collection of quotations

arranged by Wolfgang Eggers

on occasion of the liberation of Kambodscha and Vietnam

in April 1975



Indochina ( in general)

1. Vietnam

2. Cambodia

3. Laos

4. Malaysia

5. Thailand

6. Myanmar (Burma)




(at first regarded as a whole)





The Superpowers



The Soviet revisionist empire sees that it is in a very difficult position in Europe.

That is why the Soviets are turning their eyes to the East, to countries "suitable" for colonization.

So, without lessening its caution or abandoning its pro-western policy, while maintaining and strengthening its friendship with the United States of America, which it still considers as its great rival, the Soviet Union has directed its gaze and its greatest activity to the Middle East, the Far East and the Pacific Ocean.

The revisionist Soviet Union advocates the idea of a "security" alliance with the peoples of Asia and has begun to work actively in this direction. The aim of Soviet social-imperialism is to prepare for war against China, to achieve its isolation and restriction and the colonization of the countries of Asia. The Soviet revisionists think that their investments in weapons, etc., for India, Pakistan, Indonesia and other countries will bring them economic, political and military advantages, while the big concessions they are making to Japan will make that country friendly to the Soviet Union, so that it will help to achieve the Soviet aim of the isolation of China, and take part in a crusade against China. The purpose of this whole strategy of the Soviet revisionists is to prepare the big attack on China, an attack of propaganda and armed provocations.

The aim of this revisionist strategy is to intimidate China, to sweeten up the capitalist states of Asia, and to dispel the fears of and please the United States of America and Japan.





(Report to the 6th Congress of the PLA)

(November 1, 1971)

The social contradictions have become very acute in the United States itself. As a result of the failures in its internal and external policy, the political, economic and social crisis of Yankee imperialism has been further deepened and the revolutionary struggle of the American people has been further extended. The bastion of imperialism is being shaken by the wide-scale revolt of the black Americans for equality and civil rights and of the whole people against the war in Vietnam.

The determined anti-imperialist struggle of the people of Vietnam and other peoples of Indochina, who have destroyed, once and for all, the myth of the invincibility of the US superpower, of its military machine and modern weapons, is a brilliant example and a powerfu l inspiration for that struggle.

The anti-imperialist armed struggle of the peoples of Thailand, Burma, Malaysia and Indonesia in Asia has assumed new and greater proportions.

The American imperialists are continuing their barbarous war in Vietnam. They have extended their aggression to Cambodia and Laos, too, thus inflicting death, destruction, and grave damage on all the heroic peoples of Indochina.

As long as American imperialism and the Soviet revisionist imperialism are two imperialist superpowers and come out with a common counter-revolutionary strategy, it is impossible for the struggle of the peoples against them not to merge into a single current. You cannot rely on the one imperialism to oppose the other.

For twelve years now the heroic Vietnamese people have been waging a life-and-death struggle against the imperialist aggression of the United States and its Saigon

puppets. Although the American imperialists have lost the war in the field of battle, although they have no hope that the situation will change in their favour, they are continuing their aggression and their efforts to subdue the Vietnamese people and to force them to their knees, with desperate obstinacy. Moreover, in recent times the

American imperialists have extended their aggression to Cambodia and Laos, too. However, the expansion of aggression also showed that, today just as yesterday, armed violence, terror and atrocities cannot offer the American imperialists any way out of their impasse.

Thanks to the combined struggle of the Indochinese peoples, to their unity and determination, the strategic and tactical plans of the Nixon government have utterly failed.

Indochina has now become the main battlefield of the peoples' liberation struggle against American imperialism, therefore, the victories of the peoples of Vietnam, Laos and Cambodia have been a great revolutionary inspiration for all who oppose imperialism, who fight for freedom and national independence, for democracy and social justice. In particular, these victories have raised the morale, the fighting spirit of the small nations higher and have increased their confidence in their own strength and in their future.

The historic lesson from Vietnam is that the aggression of the big imperialist power can be countered by the people's war with great success, that in the present conditions even a small country can defeat a superpower, provided it is determined to make any sacrifice and to march courageously on the road of freedom and revolution.

Nixon's new doctrine of the so-called «Vietnamization of the war» and his manoeuvres for «peace talks», etc., cannot have any success. «Vietnamization» means extension and continuation of the imperialist aggression, so that Vietnamese are set against Vietnamese, Asians against Asians, while the American imperialists dominate, suppress, exploit them, and use them as cannon fodder in their own aggressive, hegemonic policy. But the Nixon plan for the «Vietnamization» of the war in Vietnam failed in the face of the heroic resistance of the peoples of Indochina, and it cannot lead its authors anywhere but to new and greater defeats. Neither can their friends, the Soviet revisionists, who for years on end have sabotaged the efforts of the Vietnamese people and exerted pressure on them to quell their anti-US struggle, save the US imperialists from disaster in Vietnam.

There can be no genuine peace in Vietnam and throughout Indochina until all the American forces are finally withdrawn from that region and until all the American military bases and installations there are dismantled. The Vietnamese people will certainly triumph and this victory will be achieved on the battlefield by the Vietnamese people who are fighting and shedding their blood. To them, and them alone, belongs the right to decide for themselves independently, about their own future. The Albanian people have always been and always will be heart and soul with the fraternal Vietnamese people and the other peoples of Indochina; they are in complete solidarity with their just and heroic struggle against American imperialism and its allies. We give our full support to the just stands of the government of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam and the provisional revolutionary government of the Republic of South Vietnam on the withdrawal of the American troops and the settlement of the Vietnamese conflict.



Reflections on China Volume II

Monday, 15th of January 1973

Chou En-lai and the Chinese leadership say that they are fighting on the two flanks: against American imperialism and against Soviet social-imperialism. However, the struggle on their part against the United States of America has been toned down. And when? Precisely when it is waging its barbarous war against Vietnam and continuing its aggressive struggle elsewhere.

At such a time Chou En-lai pretends that «the revolution is knocking at the door of the United States of America».

At these moments of crisis for American imperialism, to give it a hand, as China has done and is doing, not only is wrong, but means to help it. Can it be said that Chou's theses that «these things are done to deepen the contradictions between the two superpowers in favour of socialism», are confirmed in this way? Does Vietnam or the Middle East gain anything from them? Were the links of the American imperialists and the Soviet social-imperialists weakened because China accepted Nixon's visit? None of these things came to pass. Apparently, the Chinese policy is for the creation of closed blocs, which, of course, will be in rivalry with one another and will be eroded by great contradictions.

A few months ago Chih Peng-fei, the Foreign Minister of China, made more or less this statement: «China, Korea, Vietnam, Cambodia, Laos, and the other countries of Indochina are one big family...», etc. Here, naturally, the words «bloc», «camp», «socialist countries» did not appear, but there is a flavour of a «yellow family», an «Asiatic grouping», which is not Marxist-Leninist. Hence, today they are calling for «United Europe», for «one big family», and the «third world», and tomorrow may be calling for integration of the countries of Latin America or the «black peoples of Africa». This is the tendency which is apparent in the Chinese policy, and this is not Marxist-Leninist, not revolutionary. It means to divert the peoples' attention from the genuine revolutionary struggle.



