and continued to threaten Israel. This enabled the Soviet Union to establish itself firmly in Egypt and brought things to the point in which it thought that no one could get it out.

Basing himself on the arms he received from the Soviet Union, Sadat carried out a political manoeuvre, with an eye to the future, assessed the Israeli forces in Sinai and attacked them, but without any great success. Nonetheless, the Egyptian armies crossed to the east side of the Suez Canal and entered a part of Sinai which had been occupied by Israel in Nasser's time.

In this situation the United States of America intervened and a cease-fire was established through the Security Council. Sadat called the crossing to the east bank of the Suez Canal a great victory of the Yom Kippur War (The war of October 6, 1973), as this war was called. But Israel, too, played its part in the political game, crossed to the west side of the Suez Canal, accepted the cease-fire, the talks for which were held precisely on that part of the Egyptian territory that was occupied during this war. After the cease-fire Israel still holds the Egyptian territories in Sinai and other Arab territories it occupied, has the Palestinian forces outside its territory and is launching continued attacks on their bases which are situated close to the occupied territories.

Israel is also keeping the Golan Heights of Syria under occupation and at the same time, together with the American imperialists, it is working «to calm things down» in this region.

This tactic is aimed at deepening the split between the Arab countries and to achieve at least a temporary and separate peace with Egypt, the main Arab country, if a permanent general treaty is not possible. The United States of America is manoeuvring with all its means and in every way to assist the Israeli strategy. Egypt is the most populous Arab country.

At the head of the Egyptian state today is Anwar el-Sadat, a wealthy Arab, who, as he himself has recorded in his memoirs of the Second World War, was in the service of the Hitlerite fieldmarshal Rommel. Recently Sadat went to Jerusalem where he talked with Begin, the prime minister of Israel. They reached agreement to live in «peace» henceforward, of course, on certain conditions. These conditions are favourable to Israel and also to the United States of America which is behind this great anti-Arab manoeuvre.

But Sadat's gesture in going to Jerusalem «revolted» the other Arab countries which called him a traitor to the Arab nation and gathered at a meeting in Tripoli of Libya to judge and condemn him. Besides Qaddafi of Libya, Boumedienne of Algeria, Assad of Syria and a representative of Lebanon were present at this meeting.

Iraq was in agreement but apparently did not send anybody. Hence, not all the Arab countries attended the meeting in Libya at which they threatened and condemned Sadat.

At the same time he called a meeting in Cairo of the interested countries of this zone, with the participation of the Americans, Israelis and Soviets, too.

The latter, in their attempt to avoid being put offside altogether, refused to take part in the meeting, while the Americans agreed, and theIsraelis, too, are ready to go there. Sadat is expressing his determination to hold this meeting, with or without the other Arab countries.

In other words, American imperialism wants and is going to achieve its aim of achieving a modus vivendi, even if just a temporary separate «peace» between its satellite, Israel, and Egypt.

However, the United States of America would like the other Arab countries, especially Syria, to take part in this «peace» agreement between Israel and Egypt and is working to bring this about because it is greatly in its interests.

Does the Soviet Union have a finger in the pie? I think it does. Despite its outward stand, the Soviet Union is interested in deepening the split between the Arab countries and peoples so that it can benefit more.

At the moment, then, we see that American imperialism has more or less achieved its objectives, i.e., it has consolidated its economic and strategic positions in this zone and divided the Arab peoples. The most populous Arab countries, those with the greatest economic and military power, are on its side, while, at the same time, Israel, its real weapon in times of war and disturbances is also on its side.

There is nothing Marxist-Leninist about the Chinese policy. Life is showing that the theory of «three worlds» has no basis and has no influence in these countries, to say nothing of the other countries in the so-called «third world».

Moreover, the stands that China has taken in this situation have placed it in an extremely weak and ludicrous position. It cannot and does not know what stands to adopt: to be pro Sadat or against him, to be against or pro Israel, to be for peace or for the continuation of the struggle of Arab peoples and especially of the Palestinian
Arab people against Israel which has robbed them of their territories.

Although it does not say so openly, China is pro Sadat's agreement with Israel, pro the sacrifice of the freedom and independence of the Palestinian people who are demanding their homeland.


DECEMBER 17, 1977


It is known that the Middle East is a region of great strategic importance because of its oil and other natural assets and its markets, as well as from the stand-point of military strategy in connection with a major war in the future. Both the American and the Soviet naval fleets in the Mediterranean are trying to establish permanent bases in the countries around this zone.

Thus, we see two blocs in struggle against each other as each tries to establish its own hegemony in this region at the expense of the Arab peoples.

Egypt and Israel are the two main protagonists in the military events that are taking place in this region.

As I have written before, he went to Israel, met the prime minister of Israel, Begin, and the members of the Knesset, the Israeli parliament, and there began the «peace» negotiations.

Sadat was warmly welcomed by the Israelis. On the surface, of course, the talks were cordial.

Sadat, Begin and Carter had reached general agreement in advance not on all the problems, but on the main ones.

The little bit they are saying implies that the friendship between the Egyptian and the Israeli statesmen is developing steadily. This is apparent from the fact that the Israelis are speaking with great admiration about Egypt and its leadership.

It is apparent, also, from the exceptionally warm welcome which the envoys of Israel received in Cairo, where one of the streets which leads to the pyramids has been re-named the «Road of Peace».

As news agencies report, Begin will go to meet Sadat in Egypt and conclude an agreement with him. What sort of agreement will this be in the present conditions? It is most likely to be a bilateral peace, that is, between Egypt and Israel, and efforts will certainly be made later to get Syria and, perhaps, even the other Arab countries which at present are opposed, to accept it.

In this case Sadat may be given the Sinai Desert, of course, according Israel many rights confirmed and guaranteed by the United States of America, such as unimpeded free passage for its ships through the Suez Canal to the Red Sea and through the Straits of Bab-el-Mandeb and the Gulf of Aden to the Indian Ocean, while the Canal will be left completely free or under the management of both parties.

On the other hand, this bilateral «peace» agreement might also lead to the settlement «in principle» of the Palestinian question. This settlement «in principle» of the Palestinian question will, of course, be to the liking of the Americans and the Israelis and will be accepted by Sadat.

Hence, the aim is that the west bank of the Jordan River and the Gaza Strip on the shores of the Mediterranean be included in a «Palestinian state», or rather not an independent Palestinian state, but an entity just sufficient to acknowledge the existence of the Palestinians, united with the Hashemite kingdom of Hussein.

This could be the essence of the bilateral accord or peace agreement between Egypt and Israel, hatched up by American imperialism.

Lebanon is under the thumb of American imperialism and Israel.

The United States of America has control of Egypt, Saudi Arabia and Israel, the main pieces in this game of chess.



SEPTEMBER 22, 1978


The United States of America, which is the main gendarme and, you might say, overlord of this zone, consistently pursues the policy of «divide and rule». It sets one state against the other, groups some states against others, incites and participates in local wars between Israel and Egypt, between Israel and Syria, between Syria and the Lebanese puppets, between the Iraqis and the Syrians and between Saudi Arabia and North Yemen against South Yemen, creates disagreements in the Persian Gulf and other such diabolical plots. American imperialism has employed Israel, in particular, as a real gendarme in its service.

This gendarme has gone so far as to cause bloody wars with Egypt, Syria, Lebanon, Jordan, etc.

American imperialism supports Israel powerfully with the most modern weapons, indeed it is said that it has given Israel the atomic bomb. The United States of America has assisted Israel from the logistic aspect, also, because of the dominant weight which the reactionary Zionist financial circles have in the economy of the capitalist and imperialist world. Hence, American imperialism has made Israel its most suitable tool. At moments when the United States of America is in difficulties with the Arab countries over the question of supplies and the price of oil, through its tool, Israel, it precipitates bloody incidents going as far as war. These wars have enabled Israel to occupy Egyptian, Syrian and Jordanian territories, such as Sinai, the West Bank, the Golan Heights and the Gaza Strip, from which it will never budge unless it is driven out.

Despite the innumerable resolutions which have been taken in the United Nations Organization against the activities of Israel, despite the fact that the states of the world have raised their voices loudly against it, Israel has continued its aggressive activity. Not only has it occupied Arab territories, but by accepting Jewish emigrants from Poland, Rumania and especially the Soviet Union, as well as from other countries of Europe it has created Jewish colonies in them.

Of all the Arab peoples the heroic Palestinian people, who for decades on end have borne the greatest burden of misery that mankind has ever seen, are suffering the most. They are living as refugees, sheltering in makeshift homes and tents in the desert, because they have lost their homeland, which the Israelis have occupied and refuse to give up. Therefore, the Palestinian people have risen in merciless struggle, with no compromise up till now. Notwithstanding that within the Palestine Liberation Movement there are groups with different views, in general they all desire the liberation of their country from the Israeli Zionists.

The Palestinian people can be found living scattered in all the Arab countries: in Lebanon where they are established in villages which are fighting centres; in Egypt where they have lived as refugees and fighters; in Syria where sometimes they are allowed to fight, sometimes not; they have lived and some live still in Jordan where they have been barbarously oppressed; in Iraq, in Saudi Arabia, in Yemen, in the Emirates of the Persian Gulf and even in France and elsewhere.

They are a valiant fighting people who have never ceased their resistance for one day...

Now, in these difficult and more or less peaceful conditions which the United States of America has created between Egypt and Israel, after many discussions and manoeuvres and countless deals behind the scenes, the three of them have met at Camp David allegedly to settle the question of the Middle East. For thirteen days they were engaged in tête-à-tête discussions.

Moreover, Jimmy Carter became an active participant in these talks so that they were held not just between Sadat and Begin, but between Carter, Sadat and Begin. Thus, Carter was considered a third partner in these talks allegedly to establish peace in the Middle East. The outcome of all this, of course, was that «the mountain laboured and brought forth a mouse». This mouse represents what the Palestinian people and the Arab peoples, in general, «gained» or did not gain. According to the communique, at Camp David, American imperialism managed to «conclude» a sort of agreement between Begin's Israel and Sadat's Egypt for a temporary peace, for a temporary settlement covering the West Bank, the Gaza Strip and the Negev Desert.

In reality, nothing concrete was achieved.

We can say that all that was settled was that within five years Israel is to partly withdraw from the West Bank of the River Jordan and from Gaza, with the alleged aim of establishing there the autonomous state of the Palestinians of these zones. The autonomous Palestinian administration, of course, is «to be guaranteed» by the United States of America and will always be indirectly under the rule or supervision of Israel, Egypt and Jordan.

Egypt was given some other minor satisfaction.

For example, an agreement was reached about some sort of Israel withdrawal from part of the Sinai Peninsula. The whole thing is a diabolical manoeuvre of American imperialism and its agents. It is, so to say, a temporary victory for American imperialism, because, as I said above, it has been decided that they will work towards the establishment of a so-called «selfgoverning state on the West Bank of the River Jordan and the Gaza Strip within five years.

During this period this so-called self-governing state will have some kind of independent police force of its own but there will always be Israeli military and police forces there to protect the borders, as well as Jordanian forces. Thus, the Palestinians will have only nominal independence.

And if a status quo such as that decided at Camp David is achieved, then a peace agreement between Egypt and Israel may be signed. The whole aim is that during this five-year period American imperialism will be left in relative peace to milk the Arab «cow» thoroughly so the oil flows without hindrance into the American tankers and pipelines, while the United States of America conducts a campaign of intrigues in all the Arab states so that they accept the decisions of Camp David and arrive at a common conclusion about an alleged overall peace. However, the Palestinian people, quite rightly, accept no part of this deal between Sadat, Begin and Jimmy Carter, because in fact they gain nothing.

Their homeland is occupied, therefore, quite rightly they will fight to the end for the liberation of the territories of their homeland and the establishment of a genuine government of the Palestinian people without interference and tutelage from their permanent enemies.

It is astounding, however, that the communique states with utter shamelessness that the agreement reached was attained with the participation of Jordan, which was not represented at all at Camp David. Although everyone knows what they are, King Hussein and the Jordanian government have declared that they have no commitment in regard to what was decided at Camp David.



FEBRUARY 21, 1979


At present Israel is in danger. Ayatollah Khomeini has declared openly that he will defend the Palestinians in their struggle against Israel.

He has closed the Israeli embassy in Tehran and expelled the Israeli diplomats from Iran. The oil supplies which Israel received from the Shah of Iran have been cut off and now it is obliged to get oil elsewhere. In these conditions the United States of America is compelling Israel to reach agreement with Egypt, in other words, to accept the conditions Carter has laid down for such an agreement and stop kicking against it.



MARCH 8, 1979


One thing is certain: today Carter is going to Egypt and from there he will go on to Israel. His visit to these two countries is linked with the signing of the «peace» agreement between Egypt and Israel.

In other words, the United States of America has put the hard word on these two satellites. Both these countries may also have other secret agreements with the United States and not only on arms supplies. The Secretary of the US Department of Defence, Brown, who has been in this region for weeks, may have hatched up some secret agreement with the heads of Saudi Arabia, too. Hence, it is possible that a bloc of gendarmes will be created with some countries of this zone against Syria, Iraq and Iran, which have expressed their opposition to Sadat and Israel.

Syria and Iraq have the support and the backing of the Soviets, from whom they buy weapons, too.


MARCH 15, 1979


The American president, Carter, has returned to Washington from his visit to Egypt and Israel. At the airport, of course, they staged a welcome for him with applause and bouquets of flowers, as we saw on TV, to give the impression that he returned from his visit to these two countries as a victor. That is how vice-president Mondale presented Carter.

No president of the United States of America before Carter had undertaken such a mission, although, of course, it was the «task» of the secretary of state, Kissinger, to come and go, to buy and sell, to offer threats and blandishments to one state or the other. So president Carter went to Egypt and Israel to talk on many issues with Sadat and Begin. He began and ended his talks with Sadat, going from Cairo to Jerusalem back to Aswan, returning to Jerusalem again and from Jerusalem back to Cairo, and eventually left for Washington.

As we learn from various news agencies, Carter had talks with the heads of both countries, but he also encountered opposition and pressure from the one and the other, both from the Israelis and from the Egyptians. The greatest pressure was exerted on the American president by the Israelis, by Begin, while Sadat proved to be more accomodating, more moderate towards Carter's proposals.

In other words, as news agency reports imply, Sadat was not very exigent in pressing his demands which were in accord with those of Carter on many points. As Carter himself confirmed, the American views differed from the Egyptian views only on a few minor matters.

With Israel, however, on the face of it matters seemed different. According to news agencies he had «sterner» battles with Israel. This was noticeable in president Carter's talks with Begin and with the Israeli government as well as in the speech Begin delivered in the Knesset, the Israeli parliament. Here, too, Begin seemed to be really opposing the plan which Carter presented. On TV we saw various deputies to the Israeli parliament, especially a woman, who would not allow Begin even to speak. This deputy made a very vigorous speech and at the end of it, apparently to show that the treaty which Begin was preparing with Sadat was just a scrap of paper, she took a page from the desk in front of her and tore it into pieces. The stand of another deputy sitting close to her, who advised her to be more moderate, was ridiculous. And all this took place with Carter, who was present at this debate, sitting there in a corner as an honoured guest. Perhaps, this whole scene was staged cleverly to tell Carter, «I, Begin, want to associate myself with your views, but it is impossible for me to carry out what, you, the president of the United States of America, want, because of the great opposition I encounter in parliament.

Therefore the United States must do everything in its power to get more and greater concessions from the Egyptians in favour of Israel

After this Carter returned to Cairo, again, spent an hour and a half or two hours talking with Sadat at the airport and then, after embracing and kissing him, as he had done with Begin in Jerusalem, he said good-bye and returned to Washington.

In his speech in Washington the American president declared that he had achieved a success.

And this success was that a number of problems on the signing of theIsraeli-Egyptian treaty had been ironed out. According to Carter and Begin, if no other disagreement arises in the meantime, the treaty will be signed next week.