Reflections on China Volume II

Saturday, 10th of February 1973

Kissinger in Peking

What do the other peoples, who are fighting American imperialism and its lackeys, think and say when they see the Chinese leaders, in particular, doing such things? Do these dirty agreements assist their struggle? What are the Vietnamese, the peoples of Laos, Cambodia, the Arabs and peoples of all continents, the revolutionaries, the genuine Marxist-Leninists, saying? They are saying: Shame! Betrayal! Revisionist compromise! Violation of principles which defend the freedom, independence and sovereignty of the peoples!



Reflections on China Volume II



China is against the Soviet Union, but instead of working in Asia and around it, it is interesting itself in Europe in an unrealistic way. The Soviet Union has insinuated its tentacles into the two Vietnams, into Laos; is threatening to get them into Cambodia or Thailand.




Reflections on China Volume II



China has become a big state, servile to American imperialism in order to defend capitalism and all the reactionary bourgeoisie under whatever mask it presents itself; it supports the Shah of Iran, the policy of Washington, of Paris, of Bonn, of London, in a word, the policy of imperialists of every nature, every colour and every state. It disguises all this with a fig-leaf, allegedly with the struggle against Soviet social-imperialism, but the struggle against Soviet social-imperialism on the part of China has only the character of territorial expansion. The aims of China are to occupy the territories to the north, such as Siberia, Mongolia, etc. It also has its eye on the whole of India and the other countries of Southern Asia, like Indonesia, the Philippines, the Far East, Australia etc., if not to take control of them, at least to extend its influence over them.




The Superpowers



We see that the various imperialists, and in the first place, American imperialism, Soviet social-imperialism, Chinese social-imperialism, Japanese militarism and German revanchism, are engaged in feverish activity. These imperialist powers are consolidating their strategic positions, giving importance to sophisticated armaments and the development of their economy and technology, that is, to their preparations for war with modern weapons while simultaneously preparing their support bases.

Therefore a race to make deals is going on between them. The division of spheres of influence, or the more concrete definition of the spheres of Influence of these main imperialisms, has begun and, at the same time, they are grabbing from one another, or trying to neutralize, certain zones like Africa, the Middle East, Asia, the Pacific, etc.

In this situation China signed the Treaty of Friendship and Collaboration with Japan (In August 1978). But this Sino-Japanese Treaty of Friendship is and will continue to be fraught with an immense, many-sided danger with hideous consequences for the fate of the world. This will come about because an economic-military unity will be established between Japan and China, with the aim of creating separate or joint spheres of influence, especially throughout Asia, in Australia and in the Pacific basin. This unity, naturally, will begin under the umbrella of the alliance with the United States of America and will be publicized as being against Soviet social-imperialism. The truth is that this Sino-Japanese alliance has as its main aim the strangling of Soviet social-imperialism and its liquidation in Asia, Siberia, Mongolia and elsewhere, as well as the elimination of its influence throughout Asia and Oceania, and in all the ASEAN countries.

This is the grand strategy of American imperialism, but at the same time, also of Chinese imperialism and Japanese militarism. The United States of America will try to keep the balance of Chinese and Japanese power, which is building up, in its favour, but one fine morning this balance will slip from the hands of the Americans. Thus the imperialist, militarist Sino-Japanese unity will become a danger both to the United States of America and to the Soviet Union, because the interests of Japan and China, those two big Asian imperialist countries, for domination of this huge sphere of influence and the simultaneous weakening of both American imperialism and Soviet social-imperialism, coincide. Hence, we shall see a relatively rapid development of many changes in this zone...




The Superpowers



The Soviet Union wants to ease the situation with China in order to counter the American and West-European influence in that large neighbouring country.

Hence, in order to counter-balance its defeats China is beginning its flirtation with the Soviet Union again. Despite these political steps it is taking, China has not overcome the difficulties it has to cope with. Major problems, such as the question of relations with Vietnam and the other countries of Southeast Asia remain unsolved. The aim of the present leaders of China in making approaches to the Soviet Union is to make the latter influence the Vietnamese to soften their stand...



Imperialism and Revolution

Meanwhile, the struggle of the Asian peoples had not ended with the destruction of colonialism. While being obliged to recognize the independence of the former colonial countries, the British, French, Dutch and other colonialists wanted to preserve their economic and political positions in these countries in order to continue their domination and exploitation in other, neo-colonialist forms. The penetration of the United States of America into Asia, especially the Far East, Southeast Asia and the islands of the Pacific, made the situation particularly serious. This region had and still has great economic and military-strategic importance for American imperialism. It established big military bases and deployed powerful fleets there. Parallel with this, US capital got the economies of the countries of this area firmly into its blood-stained clutches. Meanwhile the US imperialists undertook large-scale military operations, diversionist and espionage activities to put down the national liberation movements of the Asian countries. They succeeded in dividing Korea and Vietnam in two, setting up reactionary, puppet regimes in the southern parts of both these countries. Pro-imperialist landowner-bourgeois regimes were established in many former colonial and semi-colonial countries of Asia. In this way, the mediaeval slavery, the savage rule of maharajas, kings, sheiks, samurais, and modernized. capitalist gentlemen was preserved there. These regimes sold their countries to the imperialists again, especially to US imperialism, thus immensely hindering the socio-economic and cultural development of these countries.

Under these conditions, the peoples of Asia, who were again languishing under the heavy imperialist and landowner-bourgeois yoke, could not lay down their arms, but had to continue their fight for liberation to get rid of this yoke. Generally, this struggle was led by the communist parties. Wherever these parties had succeeded in establishing sound links with the masses, making thern conscious of the liberation aims of the war, and mobilizing and organizing them in revolutionary armed struggle, positive results were reached. The historic victory which the peoples of Indochina, especially the Vietnamese people, won over the US imperialists and their local landowner-bourgeois stooges, showed the entire world that imperialism, even a superpower like the United States of America, with all its mighty economic and military potential, with all the modern means of war at its disposal, which it uses to put down the liberation movements, is unable to subjugate peoples and countries, whether big or small, when they are determined to make any sacrifice and fight selflessly to the finish for their freedom and independence.

Liberation armed struggles have been waged and are still going on in many other countries of Asia, like Burma, Malaysia, the Philippines, Indonesia and elsewhere. Had it not been for the antiMarxist and chauvinist interference and stands of the Chinese leadership, which have brought about splits and disorientation among the revolutionary forces and the communist parties leading these forces, these struggles would certainly have scored greater successes and victories. On the one hand, the Chinese leaders proclaimed their support for the liberation wars in these countries, while on the other hand, they supported the reactionary regimes, welcomed and farewelled the chiefs of these regimes with paeans of praise and a thousand honours. They have always followed the strategy and tactic of subordinating the liberation movements of the Asian countries to their pragmatic policy and hegemonic interests.