Hence, we must await the text of the treaty in order to judge what concessions have been made by one side or the other, but we can give our opinion on the aims of the American president's visit to Egypt and Israel right now. Profound reasons, vital to the interests of the United States of America, impelled this lowering of the authority of the president to the level of that of a foreign minister. This is linked with the whole Middle-East problem. Will the Middle East become a domain of the Americans, will it come under the influence of the Soviets, or will an anti-imperialist popular revolution, such as occurred in Iran, break out in this region? If what occurred in Iran occurs in Saudi Arabia, Egypt, and the other countries of the Middle East, then the situation will be catastrophic for American imperialism and all the Western capitalist states.

The Americans are not certain of their oil supplies and that is why president Carter threw the whole weight of his authority, as the president of the United States of America today, and the future president, if he puts forward his candidature in the coming elections, into the balance with his visit to the Middle East.

The aims of Carter's visit to these two countries of the Middle East must be the following:

between Israel and Egypt there should be peace, but not only this. Israel and Egypt should jointly constitute a gendarme more reliable than Israel was before to defend the oil zone from two dangers: from the Soviet danger and the danger of the revolution. Thus the aim of president Carter and all the Western capitalists is that there should be no further «disturbances» in this oil zone like those that occurred in Iran where the situation has still not been stabilized. And how the situation there will be stabilized remains a question for the American imperialists and all the Western capitalists.

Hence, a struggle is being waged for oil and preliminary measures are being taken to protect it from any threat. As I have pointed out, however, these preparations are being made in case of a Soviet attack caused by other warmongering reasons, and also in case of the outbreak of a revolution against the present leaderships of many states in this region, who are in the service of imperialism, have sold out their countries to world capitalism and oppress their peoples.

For these reasons Carter declared that he will supply both Israel and Egypt with large amounts of aid, totalling more than 4 billion dollars, if I am not mistaken. And, of course, these 4 billion dollars will be mainly for arms.

The American president wants Egypt, after signing the peace treaty with Israel, in opposition to Syria, Iraq and all the other Arab countries, to form a «army of the hawks» like the Israeli army. Then these two together, in unity, should commence their aggression and suppression of the circles which are ruling in the other countries of this zone, or even further away, for example, in Libya. That country, too, is a key oil zone on which the American imperialists, the Western capitalists and the Soviet social-imperialists have their eyes.

Hence, the purpose of Carter's visit to Egypt and Israel was to strengthen the alliance between those two countries, to announce a plan of alleged economic aid, called the «Carter Plan» rather than the «Marshall Plan», for these two states friendly to the United States of America, and to create an army ready to intervene in North Yemen and Oman, if they are endangered, and also to defend Saudi Arabia if the revolution in Iran continues to develop in more radical directions.




M A R C H 31, 1979


The peace treaty between Egypt and Israel was signed, with Carter signing as witness, on a desk used traditionally by the Americans for the signing of various enslaving imperialist treaties.

Hence, an imperialist treaty was signed following an aggressive imperialist war of plunder declared by Zionism, powerfully supported with arms and munitions and financed by American imperialism. The purpose which Israel had and achieved in this war of plunder was to liquidate the homeland of the Palestinians, to occupy Jerusalem, the West Bank of the Jordan River, the Gaza Strip and the whole of Sinai and to be poised like a hawk ready to strike at Lebanon and Egypt. Apart from this, the aggressive armies of Israel also occupied the Golan Heights which belong to Syria.

This was the aim of the aggressive imperialist war against the Arab peoples of Palestine, Syria, Egypt, Jordan and, indirectly, all the other Arab peoples. Through this predatory war Israel, powerfully supported by American imperialism, also had the aim of keeping the oil-rich region of the Middle East, that is, Saudi Arabia, the Emirates of the Persian Gulf, Kuwait, Iran, etc., under the influence of American imperialism and forming a strong military-economic barrier against some other Arab countries and their partners, the Western capitalist countries, which rely heavily on the oil of the Middle East.

The Egyptians, the Syrians and the Jordanians, allegedly in unity, but in fact divided, tried to withstand this aggressive war on several occasions, but without success, because they were not seriously united in their struggle against this barbarous invasion. They were defeated in the time of Farouk, of Nasser and now of Sadat and also under the monarchy of Hussein. Meanwhile, cosmopolitan Lebanon, where large numbers of Palestinians have settled, especially in the south of that country and on the border with Israel, has continually been the prey of the latter and remains in this situation, facing the barbarous attacks of the Israeli infantry, artillery and air force. Lebanon has also been turned into a country of civil wars between Syrians, Christian Maronites and Islamic sects.

Apart from the use of weapons the United States of America and Israel have also combined to use methods of division, irrespective of what the Arab countries continue to trumpet every day about the Arab nation allegedly being a united nation. The activity of American imperialism and the aggressive war of Israel, on the one hand, and of Soviet social-imperialism, on the other hand, have done their work for the destruction of this unity, which is nothing but a formula. All these forces of darkness, imperialism, social-imperialism and their tools, cause splits among those countries and peoples, and the basis of the divisions among them lies in the reactionary capitalist leaderships of the Arab countries.

The United States of America is acting with great speed and exerting threatening pressure on Israel and its prime minister, Begin, to have him sign a peace treaty with Egypt, a treaty best described as worthless. Through the signing of this treaty Egypt is placing itself in opposition to all the other Arab states. To save face, Sadat wanted the Palestinians to take part in this agreement, but they refused, or else to insert in the treaty some clause under which the Palestinians' future right to have their own homeland of which Israel has robbed them, would allegedly be recognized. In reality, of course, he worked to find some formula under which this lawful and natural right of the Palestinian people would never be recognized.

Sadat was persuaded that he should accept the American views and he brought Begin, too, round to the course American imperialism had chosen. In fact the Israeli-Egyptian treaty is not a treaty between these two states which have been and are at war, but is an American treaty, an imperialist treaty, which safeguards and defends the interests of the United States of America in the Middle East. In this nine-clause treaty, naturally, Egypt regains part of Sinai on a series of conditions, regains the oil-wells in Sinai exploited by the Israelis, is obliged to declare the Gulf of Aqaba and the Strait of Tiran international waters, to accept that ships of all flags can pass freely through the Suez Canal, has certain rights in the Gaza Strip, and no more.

Meanwhile, Israel, of course, is to keep large areas of Arab territory under occupation and include them in its own Zionist state. Israel categorically refuses to give up the West Bank and Jerusalem. Jerusalem, declared Begin, will remain the capital of Israel.

To attain this result the United States of America bought both the Israelis and the Egyptians, paying them about 2 billion dollars each for this imperialist treaty. Of course, the bulk of these 2 billions will be supplied in weapons.

Hence, the American armaments industry will develop even further and American imperialism will supply weapons and munition to these two countries which it has linked to its own interests.

This is the purpose and meaning of this peace treaty which brings not peace, but war, because it is not in the interests of the Arab peoples and states, even though they are bourgeois capitalist states.

The Palestinians, first of all, are irreconcilably opposed to the Israeli-Egyptian treaty.

They quite rightly declared openly, firmly and courageously that they will wage a relentless struggle against this treaty and these results.

They declared Sadat a traitor and that «they will cut off his hands and his head». These are the terms Arafat has used against him, according to news agencies.

United with the Palestinians are the Syrians, first of all, because they are faced with an Israeli-Egyptian «unity» which makes it more difficult for them to regain the Golan Heights.

Hence, if they are going to try to take their Golan Heights, they will have to link themselves closely in a fighting unity, with the other Arab countries which oppose this treaty. However, it is difficult for them to achieve such a fighting unity. Before the treaty was concluded it was stated that a meeting of all countries which opposed the Israeli-Egyptian treaty would be held in Baghdad. In fact, the representatives of these countries gathered there, but soon dispersed because not all of them agreed to break off relations with Egypt, to boycott Egypt and declare Sadat a traitor to the Arab cause, who has sold out to Israel and American imperialism.

Of course, Saudi Arabia and the Emirates of the Gulf together with Jordan denounced the Israeli-Egyptian treaty, but it seems they did not agree to boycott Egypt, to break off relations with it and eventually to organize some minor war against it, because a small war against Egypt would also be aimed against Egypt's ally, Israel, and especially against American imperialism, which, when the Iranian people overthrew the Shah, sent Brown, the Secretary of State for Defence, to Saudi Arabia and the whole Middle East zone where he worked to hinder Arab unity among the countries of this region.

Hence, no unity was achieved among the countries which allegedly oppose the Israeli- Egyptian treaty. Of course there is any amount of propaganda saying this treaty cannot last long, that the Arab peoples are against this treaty, that the Arab peoples will liquidate Israel, that the Arab peoples will liquidate Sadat.

In the Yom Kippour War Israel was taken by surprise. Nevertheless, through a series of military manoeuvres, it crossed the Suez Canal, outflanked the Egyptian armies attacking in Sinai, encircled them there and stopped their further advance. Nevertheless, this war created a situation somewhat favourable to Egypt among the Arab countries, but this favourable situation resulted in the present situation which is disadvantageous to the Egyptian people themselves, the Syrian people and the Palestinian people, in the first place, and then to all the other Arab peoples.

In other words, through the Israeli-Egyptian treaty, American imperialism has now managed to somewhat ease a very critical situation which was created in the Middle East with the overthrow of the Shah of Persia.

In this situation, of course, Soviet social-imperialism is trying to incite the Arab countries which oppose the Israeli-Egyptian treaty to war against the United States of America, that is, against Israel and Egypt, and to unite them under its own leadership and influence.



APRIL 3, 1979



The official text of the resolution which was approved by the conference of the Council of the Arab League at the level of foreign ministers held in Baghdad has been published.

This resolution says that by signing the peace treaty, with Israel, the government of the Arab Republic of Egypt has disregarded the resolutions of the Arab Summit Conference, especially the resolutions taken at the summit conferences at Rabat and Algiers, the resolutions of the 9th Arab Summit Conference and that it has disregarded the appeal of the Arab kings and presidents not to sign any peace treaty with the Zionist enemy. According to this resolution, the participants in the Conference of Baghdad consider the signing of the peace treaty with Israel by Sadat's government as a betrayal.

The Sadat government is accused of abandoning the national duty to liberate the occupied Arab territories, especially Jerusalem, to regain the inalienable national rights of the Palestinian people, including the right to return to their homeland and the right to selfdetermination to create an independent state of Palestine on their own national territory, of failing to safeguard Arab solidarity and unity and defend the Arab cause, etc.

In Baghdad the Arab countries took a decision by means of which they boycott the Arab Republic of Egypt, brand Sadat traitor and reject the Israeli-Egyptian treaty which was signed on March 26, 1979, jointly with Carter, at Camp David in the United States of America.

On the surface it seems as though the resolution was taken unanimously, but apart from Syria, which is interested because part of its territory is occupied by Israel, apart from the Palestinians who are left without a homeland and whose cause went totally unheeded in the Israeli-Egyptian treaty, and Iraq which stands behind Syria, that is, apart from those who are most interested in opposing Egypt, the other states such as Saudi Arabia, do not take the same stand. These states are wavering. They will wobble as the situations and circumstances dictate in the direction of the American policy and will not completely break off their contacts with Egypt.

Who knows whether eventually Syria, too, may become involved in long and difficult negotiations with Israel and thus the question of the Golan Heights may be liquidated in one way or another. Hence, the losers in all this are the Palestinians who are left without a homeland, and so the problems in the Middle East will go on for ever unresolved, while the great powers operate according to their own interests.

Only uprisings of the peoples can put an end to such a difficult and complicated situation in this zone in which Soviet social-imperialism, American imperialism and the other capitalist states of the world have planted their feet. This is a sensitive zone of very great strategic importance, a zone of oil, a zone of inter-imperialist wars, of a war of plunder which only the peoples of this zone and not the representatives of the forces which are in power in certain countries of this zone, are able to withstand. These forces combine or split according to the interests of the bourgeoisie which they represent and which dominates in those countries, and not according to the national interests of the peoples whom they rule, they link themselves with American imperialism or Soviet social-imperialism, according to the interests of the big oil bourgeoisie.



MAY 26, 1979


As a result of the confused policy of Nasser and Sadat Egypt has suffered major losses during the wars which were imposed on it by Israel, armed to the teeth. Indeed, Cairo itself was threatened by Israeli occupation, but the imperialist powers intervened to prevent this, because they foresaw an even greater catastrophe in the Mediterranean area with the complete occupation of Egypt. Nevertheless, Israel managed to strengthen its own Zionist state, to occupy Egyptian territories and the Golan Heights, a dominant strategic place, the occupation of which was at Syria's expense.

With Egypt and its conflict with Israel, which implies the conflict of all the Arab peoples, including the Palestinian people, with the Israeli aggressors, we go on to the second key point of the present international situation. With the signing of the peace treaty between Egypt and Israel a new situation was created. All the Arab countries oppose this treaty, publicly at least, because it is an unjust treaty and sacrifices the interests of the Palestinian people. In fact, contrary to the joint policy of the Arab countries, Egypt signed this treaty with Israel, which is an agency of the United States of America in the Middle East, got back only a part of the territories occupied by Israel, and completely forgot the Golan Heights and the Palestinians.

This is why it is so «sternly» opposed by all the other Arab countries and also by Ayatollah Khomeini's Iran. In this allegedly Arab alliance, however, there is no complete unity of views and actions against Sadat for his betrayal of the common cause of the Palestinians and Syria. For example, although Saudi Arabia and the Emirates of the Persian Gulf take part in this grouping which opposes the Israeli-Egyptian treaty, still they have one hand held out to it and the other to American imperialism, because they are worried about their petrol dollars.

Thus, Syria, in fact, has disagreements with Egypt and is at war with Israel. Iraq is with Syria. These two states, Iraq and Syria, are trying to combine with one another to create a unity. It is clear that they are talking about this aim, but it can never be achieved, because of the major contradictions which exist between the regimes of these two states and the differences in their economic level, as well as because of the strategic position of each of them. The various imperialist powers, also, are opposed to such a unification, and that is why they are making efforts to prevent it.

The Palestinian people are not laying down their arms, either. Through their struggle they are displaying their dauntless fighting spirit, but the great evil is that they have been left without a homeland and are fighting wherever they have the possibility to establish themselves.

Meanwhile the Palestinians in Lebanon are under the continual attacks of Israeli bomber aircraft in reply to any action they launch, actions which are expressions of their struggle for the liberation of their lost homeland.

Even the Palestinians are not linked in a strong unity. Their situation is a reflection of the many contradictions which weaken the Arab peoples and states themselves. There are many different factions in the ranks of the Palestinian fighters. Because of the vacillations of Arafat and «Al-Fatah» it is uncertain what policy they are pursuing, while Habash, who presents himself as very intransigent against Israel and is not in agreement with «Al-Fatah», might reach agreement with the social-imperialist Soviet Union in order to achieve his aim.

There will be no peace in this region, because the contradictions among the American, British, French imperialists and between them and the Soviet imperialists and the various ruling cliques which will take the side of one or the other imperialist state, as well as the contradictions of the peoples against the ruling classes, will increase continuously.

There is admiration for Albania, for its principled policy, for its courage and valour, for its independence and sovereignty which it keeps inviolate of foreign powers, as well as for its continuous support for their struggle against the Israeli aggressors, against American and Soviet imperialism, especially for the struggle of the Palestinian people for their national and social liberation.

They are impressed, also, by our socialist order, which they dream about but which they still do not see clearly and do not realize how it can be achieved and how a new society can be built as in our country.

The more time passes, the more the peoples see that the forces in the world are polarizing into those who want the revolution and those who want to suppress it. The peoples are going to carry out the revolution, therefore they must prevent predatory imperialist wars and kindle national liberation wars which open the way to the world proletarian revolution.