They have always brought pressure to bear upon the revolutionary forces and their leadership in order to impose this policy on them. They have never been really concerned about the question of peoples' liberation and the revolution in the countries of Asia, but only about the realization of their chauvinist ambitions. They have not helped these peoples but have hindered them.

The question of the revolution and the liberation struggle in Asia has never demanded solution so forcibly and imperatively as it does now, it has never been more complicated and difficult to solve.

This complication and these difficulties have resulted mainly from the aims and activities of the American imperialists, as well as from the anti-Marxist, anti-popular, hegemonic and expansionist aims and activities of the Soviet and Chinese revisionists and social-imperialists. The United States of America is aiming and striving with might and main to preserve and strengthen its strategic, economic and military positions in Asia, for it considers these positions of vital importance to its imperialist interests.

The Soviet Union, too, is aiming and striving by all means and with all forces to expand the Positions it has already occupied in Asia.

China. on its part, has openly displayed its. Pretension to become the ruler of Asian countries, by forming alliances, to this end, with the United States of America, and especially with Japan, and directly opposing the Soviet Union.

Japan, also, has the ambition to dominate Asia, the old ambition of Japanese imperialism.

That is why the Soviet Union is so greatly afraid of the Sino-Japanese alliance and is opposing it so strongly. But neither does American imperialism want this alliance to become so solid that it goes beyond the limits which might infringe American interests, although it encouraged and gave its ,Kblessing- to the signing of the treaty between China and Japan, from the standpoint that this treaty might contain the Soviet expansion which is to the detriment of American domination.

India, which is a bige country, also, has ambitions of becoming a great power with the atomic bombs and great weight in Asia, of playing a special role, in particular concerning the strategic position it has at the nodal point of the expansionist interests of the two imperialist superpowers, American and Soviet, in the Indian Ocean, the Persian Gulf and on its northern and eastern borders.

British imperialism has not given up its aim of domination in the Asian countries, either. And certain other capitalist-imperialist states also have similar aims.

That is why Asia has become one of the areas of the fiercest inter-imperialist rivalries today, and consequently, many dangerous hotbeds of world conflagrations, for which the peoples will pay the price, have been created there.

In order to quell. the revolutions and the liberation struggle in thecountries of Asia and open the way to the realization of their hegemonic and expansionist plans, the Soviet and Chinese revisionists, in feverish competition with each other, have been and are engaged in a very filthy job of splitting and destroying the ranks of the communist parties and the revolutionary and freedom loving forces of these countries. This activity was one of the main causes of thecatastrophe suffered by the Communist Party of Indonesia, and of the splitting and destruction of the Communist Party of India, etc. They advocate the alliance and unity of the proletariat and the broad popular masses with the local reactionary bourgeoisie, while each of them is trying to Win the friendship of this ruling bourgeoisie, for its own ends

The interference of the Soviet and Chinese social-imperialists in the various countries of Asia from their hegemonic and expansionist positions and ambitions has faced the liberation movements of these peoples with great dangers and has even Put the victories of the liberation war in'Vietnam, Cambodia and Laos directly in jeopardy.

The revolutionary and freedom-loving forces Of the Asian countries, which are led by the Marxist-Leninist communist parties, have to face up to and eliminate both the danger from local reaction, which is armed by its imperialist patrons, and the dangers from the splitting and disruptive activities, and the hegemonic and expansionist plans of the Soviet and Chinese revisionists. They also have to free themselves from a series of old reactionary, mystical, Buddhist, Brahmanic and other religious ideas and concepts, which hold back the liberation movement. They also have to prevent <<new>> renctionary ideas and concepts from striking root, such as the revisionist ideas of Khrushchevism, Maoism, and other just as reactionary theories, which disorientate and deceive the masses, deprive them of their militant class spirit, and lead them into wrong and hopeless paths.

The liberation struggle ahead of the peoples of Asia is truly difficult and has many obstacles indeed, but there never has been, and never will be, an easy liberation struggle or revolution, without great difficulties and obstacles that must be overcome, which do not require bloodshed and many sacrifices to achieve ultimate victory.

In the countries of Asia, we may say that China has no obvious and lasting influence. China is not in sincere and close friendship with its neighbour countries, let alone with the other, more distant countries. The policy of China is not and cannot be correct so long as it is not a Marxist-Leninist policy. On the basis of such a policy it cannot be in sincere friendship with Vietnam, Korea, Cambodia, Laos, Thailand, etc. China poses as wanting friendship with these countries, but, in fact, disputes over political, territorial and economic questions exist between China and these countries.

With the policy it is following, China has now come into open conflict with Vietnam. Grave incidents are occurring on the border between these two countries.

The Chinese social-imperialists have been interfering seriously in the iternal affairs of Vietnam, and are fanning up the conflict between Cambodia and Vietnam, etc., for their own expansionist objectives. When the Chinese leadership behaves in such a way towards Vietnam, which until yesterday it considered a fraternal country and close friend, what must the Asian countries think about the Chinese policy? Can they trust it?



1. Vietnam



Telegram of Comrade Enver Hoxha to Comrade Ho Chi Minh

15th of August, 1961

This is a telegram from the 1st Secretary of the Party of Labor of Albania, Comrade Enver Hoxha, to President Ho Chi Minh delivered via the Albanian Ambassador to Moscow Gac Mazi. This telegram discussed the possible visit of Ho Chi Minh to Tirana. Comrade Enver Hoxha ordered Mazi to contact Ho Chi Minh urgently and deliver a copy of the telegram to him. Comrade Enver Hoxha believed that the disputes between the various revisionist leaders of the revisionist countries in Europe and the Party of Labor in Albania were serious and could not be resolved simply or immediately. He assigned the blame for these disputes to the revisionist leaders of the revisionist countries. Comrade Enver Hoxha asked Comrade Ho Chi Minh to talk to these revisionist leaders about the disputes before coming to Tirana. The reason for this was that European revisionist leaders had begun denigrating the Party of Labor of Albania, the Albanian government, and the Albanian people. Comrade Enver Hoxha wrote that the PLA was still carefully analyzing the causes of the disputes. Lastly, he informed Comrade Ho Chi Minh that he was ready to discuss the Tirana trip further in the second half of November of 1961.




The Superpowers



The people of South Vietnam are waging an heroic war against American imperialism. This heroic war has, at the same time, a major international significance, because the fraternal Vietnamese people are not only fighting for their own liberation, but also fighting for all of us, the countries of socialism, for all the peoples who have risen against imperialism and colonialism. They are an example of heroism and sacrifice, and are demonstrating to the world that American imperialism can be beaten, as it is being beaten, can suffer defeats, just as it is suffering them, can be routed despite the many weapons it possesses and uses. as it is being routed in South Vietnam.