JUNE 26, 1979


The aid of the Soviet Union is not sincere. In reality it has not defended and is not defending Syria from the Israelis. On the contrary, the Soviets are providing Syria with outdated weapons, while they are supplying Israel with cannon fodder. All the Jews of the Soviet Union, tens of thousands a year, are being sent to Israel. This kind of emigration augments and strengthens the army of Dayan and Begin. With these people Israeli Zionist colonies are founded on the occupied territories of the heroic Palestinian people.

Meanwhile, the Soviets are playing the card of Iraq and Syria. It is better for them that these countries should be divided rather than united, for the reason that the Soviet Union can do no good for itself on the Israeli question, because Israel and Egypt are now harnessed to the American chariot. This, of course, did not please the Soviets who are trying to combat and divide those countries, but this is difficult because, at the same time, they want to maintain and safeguard their friendship with the United States of America.

The treaty between Egypt and Israel which was signed at Camp David cannot be attacked openly by the Soviets. Naturally, they will play the card of Syria, the card of Libya and the card of their secret agency inside Egypt to the extent that this is possible, but most of all they want Syria and Iraq to be divided and under their influence.

In other words, the Middle East, the oil zone, is on fire, is a field of mines which could be detonated by the imperialist powers and blow up at any time. The only correct alternative is the true awakening of the Arab peoples in the Middle East. The universal example of the heroic struggle of the Palestinian people is what ought to create that sense of unity for the elimination of the heavy burden of intrigues and oppression imposed by the imperialists and local capitalists.

The Palestinians, a people without a homeland, are showing the world that the fight for freedom, for land, for bread, for democracy, the revolutionary armed struggle, is the only way to salvation.

Justice, the basis of unity lie in this struggle.

Regrettably, the Palestinians, too, are divided among themselves and their division is inspired by their Arab brothers. There are Palestinians who are incited by the Syrians, others who are influenced by the Emirates of the Gulf, others by Saudi Arabia, Iraq, and so on. The Soviets pretend that they are assisting Arafat who travels back and forth to Moscow and from one capital city to another. But he, too, is in opposition to various Palestinian currents which are fighting against Israel, the United States of America and Egypt, which joined up with Israel and left the Palestinians in the lurch.

The question of oil plays a major role. In the hands of the Arab peoples it is a powerful weapon for their liberation and an aid to national liberation struggles and the proletarian revolution, but at the same time, it is a means of oppression, if it remains in the hands of imperialists and their agents.


P O G R A D E C , _ T H U R S D A Y ,

JULY 19, 1979


Major monopolies and banks, various governments and parties of the capitalist and revisionist bourgeoisie are set up or collapse over the question of whether or not they can get hold of the supply of oil.

The disturbing effects of the shortage of oil, of this primary product of vital importance for the economies and war machines of the imperialist and revisionist states, became very acute in 1973 when the Arabs proclaimed their boycott of the Western countries which supported Israel.

In my opinion, this boycott showed the Arab oil producing countries that by means of the oil weapon they could conquer Israel, its patron, the United States of America, or any other of their enemies. To achieve this, however, they have to foil the all-sided economic, political and military pressures as well as the intrigues which are hatched up by means of some oil-producing countries which break the boycott.

Of course, when they are short of «blood» they must fight to get it, hence, they must get oil, and so the international situation becomes even more dangerous and the threats of a world war or local wars increase.

The signing of the Israeli-Egyptian treaty also seemed to be a success for American imperialism.

I have pointed out that this treaty was achieved under the patronage of the United States of America which wants to have two pistols instead of one in the Middle East to protect the flanks of its oil basin from a political-economic and eventual military invasion by the Soviets. Nevertheless, it must be said that the hostility between American imperialism and the Arab countries always remains. Of course, this is a differentiated hostility, because of the lack of that unity which should exist between the Arab countries in order to oppose the great intrigues of American imperialism and Soviet social-imperialism. Nevertheless, the Israeli-Egyptian treaty angered the other Arab states, which opposed it, some more heatedly others more coolly, but we can say that all of them opposed it with some force.

The two important problems which I consider are linked both with the question of the Middle East and with the question of peace or war in the world: the question of the rights of the Palestinian people and the question of oil.

The question of oil has become the epicentre of major world intrigues and machinations, because all countries are involved in this question.


SEPTEMBER 17, 1979



The group of Arab states has a common enemy, Israel, and all those who collaborate with it. It should be pointed out to them that we support them with all our might in their struggle against Israel and will continue to do so because Israel is our common enemy, a collaborator and instrument of the American imperialists.



JANUARY 10, 1981


For some days, one of the most ferocious enemies of the Palestinian people and the other Arab peoples, the notorious Henry Kissinger, a dyed-in-the-wool supporter of international Jewry, has been prowling around the Middle East. This time he has gone there not as a state functionary but as the special envoy of President Reagan, to poke and probe and plot against the Arab peoples and above all to look after the interests of the American oil and arms monopolies.

Wherever he has gone, to Saudi Arabia, Israel, Oman or elsewhere, not without purpose he has boosted Camp David and the Israeli-Egyptian peace treaty, about which he boasts that he has «contributed his efforts» to bring it about. Everywhere he has appealed for «regional understanding», in other words, for ending the fight against the Israeli aggressors, for accepting the Israeli occupation of Arab territories on the West Bank of the Jordan, the Gaza Strip, the Golan Heights and parts of Sinai — what is called the state of Israel with secure borders, as an accomplished fact.

More than once he has made open and arrogant threats about «the determination of the American government for a greater military involvement in the Middle East and the Persian Gulf».

This is Henry Kissinger, the strategist who formulated the anti-Arab policy of Kennedy, Johnson, Nixon, Carter and now Reagan.



APRIL 11, 1981


For some days we have been reading many reports about demonstrations of the Palestinian people against the violence and terror which the Israelis employ against them in the occupied Arab territories as well as in the Palestinian camps in southern Lebanon. The resistance of the Palestinian forces is great everywhere and especially on the West Bank.

Meanwhile there is talk about a landing on a mass scale of Israeli special units supported by a heavy artillery barrage, at a number of points in the region north-west of Beirut, at Nabataea, Tyre and elsewhere. Fighting is taking place. There are dead and wounded. The Israelis have suffered heavy losses.

Besides their military activities, the Israelis are also continuing their expropriation of the land and property of Palestinian families in order to set up new Jewish settlements on them.

These inhuman actions, this savage terror against the Palestinians increases the grief which I have been feeling these days for our brothers of Kosova, who have been subjected to savage terror by the Great-Serb Titoites. Just like the racist Jews of Tel Aviv, the Great-Serb Titoites too, are employing illegal means and inhuman violence and terror against the Albanians of Kosova simply because they are demanding their political and economic rights on the basis of and within the Constitution of Yugoslavia itself.

With these actions, however, both the Israelis and the Great Serbs are harming only themselves.



AUGUST 10, 1981



In the chapter on the international situation in the report to the 8th Party Congress we must certainly devote as much space as the conditions allow to events which are connected with the Middle East. Amongst other things we must point out:

1) The struggle of the Arab peoples against the Israeli occupiers and their American patrons has assumed greater dimensions and intensity.

In the centre of this struggle stand the heroic Palestinian people who, for decades on end and in extremely difficult conditions, have been waging a titanic battle to return to their homeland captured by the Israelis and to ensure their right to live free and independent on their mother soil.

The Egyptian-Israeli compromise of Camp David was shaken; open and hidden disagreements with the NATO partners arose.



OCTOBER 7, 1981


At a time when a military parade was being held in Cairo, a comando of Egyptian soldiers shot and assassinated Anwar el-Sadat.

Who assassinated him? Terrorists?

We shall see on whom they will put the finger? It was not in the interests of the United States of America and Israel to kill him. The Soviets, yes, they were interested in assassinating him for their global strategy and their strategy in the Middle East where the situation has become more complicated than it was. Qaddafi of Libya who, under the Soviet «umbrella», encircled Egypt with the alliances he made with Syria, Ethiopia and South Yemen, was directly interested in having him assassinated. Qaddafi openly assailed Sadat and Nimeiri of Sudan and also attacked Chad. Other Arab countries which are pro-Palestinian and against Israel were also interested, although on a more remote level, in having him killed. Assassinating him was of interest to these countries also for blackmail against the United States of America.

Without doubt, Sadat's assassination was carried out by adventurers in the interests of other even greater adventurers. Even before the assassination the situation was dangerous but now it becomes even more so. The superpowers are in conflict and are setting the world more and more each day on the course of nuclear war.

The peoples must step up their struggle against these warmongers and their tools.



JANUARY 13, 1982


The great imperialist-Zionist plot against the Arab peoples and, first of all, the martyred Palestinian people, is becoming more and more concrete. I read in news agency reports that the American president, Reagan, has sent a new message to the Israeli prime minister, Begin, to assure him publicly that the United States of America is determined to guarantee the «security of Israel» at all times.

This message, along with the large amounts of financial and military aid for the Begin government, which the American imperialists have recently been increasing day by day, speaks of a new premeditated step on their part, which will be a further encouragement to the Israelis' aggressive and adventurous anti-Arab policy to legalize what are called the «secure borders of Israel». Through this policy of «secure borders» Israel intends to keep the main parts of the occupied Arab territory, especially the West Bank of the Jordan River, the Gaza Strip and the Golan Heights, under permanent occupation.

There will be fresh developments in the Middle East, especially in the anti-Palestinian policies of imperialism, Zionism and reaction.



FEBRUARY 8, 1982


Recently top-ranking American politicians and military men have been making pilgrimages to the Middle East.

Weinberger commenced his present tour in Saudi Arabia to which, according to news agencies, the United States is going to sell the most modern armaments, including F-15 supersonic aircraft and AWACS radar aircraft, after first receiving assurances from the ruling monarchy of that country that these armaments will not be used against Israel. Then against whom will these modern armaments be used? Obviously, they will be used to suppress the national liberation movements of neighbouring Arab peoples and, as some say, they might also be used against Iran.



APRIL 26, 1982


In recent days events in Lebanon are assuming a more acute and savage character. Fratricidal war is going on in Beirut amongst various factions of the Lebanese people, with special emphasis on armed provocations against the Palestinian forces in the southern regions of the city.

Directly involved in all these events are the American imperialists and especially the Israelis, who are trying to liquidate the organized Palestinian forces in Lebanon.

As Western news agencies report, prime minister Begin has made an arrogant declaration threatening the sovereignty of Lebanon. Speaking about recent events in that country and about the situation in Beirut, in particular, he said amongst other things: «We shall consider the possibility of the occupation of Lebanon.»

This declaration has made an impression on world opinion, because it is an escalation of the already tense situation, constitutes a forewarning of imminent dangers and shows that the Israeli aggressors are preparing new plans for war against the Arab peoples, first of all, against the Palestinian people.

In this arrogant stand, disdainful of world opinion, Israel has the open support of American imperialism and the secret support of Soviet social-imperialism, both of them interested in increasing the tension in this region of the world and liquidating the resistance of the Palestinian people. The imperialist and social-imperialist wolves and their jackals want to fish in troubled waters because this makes it easier for them to hatch up plots and plunder the wealth of the peoples of the Middle East.

It is essential that the Arab peoples and, first of all, the Palestinian people increase their vigilance and combine in a genuine unity to cope with the danger which is threatening them.

Only through uncompromising struggle can the Israeli aggressors and their imperialist and social-imperialist patrons be dealt with.


JULY 8, 1982



I am carefully following developments in Lebanon where, as I have written previously, there is a very grave and dangerous situation.

For several days the Israeli air force and naval and land artillery have been severely bombing the capital of that country, Beirut, especially the outlying suburbs where the Palestinian population and their organized forces are concentrated.

News agencies are talking about an advance of tens of thousands of troops of the Israeli army, heavily armed and with modern mechanized means, towards Beirut.

From what we read in news agency reports and see on TV, we are faced with the de facto occupation of Beirut by the Israeli army and the implementation of long-standing plans for driving the Palestinians out of Beirut and the whole of Lebanon.

Where do the Israeli aggressors find the boldness to challenge the sovereignty of an independent state like Lebanon and attack the freedom of its people?

American imperialism is defending them.

Today I read a report which said that Yitzhak Shamir, the foreign minister of Israel, has declared:

«The United States of America has worked out plans to use its land and naval forces to settle the Lebanese crisis.» And Shamir does not make these statements, so compromising to the Americans, for nothing. On the contrary, he is sure of such a support, because he himself was recently in Washington and received allround assurances from the American government.

In fact, the American 6th Fleet in the Mediterranean, with several hundred aircraft and about 8000 American marines specialized in urban warfare, is being reinforced and directed towards the shores of Lebanon.

We shall see how events develop. Will the Lebanese tolerate the occupation of their country by the Israelis? Will the Palestinians yield to the brutality of the Israelis? Will the other Arab countries reconcile themselves to the occupation of Lebanon?

The coming days will give us the answers to these questions. I think that the Israelis will make every effort to implement their plans of conquest, but will encounter stern resistance in Lebanon, especially from the Palestinian fighters.

One thing attracts attention. While Israel is operating openly and has the open support of the United States of America, the Soviet Union is merely making «threatening» statements in the press about the possible consequences of the deterioration of the situation, setting its Mediterranean naval fleet in motion, and nothing more.


AUGUST 22, 1982


What I had foreseen about the real aims of the Israeli military aggression against Lebanon, that is, the destruction of the organized forces of the Palestine Liberation Movement, is coming to pass. Yesterday news agencies began to say that after fierce fighting between the Israeli military forces and Palestinian forces in Beirut, the Palestinians were withdrawing from Beirut to the regions north of that city, under the pressure of the Israeli army.

Besides this, another very cunning manoeuvre is being carried out. Under the pretext that the withdrawal from Beirut of Palestinian forces, unharmed by the Israelis, must be «ensured and guaranteed», an agreement has been sought and apparently achieved, that a large number of troops of the United States of America, France and Italy should be sent to Lebanon.

These units, which will be called the «multinational force», are supposed to supervise the withdrawal of the Palestinians. Each of these units will be under independent command and will be armed with all fighting means.

I am following the events in Lebanon with special attention because they could have consequences for the whole of the Mediterranean, the Balkans and Central Europe, that is, they could affect our country, too.

I have talked with the comrades and given instructions that we should continue through the press to expose the aggressive aims of Israel and the plots of American imperialism. We must continue to support the just struggle of the Palestinian people for their rights.


AUGUST_25, 1982


News agencies report that 800 American marines landed from the ships of the 6th Fleet in Beirut today «to restore order» and to maintain «peace» between the warring factions. In reality we have to do with an American military occupation of Lebanon in implementation of the «strategic agreement» recently reached between Reagan and Begin. On the basis of this agreement the American government has pledged to use every means to defend the Israeli aggressors in their war against the Arabs and the Palestinians.

It is said that besides the American troops, special detachments of the Italian army have arrived, too, while the French detachments arrived some days ago. These troops, called the «multi-national force», are charged with the mission of «calming» the situation in Beirut and «supervising» the withdrawal of the Palestinians from the Lebanese capital.


SEPTEMBER 21, 1982


A very grave crime has been perpetrated these days in two Palestinian camps, Sabra and Shatila, on the western outskirts of Beirut. From dawn September 17 to September 18, armed units, said to be of the Lebanese Phalangist militia and a dissident unit commanded by a certain Major Haddad, which is equipped, trained and financed by the Israeli government, entered these two camps which were surrounded by detachments of the Israeli army. They opened fire in the most barbarous way, massacring about 1 500 innocent, defenceless Palestinians, women, children, elderly men, boys and girls, sick people, and so on, without discrimination. In some cases they wiped out whole families in the shelters where they had taken refuge. This crime was carried out in the darkness of the night and a Complete news blackout was maintained about it for more than 24 hours. Meanwhile, the aggressors have departed and have been able to cover their tracks.

As news agencies report, journalists learned about this hideous crime after some delay and mainly from the efforts of Palestinians still alive but too terrified to leave the site of the crime.