American imperialism has got itself into very great military and political difficulties. It has been discredited. Meeting after fruitless meeting is being held in Washington. In Vietnam the Americans are continually changing their puppets, are sending more and more re-inforcements and new weapons, but to no avail. The Khrushchevite revisionists, both with Khrushchev and now without

Khrushchev, are sabotaging the struggle of the heroic people of Vietnam. giving them nothing. The few weapons they gave them at first were old captured weapons, which were sabotaged and of no use whatsoever. With their silence, with their secret actions co-ordinated with the American imperialists, the Soviets are giving the Americans political end diplomatic assistance to quell and defeat the struggle of the people of Shout Vietnam for the benefit of the Americans The Khrushchevites are striving to pull the Americans out of the mire and to drown the heroic Vietnamese people. For their part, the Americans are hatching up savage diabolical plans to attack North Vietnam.

American imperialism cannot so quickly forget the thrashing it took in Korea at the hands of the Koreans and the Chinese. If they undertake another adventure, then they will find themselves facing the resistance of the whole Vietnamese people. The other peoples of peninsula and the whole world, too, will rise and the imperialists together with their allies, the modem revisionists, will suffer terrible political and military defeats. Hence, apart from stepping up their attacks on South Vietnam, the Americans will try to drag the UNO into adventures, and if they succeed in this, then larger-scale adventures on their part can be expected. If they fail, then they will be obliged to refrain from extending the war and save their "honour". Therefore our struggle in the UNO is of great importance.

First, the manoeuvres and plans of American imperialism against South Vietnam must be unmasked; second, the manoeuvres of the Soviets and the modern revisionists must be unmasked and they must be forced either to expose themselves, or to remain isolated, or to defend Vietnam reluctantly (but even in these circumstances they won't do this); and third, all the representatives of the countries of Africa and Asia must be rallied to the defence of the heroic Vietnamese people, and a pro-Vietnamese and anti-American unity should be created for this purpose in the UNO. I gave advice and instructions to this effect to Comrade Behar "Shtylla" (At that time minister of Foreign Affairs of the PR of Albania), who left for New York.

Comrade Behar must expose the American manoeuvres, the aim of which is to make the UNO intervene in the affairs of Vietnam and the whole of Indo-china. He must expose the Americans' preparations to intervene in North Vietnam and Lower Laos and to replace the decisions of the Geneva Conference with the decisions of UNO. He must refute the Americans' slanders about Vietnam and stress that the Americans must withdraw from South Vietnam. He must fight for the Geneva agreement, and forcefully condemn and expose any decision which the UNO may take contrary to what has been said above, and describe. it as illegal and unacceptable.

I instructed Behar to fight in these directions for complete solidarity with the Vietnamese brothers and comrades. I talked with Comrades Hysni and Ramiz and told them that we must keep this great issue alive in our press in a militant spirit.

Our heroic Vietnamese brothers and comrades will triumph.



The Superpowers



Yesterday and the day before American aircraft bombed a number of inhabited centres in North Vietnam, killing civilians and destroying homes, hospitals and schools. The purpose of these barbarous provocative acts is to threaten the Democratic Republic of Vietnam, to extend the aggressive war into North Vietnam. to quell the heroic fight of the partisans of South Vietnam and to, rescue the American prestige which is at rock-bottom in the eyes of all the peoples of the world. This displays to the world the weakness and savagery of the United States of America, the aggressiveness and war-mongering character of the gendarme of the peoples - American imperialism.

Before he left for Hanoi, Kosygin made his calculations as it pleased him. The Soviet revisionist leaders smiled warmly on Johnson's recent speech, welcomed his suggestion that he would like to visit the Soviet Union, and. likewise, expressed the desire for the Soviet leaders to visit the United States of America, as well as many other actions which are advanced for the Americans. All these things done before Kosygin's trip had the aim of strengthening friendly gestures towards American imperialism, of assuring the Americans that Kosygin's going to Hanoi should not upset them at all and that they ought to understand that Kosygin's speeches in Hanoi would be demagogy, words very far removed from their deeds. However Kosygin had not taken account of the heroic struggle of the people of South Vietnam, who would not stop their war against the American aggressors, and this war was bound to ruin Kosygin's bourgeois, pacifist plans, just as it did.

Kosygin fell into the trap which he tried to set for others. He was caught unawares and his first demagogic words in Hanoi were saluted with volleys of fire by the Vietnamese partisan heroes, who attacked an American air-base with great success, and as the Americans themselves admitted, destroyed several American aircraft and helicopters, killed 9 American airmen and wounded 130 others.

Naturally this heroic action ruined Kosygin's plans and inflicted a big military and political defeat on the Americans. In this situation the Americans undertook their provocation with the aims we have stated. However the provocation. somewhat similar to that of the Caribbean, although different in forms and tactics, was carried out by the Americans following the tactics of the Soviet revisionists, of course, with some considerable differences. At the same time as Kosygin was issuing bombastic, demagogic phrases in Hanoi, the Americans were speaking through the language of bombs, and while the Soviet revisionists declared their loyalty to their friendship with the United States of America before they set out on their journey, the Americans, after their provocative act, declared that this act had no connection with the presence of Kosygin in Hanoi.

The Soviet revisionists were dumbfounded, were terrified, as always. because the American's barbarous action was blackmail for them, a serious warning to the Soviets not to go beyond the bounds (which possibly they had decided jointly). In fact, less than 28 hours after the American bombardment, the Soviet revisionists issued a brief "hot air" communiqué and this they buried amidst the news on the third page of Pravda. This astonished the world, but not us. The whole of progressive world opinion was indignant, and the revisionists were caught between two fires, confused. Yesterday they managed to bring out a somewhat official declaration which, of course, is demagogy and counts for nothing, because the development of events forced them to issue it, and this, without doubt, will lead to further concessions to the Americans later, to make amends for this reluctant "boldness" which they were obliged to display. However this will have bitter consequences for them in the world and in their own country, because, while it is true that the revisionists will use this demagogic gesture, it is a two-edged sword, which involves the fundamental exposure of the pro-American policy of the modern revisionists.

We are solid to the end with the heroic people of South and North Vietnam. We are issuing a government declaration of solidarity with them to the end. All over our country today rallies are being held and popular demonstrations will burst out in solidarity with Vietnam and in condemnation of the American aggressors. Our press is full of materials about the war in Vietnam and this will continue. The Women's Organization has launched a campaign for aid for the fighting people of South Vietnam. All these things will strengthen our internationalist solidarity with the Democratic Republic of Vietnam, with the valiant Vietnamese partisans and all the peoples of the world who are fighting for freedom.



From the talk with a delegation of the Chinese party and government headed by Chou En-lai

March 27-28, 1965

The Khrushchevite ideas of «peaceful coexistence», of «a world without wars, without weapons», have been shown up in their true colours, and nobody believes them.