This event has caused profound indignation everywhere. Protests have begun and demands are being made that the perpetrators of this inhuman crime must be brought to book. Israeli political and military circles are trying to exonerate themselves by saying that they «know nothing about it», «do not know who the murderers are», and so on. However, a number of contradictory statements, as well as the fact that these two camps were in the region which the detachments of the Israeli army control, speak of the opposite. Not only the high command of the Israeli army of occupation in Beirut, but also the War Ministry and prime minister Begin personally knew of this crime and had a hand in it. It is said that the minister of defence, Sharon, who heads the Israeli military units in Lebanon, and the chief of the General Staff, Aton, authorized the perpetration of this crime under the silent protection of Israeli units and subsequently imposed the news blackout.

The crime committed at Sabra and Shatila is so grave that even in Tel Aviv itself a commotion has begun demanding «the revelation of the truth» and «the punishment of those responsible» in order to save the «honour» of the Israeli people!

On television these days I have seen horrible scenes of the massacres which have been committed in these two Palestinian camps, piles of corpses, children crying for their parents, grief-striken women searching amongst the victims for members of their families, and so on.

These are painful scenes which arouse indignation and hatred for these new barbarians. Only the German nazis have perpetrated such monstrosities.

All progressive mankind must sternly denounce the authors of this crime.

How sorry I feel for the Palestinian people, expelled from their homeland and persecuted in the cruellest ways by the Israeli aggressors and other reactionary forces. And why? Because they are fighting for their rights, to return to their homeland, because they demand justice from those who do not want to know what justice is, but simply trample the rights of other peoples underfoot, as the Israelis and their patrons, the American imperialists, do.

Through the press we shall indignantly denounce this barbarous crime against the Palestinian population and expose its direct authors and their savage supporters as war criminals.


SEPTEMBER 21, 1982


The stand which the Soviet Union is taking about recent developments in the Middle East and, in particular, towards the great plot for the destruction of the Palestinian movement and the physical liquidation of the Palestinian people, is a very clear indication of the treacherous anti-Arab policy of the Soviet social-imperialists.

Their friendship and military aid are false and ineffectual.

It is known that the Soviet Union sells Syria armaments, including supersonic aircraft and missiles of the latest types. However, they were not used to counter the attacks by the Israelis with modern American weapons. Why?

Because their «firing mechanism» remains in the hands of Soviet military experts. The same thing occurred with Egypt, too, and the consequences are known. The modern weapons which the Soviet Union supplies to Syria under the label of sincere friendship are not to defend Syria and the Palestinians, but to say to the Americans andIsrael: «I am here, too.» Hence, the Soviet Union does this for its own interests as a superpower.

Whenever Israel has launched heavy military attacks on the Palestinians, Yasser Arafat and other Palestinian leaders have been invited urgently to Moscow and each time «stern» communiques have been issued, saying that «the struggle of the Palestinian people will be supported with every means». However, the «means» have always been messages of condolences. Israel is well aware of this.

Concretely, in the last two months the world has seen a number of serious military attacks made by Israel and the United States of America against the Palestinian and Lebanese peoples, for instance, the occupation of Lebanon, the forced expulsion of the Palestinian fighters from Beirut, etc. Progressive mankind also saw a grave and inhuman event, the massacre of the innocent, defenceless Palestinian population in Sabra and Shatila. Notwithstanding this tragedy, Brezhnev is trying to get out of his official pledges towards the Arab peoples and countries with no more than a «message of denunciation» over the massacres of Sabra and Shatila addressed to Arafat.

This sort of stand simply encourages the unrestrained arrogance, of Israel and the United States of America against the Arabs and the Palestinians.



JANUARY 6, 1983


The United States of America is the main supporter of all the anti-Arab political and military actions of the state of Israel. If the anti-Arab plans are carried out by Tel Aviv, they are prepared and put on paper in Washington.

This is a truth which the events and life have proved.

On January 4, Yitzhak Navon, the head of state of Israel, arrived in Washington for an «official visit and consultations» with the leading circles of the United States of America. As news agencies report, on this occasion he made a statement which has a well-defined aim and meaning. Among other things he said: «The prewar borders of 1967 do not guarantee the security of Israel», while the city of Jerusalem will remain an «undivided» city and indeed «the capital of Israel». After this he added: «Israel will never accept the creation of an independent Palestinian state».

The aggressive and arrogant character of these declarations, which constitute the essence of the anti-Arab and anti-Palestinian policy of Israel, requires no comment. These statements are made only with the approval of the patron, American imperialism, and are not pressure exerted by the government of Tel Aviv on the American government for further aid.



FEBRUARY 25, 1983


At the beginning of the year a statement made in Washington by Yitzhak Navon, head of state of Israel, about the anti-Arab pretensions of his country, made an impression on me. On that occasion I noted that such anti-Arab declarations, especially when made on American soil, could not be made by Navon or any other Israeli state leader without the knowledge and approval of the American government.

Today I read in the news agency reports about a press conference of President Reagan in which he touches on the Palestinian people and their just struggle. What does Reagan say?

The «package peace plan» for the Middle East which the Americans have drafted must include «something in the nature of a homeland» for the Palestinians. «No one,» he says, «has expressed himself in favour of a Palestinian state.» Hence, for the head of American imperialism, the Palestinians are and remain a refugee people without a homeland and, moreover, have no right to exercise their sovereignty.

Immediately after these anti-Palestinian statements, Reagan adds that «if need be» the American detachments which are part of the «multi-national force» deployed in Beirut, «will patrol Southern Lebanon», i.e., near the borders of Israel «in order to defend it».

Is this not complete and open support for the anti-Arab declarations that Navon made and which had to do with guaranteeing the borders of Israel in the occupied Arab territories and refusal to recognize an independent Palestinian state?



AUGUST 17, 1983


The role of intermediary which Ceausescu plays, not only between China and the United States of America, but also between other countries, has long been known. He has been no less involved in mediation at very difficult moments between Israel and a number of Arab governments.

Now that a real situation of occupation has been created in Lebanon by the Israeli army and the «multi-national force» (of the United States, France, Italy and Britain), when the anger and indignation amongst progressive mankind over the grave and inhuman crimes which the Israelis organized last year against the Palestinian civilian inhabitants of Sabra and Shatila have still not died down, Ceausescu is welcoming and holding cordial talks with Shamir, the foreign minister of Israel.

What are they talking about? As the news agencies say they are discussing «mediation» to re-establish diplomatic relations between Israel and the Soviet Union and other countries of Eastern Europe.

Undoubtedly, Ceausescu has undertaken this role and will try to carry it out, because, like all his other attempts at mediation, it might bring him some economic advantage. However, I think that the greatest aid which he is trying to give Israel at these moments and in this situation is to somewhat reduce the indignation of international public opinion towards the criminal anti-Arab and anti-Palestinian policy of Tel Aviv.

This is not the first time that Ceausescu has come out on the side of Israel and he frequently has cordial meetings and talks with the heads of Tel Aviv. Next to Washington, the capital city to which the heads of the Israeli government go most frequently, is Bucharest. The heads of a number of Arab countries go there, too. It is regrettable, however, that Arafat and some others in the leadership of the Palestine Liberation Organization have illusions about these meetings.



DECEMBER 10, 1983


One of the main aims of American imperialism, Soviet social-imperialism, Zionism and Arab reaction has always been to sabotage any movement for national and social liberation in the Middle East, which is one of the regions of the world richest in oil. In this context their immediate objective is to destroy the liberation movement of the Palestinian people by inciting feuds and fratricide amongst Palestinians. While there have been and still are contradictions between them over the question of oil, of spheres of influence or the possession of strategic regions, over the liquidation of the Palestinian people they have no contradictions, but on the contrary have a tacit all-round agreement. Through their intrigues, through the activity of their secret agencies, through compromising individuals with money and blandishments, the enemies of the Palestinian people have managed to achieve some results. That there have been opposing tendencies, groups with differing programs and aims within the Palestine Liberation Organization, is a truth which cannot be covered up. Likewise, the other fact cannot be denied, namely, that between these opposing currents and groups there have been political squabbles, sometimes very grave ones, which have had a negative influence on the struggle of the Palestinian people to return to their homeland, to their own national territories.