The fact is that with the war in the Congo, Laos, South Vietnam, and now with the piratical American bombing of North Vietnam, the Americans are not only bringing the Soviets face to face with capitulation and exposure, but from their terror of war, have also forced them to undertake diplomatic actions in favour of imperialist theses about Vietnam and putting down the liberation war. Kosygin’s trip to the Democratic Republic of Vietnam had fiendish demagogic aims of diversion, capitulation and deception. But he failed. The alleged aid in arms to the Democratic Republic of Vietnam is nothing but demagogy and a trap. In fact, the Soviet revisionists are striving to organize international conferences with the capitalist states about the Vietnam problem, without Vietnam. There must be serious thought and military preparations, because it is highly possible that the Soviet revisionists since the time of Khrushchev, or even now, might have reached an agreement with the Americans that the Soviets would leave the Americans a free hand to «escalate» the war to North Vietnam and go even further, that is to say, to extend the conflict. Perhaps, on the quiet the Soviets are going to satisfy themselves with bombastic demagogic statements, may make noisy «protests», and on the other hand, gather «facts and documents» alleging that the Democratic Republic of Vietnam and China did not allow the Soviet Union to give South Vietnam concrete assistance in arms and men. Of course, the Soviet revisionists are playing with fire, but they think that in this way they may «gain», by weakening the two sides, by getting China embroiled in war, encircling it with a ring of fire and a cordon of «friends» of the Soviet revisionists, such as the Indians. We should nip these plans in the bud.

In order to achieve unity of thought and action, or in order to explain and make clear to one another the reasons for the tactical actions of each party, we think that talks should be held among the parties. According to Hsinhua, you hold such talks with the parties of Asia, and this is a very good thing. We do not do this with the parties of Asia, not because we do not want to, but because we have not had the opportunity. We have made use of every meeting we have had with the comrades of these parties which have participated in our celebrations, we have expressed our views, but these occasions have not been what bilateral talks, especially for discussion of problems and exchanges of views from the two sides, should be. It seems to us that this is a shortcoming.

We think that at a time when the US imperialists are extending the war in Vietnam, when they are aiming to attack great China, at a time when the revisionists, with the Soviet leaders at the head, are intensifying their treacherous activity against communism, the struggle of all the Marxist-Leninist parties against Soviet revisionism should be strengthened.

Our opinion is that at these moments, when the enemies are attacking us and when we are on the verge of war, such as the American threat in Vietnam, the feeble, or not very active, not to say passive, stands of some sister party and the Marxist-Leninists of some country do not help our common cause.

The Americans have great hopes of collaborating more closely with Britain for aggression, since its colonies in Asia are in jeopardy. We think that we must make approaches to and work with the countries of South-east Asia, not only to make them conscious of the great danger of a war, which is assuming ever more acute forms, but also to bring them to actively oppose US aggression and its aims for the extension of the war.

The fraternal Vietnamese people, who are waging an heroic struggle, deserve every support. US imperialism is even using poison gas against the South Vietnamese fighters, and is systematically dropping destructive bombs on North Vietnam. It is the sacred duty of all peoples and revolutionaries to defend the just cause of the fraternal Vietnamese people, and to help them with every means to emerge triumphant.



The Superpowers



The positions of American imperialism are being weakened. The Americans are suffering political-military defeats everywhere and, in the first place, in South Vietnam.

Their bombardment of the DR of Vietnam did not bring them any political or military advantage. On the contrary, they suffered utter fiasco. Their blackmail was to no avail. They were unable to bring Vietnam to its knees or to help the Soviet revisionists in their constant pressure on Vietnam to bring them to the negotiation table with the Americans. The opposite occurred, the bombardments have exposed the Americans. have increased the hatred of the Vietnamese, have strengthened them and made them strengthen their defence, their resistance, their training and their war. Furthermore, these savage but fruitless bombardments have shaken the allies of the United States who have begun to speak out to criticize, to reproach it and give it advice. Within the United States of America Johnson's policy has created discontent among the public and his defeats have caused forthright bitter comments about the aggressive policy of the American President. Naturally the peoples' hatred of American imperialism has increased and those who put their trust in its "great might" have lost all hope. The Americans' brutal intervention in Santo-Domingo, their vile manoeuvres have increased the suspicions and hatred of the peoples, and especially of the peoples of South America. With all complex of barbarous actions the Americans have bitten off more than they can chew, and the lump in their throat is choking them.

The main difficulty for the Americans at present is the war in South Vietnam. There they have completely lost face, let alone their mask which was torn from them long ago. No longer can they hide behind the Vietnamese puppets, since in practice they no longer exist, neither the so-called south Vietnamese government, nor the military command or the army exist. All these have been liquidated politically, liquidated by the partisan war.

They have been reduced to mere mercenaries, so much so that even the United States of America itself no longer puts any trust in them, no longer counts on them, and keeps changing them every week. The puppet army does not exist as an army, or even as a detachment of mercenaries. It has lost any will to resist and the Americans have lost any trust they had in it and are using it only as cannon fodder, to make up numbers. So the Americans are fighting alone in Vietnam, as aggressors, as colonizers. This is the catastrophic situation they have reached. The whole world sees this. No amount of their demagogy can deceive anyone Others who had pinned their hopes on the Americans have begun to think deeply about what is in store for them. This is a great political loss for the Americans who are taking terrible punishment in the fighting with the Vietcong. They have no victories at all, nothing but defeats. They have shut themselves up in fortified centres and bases, and there they await the attacks which Vietcong is striking at them successfully, throwing them into indescribable panic. The Americans find themselves in a totally hostile country, besieged on a few fortified islands without any way of escape or rear area into which to withdraw, or rather, their only remaining escape routes ace by an, and sea and their fleet is their rear-guard. Of course, the airforce can do little against partisans, either in good or in bad weather. It is ineffective. At present, in the monsoon period, the Americans are in great panic and constantly on the defensive because the Vietcong forces are attacking them relentlessly.

American imperialism, its allies and the modern revisionists are experiencing moments of great anxiety. Any diplomatic activity has been toned down, the war in Vietnam and the defeats of the Americans have stifled them. All their attempts, individual or combined, accompanied with blackmail and intimidation are no longer of any value. Thanks to the war of the Vietcong all these attempts have failed, American imperialism has lost the war, the revisionists have been exposed, world capitalism has been weakened and the American strength shaken, its policy of blackmail has been discredited and the contradictions within world capitalism have become deeper, hence, our correct positions have been strengthened.

In this situation of failures for them, the modern revisionists, headed by the Soviet revisionists, have suffered a colossal defeat, especially in regard to their "peacefull coexistence", the world without arms etc., friendship with "the peace-loving and wise American leaders".

They have helped and are helping the United States of America with all their might, and time and again Johnson thanks them, smiles at them, rounds them up and makes proposals to them about the extension of the collaboration between them, and never "gets angry" but adopts a stand of "Olympian" indifference or even benevolence when Pravda prints some "rude words" about "American madmen". Johnson knows very well that the Soviet revisionists do this not from choice but from necessity, indeed they undoubtedly have an agreement with the Americans about this, since it is not in the interest of either side to expose themselves totally and simultaneously. It is necessary to both that one should attack from outside while the other undermines from within, through demagogy, to achieve the same result. The two sides, the American imperialists and the Soviet revisionists, are agreed on this.

Thus in all the fields of diplomacy the Soviet revisionists have kept quiet in order to avoid causing embarrassment for their American partners; they do not raise any problems and when they do say a few words on some issue they do this to serve their one-sided intensive demagogy about "the war for the defence of Vietnam".

Wherever the peoples are fighting for the consolidation of the struggle against American imperialism, for its exposure, for the strengthening of the anti-imperialist alliance, the Soviet revisionists and their friends are there to fight against them, to sabotage them, to present their revisionist, pro-imperialist theses. The Soviet, the Titoite and other modern revisionists, together with the reactionaries, have become the cutting edge of the sword of American imperialism, they are the fifth column, its most qualified secret agency.




The Superpowers



The first reading of the short excerpts from Brezhnev's report to the 23rd Congress of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union issued by the TASS news agency gives the impression that it is a report with no meat in it, a wishy-washy report, devoid of personality and quite unconvincing on the problems it tries to raise. From this we may draw some conclusions:

7) With the Vietnamese, the Koreans, and the Rumanians the Soviet revisionists seem to be behaving with caution, to avoid breaking the cracked cup completely. They are behaving as towards a patient who has reached the stage of convalescence and they are waiting till they cast the dice and cross the "Rubicon" completely.





Reflections on China Volume I

SUNDAY - JUNE 2, 1968


A correct position against the Americans and exposing for the Soviet revisionists. In an article in «Renmin Ribao», the Chinese tell the Americans:

«...you should not be surprised and set up a howl because North Vietnam helps its brothers of the South. Nor should you be surprised and set up a howl that the Chinese help their Vietnamese brothers. Even that formal boundary that was, no longer exists, you violated the 17th parallel and are fighting all the Vietnamese. You have come from across the ocean and are fighting Us, while we Chinese, don't we have the right to defend our brothers, our countries, our freedom and independence? We, the Chinese and the Vietnamese, are united, will fight to the end and will smash you».

This is briefly the Chinese stand, a stand of grave consequences for the American aggressors and the revisionist traitors.

Now the United States of America has to choose:

either to continue the war, to become more deeply involved and end up in its grave, or to get out of Vietnam «with its tail between its legs», like France. The American blackmail does not work any longer. Now the initiative is no longer in the hands of the Americans. They cannot get away with their demagogy, even with their friends.

The predatory war remains predatory war, it will turn into a second Korean War, with the difference that many of the allies that assisted the United States of America in Korea will not be present in Vietnam. The end of the Americans will come more quickly.

Now the Soviet revisionists are in a fix, they are facing sensational exposure. This stand of the Chinese, provided they do not waver, blocks the way to the Soviets' treacherous secret negotiations, destroys their demagogy, unmasks their pose as «saviours» of Vietnam, and makes dust and ashes of their aims of «peace agreements», their real aims of making Vietnam capitulate.

The whole of Vietnam and Indochina must erupt and hurl the Americans into the sea as quickly as possible. This is the only way to salvation, fight to the finish and as fiercely as possible to ensure that the United States of America is no longer permitted to bomb the Democratic Republic of Vietnam without restraint, to ensure that the United States of America is not permitted to strengthen its weak positions in Vietnam, to ensure that the United States of America does not dare to extend local wars elsewhere, and that the United States of America receives a colossal military and political slap in the face as quickly as possible.

The Superpowers



The situation in the world is developing steadily in favour of the peoples' liberation and the revolution. The imperialist world, with American imperialism at the head, and modern revisionism headed by Soviet revisionism, this new imperialism, are in a profound political, economic and military crisis. They pose as world superpowers and are trying to intimidate the world and the peoples with their weapons. with their economic power and with their intrigues. But the peoples, who are opposed to them, are the decisive force in the world. The peoples have risen, are rising, or will rise and will strike ever more devastating blows at this handful of blood-suckers, pirates and blackmailers. Proof of this can be seen in the liberation struggles on all continents, which will never be quelled. Some of these struggles seem to be suppressed, but they flare up again even more furiously.

Do you think, Mister General Secretary, that what the two great powers are doing in the Assembly, in the Security Council, in the corridors, at Camp David, at Glasboro, to the detriment of the Assembly and the peoples are minor matters?

We would be in agreement with you if you were to come out here and speak openly from this tribune, telling the Americans to get out of Vietnam, telling the Soviets to get out of Czechoslovakia, telling the Israeli aggressors to get out of the occupied Arab territories, and the American and Soviet imperialists to get out of their aggressive land and sea bases in foreign territories. You may say that diplomats do not speak in these terms, but the American and Soviet rifles, aircraft and tanks do not speak in diplomatic terms, either. However, there is one thing of which I am convinced, that the fraternal people of Burma, whom we love and respect, speak in the same way as we do on this question.

The Soviet revisionists, too, are imperialists.

the Soviet revisionists and their local lackeys preach co-existence with the cliques in power, while American imperialism attacks the revolution, which is seething everywhere, with weapons.

The one disarms the revolution ideologically, the other attacks it militarily.

In Vietnam the Soviet revisionists advocate shameful capitulation, while the Americans carry out bombardments day and night and are extending the war, etc.




Reflections on China Volume I




To receive President Nixon and talk with him, without having diplomatic relations with the United States of America, but on the contrary, having a state of hostility between the two states, and above all, knowing that he is the number one enemy of the peoples, is not correct and will not be accepted by the peoples, the revolutionaries and the genuine communists. We are among those who do not accept this decision and will not support it.

The desires of this fascist president to go to China can be understood, they are the desires of an aggressor, a murderer of peoples, an enemy of communism, of socialism.

Therefore, for our part, it has never crossed our minds to take any notice of «these desires» of this hangman, whose purpose was to discredit the People's Republic of China, to detach it from its friends, to enable him (Nixon) to come out waving the olive branch, at a time when terrible quantities of bombs were being dropped on Vietnam and elsewhere.

We must neither overrate nor underrate the enemy.

It is true that in the United States of America there are protests and demonstrations against the war in Vietnam, but these are still sporadic and we cannot say that «the United States of America is experiencing a great revolutionary storm». We do not evaluate this thing so. From their economic situation, from the ideology which inspires them, from their way of life, customs, traditions, contacts, etc., the American people are far from being in a revolutionary position.

We do not believe that the United States of America will withdraw the troops and dismantle the bases which it has in the world without being forced to do so by war.

The talks on the war in Vietnam are in order only if they have been held following consultation with the Vietnamese and on a correct and principled basis. We have determined our line on the war in Vietnam and we are -defining it again for them to see.




Reflections on China Volume I



For years on end, North Vietnam has been waging an heroic fight against American imperialism. It has been burned to ashes by the bombing, but has not surrendered.