Now, however, it seems to me that matters have gone much further and the quarrels have become much more profound so that they are endangering the movement itself and the continuation of the struggle of the Palestinian people, in general.

For some days the news agencies have been speaking about a serious split in the ranks of the leadership of the Palestine Liberation Organization, between Arafat and one of his military aides, Abu Mousa. These quarrels have reached the point of bitter armed clashes with serious consequences for both sides. Abu Mousa, supported by the Syrian military units deployed in the Beqaa Valley, has risen in revolt and is fighting against Arafat and his supporters, compelling them to withdraw into the besieged Lebanese city of Tripoli.

What is Abu Mousa demanding? Under the accusation that Arafat has betrayed the revolution and usurped the leadership of the Palestine Liberation Organization, Abu Mousa is demanding his resignation from the leadership of that organization and his final withdrawal with all his supporters, about 4,000 men, from Lebanese soil.

For his part, Arafat is accusing Syria and Libya, with which he has disagreements, of being the main inciters of Abu Mousa and trying through him to take control of the whole leadership of the Palestine Liberation Organization and hinder the Palestinian liberation struggle.

Meanwhile the fratricidal fighting continues with the greatest severity, a thing which is truly regrettable, because it serves only to sabotage the struggle and the revolution of the Palestinian people and helps to destroy their unity. The Israelis and all the enemies of Palestine and the Palestinian people are fanning up and pouring benzine on the flames of these fratricidal clashes, warming their bloodstained hands and gloating over the Palestinian blood which is being shed every day.

Without doubt the Palestinian people and the genuine Palestinian fighters are opposed to this split and this fratricidal fight and I would like to hope that reason will triumph over the hatred implanted by others, over the individual jealousy and non-national interests. The Palestinian people and their valiant fighters need unity amongst themselves in order to triumph over their savage and merciless enemies, the Israelis and their patrons, the American imperialists, the Soviet social-imperialists and the Arab reactionary feudal-bourgeois forces. The split is in favour of these enemies and their anti-Palestinian and anti-Arab plans and plots.


DECEMBER 19, 1983


After a great deal of fighting and all-round pressure and faced with the danger of even greater damage to the organized Palestinian forces and the major damage which could be inflicted on the local inhabitants, Arafat agreed to withdraw, together with his supporters, from the Lebanese city of Tripoli where he has been besieged for some days.

In the news agency reports we see repeated facts which show that this business has been decided and the question being discussed now is how and with what means about 4,000 Palestinian fighters together with their armaments and families will be evacuated. Profiting from the new situation which has been created, the Israelis have imposed very onerous conditions: the Palestinians are to leave, but first must surrender their heavy weapons. Second, Arafat must be «handed over» to be «tried» and «executed» for «the crimes he has committed against the Israelis»! Otherwise, say the rulers of Israel, their warships will attack and sink any ships which transport the Palestinians. This is how far their unrestrained arrogance and savage hate for the Palestinian people have gone.

Meanwhile, those who hatched up this fratricidal war amongst the Palestinian fighters, including the American imperialists and the Soviet social-imperialists, are «holding out the hand», «offering their aid» and «Showing them the ways» how to withdraw from Lebanon, etc. For example, it has been suggested that Arafat and the Palestinian fighters should leave on ships of a country neutral in this conflict; that they should board the ships under the protection of the «multi-national force» stationed in Beirut; that the transport ships should be protected on the high sea by French and Italian warships, etc. Meanwhile the Israeli government is putting its threats into practice, has stationed its warships close to the port of Tripoli and from time to time makes artillery attacks on the places where the Palestinian fighters have begun to assemble.

We shall see how this business proceeds. In any case the Palestinian fighters have received another heavy blow which will undoubtedly have consequences on the further development of their just struggle to return to their homeland.


DECEMBER 21, 1983


News agencies report that the departure of the Palestinian fighters from the Lebanese port of Tripoli on Greek transport ships, escorted by Italian and French warships and under the close observation of Israeli warships, began, at last, yesterday. Arafat is on one of the Greek ships.

The ships will call at a port of Cyprus, from there the Palestinians will go in various directions, for example to Tunisia, South Yemen and, by air, to Iraq.

Last evening I saw on TV some scenes of the forced departure of the Palestinian fighters.

Amongst them I saw men who held a rifle high with one hand and a small son or daughter with the other. Where are these now homeless people going to go? What awaits them where they go? What does the future hold for them, their families and their children?

What a bitter fate the long-suffering Palestinian people have had! Nevertheless I am convinced that irrespective of these heavy blows, irrespective of the struggle waged against them from all sides, they will triumph. The peoples cannot be conquered! The Palestinian people cannot be conquered! We have always been on the side of the Palestinian people and always will be.


DECEMBER 23, 1983


I am following the Odyssey of the Palestinian fighters who have left Lebanon for still unknown destinations. I read a news agency report that one of the ships which is transporting the Palestinian fighters had entered the Suez Canal.

Yesterday, Arafat, who was on board it, landed at the port of Ismailia and went to Cairo where he met the Egyptian president, Mubarak. This meeting is causing a great sensation. Why? Because it is a completely unforeseen, unexpected meeting.

As everyone knows, Egypt has accepted the Camp David accords and has signed the peace agreement with Israel. It has established diplomatic relations with Israel. Hitherto the Palestine Liberation Organization and Arafat personally have been opposed to these actions of Egypt and, indeed, they left Cairo for this reason.

We shall soon learn what is really hidden behind this change and this unexpected meeting of Arafat and Mubarak and what its consequences will be for the struggle of the Palestinian people.


The Arab-Israeli conflict and its complications

(The Middle East in the Year 1983)





The fight against Israel - the most blood-thirsty tool of US imperialism - which has become a great stumbling block to the advance of the Arab peoples, is a common problem for all these peoples. In practice, however, not all the Arab states are of one mind about the struggle they should wage jointly against Israel and about the character this struggle against their common enemy should have. Frequently, some of them see this struggle from a narrow nationalist angle.

We cannot agree with such a stand. We stick to our stand that Israel must withdraw to its own lair and renounce its chauvinist, provocative, offensive and aggressive attitudes and actions against the Arab states. We demand that Israel give up the territories of the Arabs, that the Palestinians gain all their national rights, but we can never accept that the Israeli people should be wiped out.

Enver Hoxha, "Imperialism and Revolution", Tirana 1978)



Excerpt of the report to the 8th Congress of the PLA

The struggle of the Arab peoples against the Israeli occupiers and their American patrons has assumed greater proportions and intensity. In the centre of this struggle stand the heroic Palestinian people who, in extraordinarily difficult conditions, have been waging a titanic battle for tens of years to regain the homeland denied them, to secure their rights and live free and independent on their mother soil.




One of the most typical examples of this policy of the two superpowers is provided by the Middle East, where the main issue is oil. The hostilities between the Arab peoples and Israel, the situation amongst the Arab peoples themselves, who are split and in disagreement with one another, which is being aggravated by the Soviet-US intrigues, are a consequence of this key problem, of the endeavours of the two superpowers to seize the oil resources. The blood of the Arab peoples has been and is being shed on account of this wealth. United States imperialism openly assists Israel to keep the Arab world divided. The Soviet Union allegedly helps the Arab peoples by selling them arms, while it is sending large numbers of Soviet Jews to Israel where they are used as cannon fodder against the Arab peoples.

At the same time, the superpowers are also trying to elbow each other out. Notwithstanding its clearly pro-Israeli stance, US imperialism not only succeeded in keeping the course of «friendship» with Saudi Arabia and the Persian Gulf Emirates in its favour, but it also managed to undermine the Soviet positions in the area. Egypt's denunciation of the Egyptian-Soviet Treaty as well as the expulsion of the aggressive Soviet naval fleet from its ports is a defeat and not a victory for Soviet social-imperialism.

Now it is the Americans who have the upper hand in dictating their schemes in this region. Of course Soviet social-imperialism is not sitting idly by with folded arms, either. It is striving to make good its loss in Egypt, by clinging to the positions it still has in some Arab country, or by seeking to secure some new base, by attaching itself to new «friends».