On the contrary, it has continued its heroic resistance and the war in the South. The people of South Vietnam have fought and are fighting heroically against American imperialism and the puppets of Saigon.

The Americans are continuing to wage one of the most barbarous wars the world has ever seen. The American barbarians have used all the tactics, all the tricks, all types of weapons invented so far, apart from atomic weapons, but they have not won. They have been smashed, beaten, and are on the verge of defeat.

The fight of the Vietnamese is admirable. The Soviet revisionists have made every effort to make the Vietnamese stop the war, to enter into negotiations and reach a compromise with the Americans. The Soviet revisionists have been the scabs in the Vietnam war. They sought to save the United States of America with an «honourable» withdrawal, while defending their own interests in Vietnam afterwards, in order to become «participants in the victory achieved». The great pressure, scandalously exerted by the Soviets on the Vietnamese, achieved a result:

The Vietnamese began the talks with the Americans in Paris according to the slogan: «Both war and politics and negotiations».

China has assisted and is assisting the Vietnamese in the war. It has been ready even to send volunteers at any time. The Chinese were against the talks of the Vietnamese with the Americans. They had told them this many times, and have told us officially, too. The Chinese considered the talks of the Vietnamese with the Americans incorrect, unfruitful, and indeed harmful and dangerous, but this was a matter for the Vietnamese themselves, while China's stand towards the war of the Vietnamese people and its aid did not alter.

Our Party, without consulting with China (because the Chinese do not bother to consult with our Party even over these capital problems), when a stand towards the war in Vietnam had to be taken, took the stand which is publicly known and never spared its aid to this war.

We were not in agreement with the talks which the Vietnamese began with the Americans. We have told the Vietnamese comrades of our opinion on several occasions.

This is how matters have stood right up to now.

Irrespective that China and Albania were not in agreement with the Paris talks, in the final analysis, this was the business of the Vietnamese. We could not stop them.

On the other hand, we had to continue and did continue to assist their liberation war even more, to expose the atrocities of the Americans, and to be consistent in our stand. We remained consistent in our support for Vietnam's war, but not China. When the war was still going on, when the Americans were killing and bombing in Vietnam and the whole of Indochina, China held secret talks with the Americans in which the agreement was reached that Nixon should go to Peking and, as it turned out, discussions about Vietnam were also held.

These disgraceful, anti-Marxist, uncomradely negotiations were held without the knowledge of the Vietnamese, let alone any knowledge on our part. This was scandalous.

This was a betrayal of the Chinese towards the Vietnamese, towards their war, towards us, their allies, and all the other progressive peoples. This is revolting.

The conclussions of Chou En-lai's talks with Kissinger fell like a bombshell on us Albanians, on the Vietnamese, the Koreans, not to mention the others. The Khan of Pakistan was considered worthy to be the first to be informed about «the secrets of the gods». What shamelessness on the part of the Chinese! We base this on the facts. When Chou En-lai summoned our ambassador, at three in the morning, to inform him laconically about «the good news», which was to be published a day later, he told him that he would call him back to inform him more extensively on the matter, so that he could inform the comrades in Tirana, because, he said: «I have just returned from Hanoi where I brought the comrades up to date. Now I am going to Korea to inform Kim Il Sung, and when I return, I shall inform Sihanouk and will call you, too».

We, naturally, were to be informed after the Prince of Cambodia! What does this show? This shows that the Vietnamese, the Koreans, as well as we, were faced with an accomplished fact.

What attitude must the Vietnamese have taken? This we do not know. Chou doesn't give a hint, and we can guess why. The Vietnamese were opposed to Nixon's going to Peking at a time when the Americans were fighting them. Of course, the Vietnamese consider China's stand, as we do, too, aid to the fascist Nixon, the number one murderer of the Vietnamese, so that he can pose as a pacifist and be re-elected president of the United States of America. This means to talk with an enemy about the fate of a people who are fighting and have taken their fate in their own hands, means to talk with the arch-executioner of a people, without consulting them or asking them, when you, China, have been most sternly opposed to talks with the Americans on the question of the Vietnam war. On the one hand China criticizes the Soviets and the Vietnamese for talking with the Americans, and on the other hand, reaches agreement itself find talks with them in secret! This is cheating, this is neither honest nor Marxist. The Vietnamese immediately published an article in which they expressed their displeasure while attacking the United States of America and Nixon, and said that they would not allow the great powers to gamble with their fate.

This about-turn of China in its stand towards Vietnam is disgraceful and is explained with the change of its line to a rapprochement with the United States of America.

The Chinese are making another major mistake to justify this shitty business of theirs. In the information which he gave our ambassador, Chou En-lai said: «We foresee that the war in Vietnam will continue; therefore, as we told the comrades in Hanoi, they should fight and, at the same time, we should talk».

Of course, this has revolted the Vietnamese, and quite rightly so, because those who were against talks now come and tell them: «You go on fighting, shed your blood and we shall talk here in Peking and in Washington». This means, in other words, if victory comes in Vietnam, the Mao-Nixon talks brought this, that is, the victory is due to the Chinese and not to those who were killed and burned. No! Such things are unacceptable, in no way are they acceptable.



Reflections on China Volume I



In this direction we have to make suppositions about everything, have to work with imagination, making deductions from a few laconic news items from foreign agencies, from some statements of Nixon, from some journeys by North Vietnamese leaders and an occasional Chinese communique which, in fact, says nothing.

The Chinese are telling us nothing, not just about their negotiations with the USA, but about any of their political activity in the international arena. We have to use our imagination to work out the Chinese «puzzle» of their foreign policy for ourselves. The question is frequently complicated and since we do not have accurate data, it is possible that sometimes we are wrong.

Hence, from the development of events and the facts we have, I think that the Vietnamese-American conference in Paris, in which the North Vietnamese had placed hopes of a «political victory», has gone into deep sleep, and from Paris it is being transferred to Peking, and from legal it has now become clandestine.

From the time it was announced that Nixon was to go to meet Mao Tsetung in Peking, the fire went out in Paris and the smoke from it came out in China. Apparently, this cold shower was poured on this conference without consultation with and without the approval of the Vietnamese who were very angry and allowed their anger with the Chinese to show clearly.

The Vietnamese, it seems, did not like such a thing to be done without asking them, to be done over their heads, behind their backs and surreptitiously, especially, because «when the issue is about Vietnam, they alone decide». According to the Vietnamese, the Chinese aid in this direction is second-rate, and not the one and only aid, but the Soviet aid must be parallel with it, at the same or a higher level. Therefore, the Vietnamese want to have not one, but two equally reliable supporters, who should be their own and the Americans' friends.

The Chinese, it seems, were obliged «to lower their colours» to the Vietnamese and «to correct their mistakes», because during this time «grave things in the leadership» occurred in China which entangled Chou's feet, but at the same time gave him a hand to throw all the blame for the so-called mistakes towards Vietnam on «the ultraleftists, the plotters».

Li Hsien-nien was hastily dispatched to Hanoi before Podgorny went there. Li Hsien-nien made a self-criticism and went loaded with aid and assurances that they would talk about Vietnam with the Americans the way the Vietnamese ordered. This satisfied the Vietnamese and their Soviet friends, who, as initiators and zealous proponents of the treacherous compromise with the Americans to extinguish the war in Vietnam, did not stay out of this game that was being played at the expense of the people of Vietnam.

Thus, according to these facts, we are forced to the conclusion that these matters will be discussed with Nixon not only in Peking, but also in Moscow. Nixon has two horses in his team for his course of the war in Vietnam.

If one goes «lame», the other pulls the chariot of American imperialism.

After this situation had been set up behind the scenes, the bargaining began. It is said that when Kissinger, Nixon's envoy, was in Peking for the second time, the North Vietnamese Le Duc Tho went there, too. It is said, also, that a meeting was held between Kissinger and Le Duc Tho in great secrecy and under the patronage of Chou En-lai. It is not known what was decided.

Now, Nixon has declared at a recent press conference that «he would withdraw a contingent of troops» from Vietnam. Of course, this is «the sprat to catsh the mackerel» and is linked with the secret negotiations: you concede to me and I concede to you; the more you concede, the more I concede. At this time, a military coup d'état took place in Thailand, dominated by the Americans. A «marshal» became prime minister and ten generals members of the government, all of them agents of the Pentagon.

Therefore, «if we reach a compromise in Vietnam», says Nixon, «we shall continue the war in Cambodia and Laos, with reliable bases in Thailand».

In this «brilliant» situation which the policy of compromise and the policy of the Soviet and Chinese revisionists opened to Vietnam, Pham Van Dong went to Peking this week. Why has he gone? We do not know, but we can guess.

In the joint communique with Pham Van Dong, apparently to placate the Vietnamese, to reassure the Soviets and say to the Americans, «we can do no more than this with the Vietnamese», Chou En-lai declared «the Vietnamese themselves decide their own fate».

It seems, another meeting with Kissinger in Peking is in the «air» allegedly to arrange «Nixon's journey» from the technical aspect, a journey which the news agencies forecast for March or April. Hence, plenty of time for trickery and compromises.

We understood all these things. Now, as always, the duty falls on us to follow events continuously, to study them, to draw deductions for ourselves, and to build our line and stands, because no one among them tells us anything, and especially anything true.


Reflections on China Volume I



For six or seven days on end, American aircraft have been furiously bombing North Vietnam — radar stations, aerodromes, and villages (250 incursions per day). The bombing has reached the outskirts of Hanoi, but the city itself has still not been attacked. Vietnam radio reports deaths among the people, while the American command in Saigon says the bombing is being carried out on the order of President Nixon himself.

Nixon and American imperialism will never give up agression or stop the bombing of Vietnam if their hands are not cut off. A great tragedy is being played in Vietnam, and it goes beyond the borders of that country. The Vietnamese are stepping up the war which they had somewhat dampened down, because of «the great policy» which they were carrying out in the meetings in Paris.

However, the meetings in Paris yielded no fruit.

Nixon's going to Peking was being prepared secretly. This «bomb» was dropped, and the Vietnamese, like us, had apparently not been consulted, therefore they were displeased and there were some internal rumblings. We read solemn declarations on the part of China that the question of Vietnam would not be discussed with Nixon.

We followed the comings and goings of Chinese and Vietnamese delegations to Hanoi and Peking; declarations were issued and speeches delivered: «China is always the base area of Vietnam», «China thinks that Vietnam itself must decide its own fate», etc.

On the other hand, Kissinger goes to China for the second time, holds long talks with Chou, and makes solemn declarations that «in the talks with Nixon, third countries will not be discussed». In other words, Chou En-lai, through the mouth of Kissinger, says publicly (because the Chinese, for their part, are not saying anything about what they discuss with the Americans) that they are not concerned about the problem of the Americans' war in Vietnam. The Chinese may deny it, and have to disclaim such a thing absolutely, but this is how it turns out. This is becoming very dangerous for the Chinese.

Hence, the present situation is like this: on the one hand, the official American delegations come and go to Peking and in peace, friendship, with mutual goodwill, prepare the journey of President Nixon down to the finest details; and on the other hand, hundreds and thousands of American bombers fly each day over North Vietnam, unload their bombs, and kill the people in the name of that rabid criminal president who will be welcomed with flowers and with crowds in Peking.

This is a political crime, this is scandal such as has never been seen or heard of before. Peking writes an occasional article, but this has no more value than the «fiery anti-American» articles of «Pravda». Demagogy!!

Peking is not making even the minimum gesture to react to the American bombing of North Vietnam and at least cancel the reception of Nixon in Peking, making the cessation of the bombing a condition for this visit. But it is not easy for Peking to carry out even this political act. Nixon has them by the throat and is blackmailing them.

The Chinese have made a public commitment that they will not discuss the question of Vietnam when Nixon goes to Peking. This is one thing, but the biggest thing is Nixon's going to Peking itself, the question of the Chinese policy, and the new Chinese strategy. There was an internal reaction over this. Such a thing brought them big problems and therefore, radical measures were taken and a purge carried out. Now they cannot retreat, because the retreat has catastrophic consequences for the politicians who built the new strategy. And Nixon, the Soviets, the Vietnamese, and the whole world are well aware of this.

The results: the Vietnamese will continue their attacks (indirectly, the Vietnamese are killing two birds with one stone, they also put the Chinese, who will welcome Nixon, in difficulties). Nixon savagely bombs Vietnam and prepares to go to China, alienates China from the Vietnamese people, discredits its prestige, and plays the game of the Soviets, with whom he is in agreement.

The Soviets expose the Chinese for their «duet» with the Americans at a time when Vietnam is being bombed.

But the Khrushchevite clique also «exposes» the Americans, «supports» its Vietnamese revisionist friends and it is possible that, when Nixon has consummated his visit to China, the Soviets will cancel his visit to Moscow, because of the bombing of Vietnam. All this to unmask China in the eyes of the world for welcoming Nixon at a time when Vietnam is being bombed, while they create the impression in regard to themselves that, «we, the Soviets, refuse to allow Nixon to come to Moscow as we refused Eisenhower after the U-2 incident»!!

This is a cunning and very dangerous game which the Soviets and the Americans may be playing. In some way, we must introduce this idea into the ears of the Chinese.

Perhaps the Chinese foresee such a thing, perhaps they dismiss this eventuality, in order to deceive themselves that the Soviets are not doing this, that they are afraid lest the United States and China... etc.

All these are day dreams in order to justify the weakness that «you, China can never get out of this impasse», but it must get out of it, because otherwise it will be disgraced.





Reflections on China Volume I



Yesterday the American press was lavishing praise on Chou En-lai. They called him a thinker, a philosopher, even in the way he smiles. According to them, Chou, overflowing

with good will, asked them to make criticisms of him, which he accepted, saying that he would take measures «to save Peking from the smog». He told them that he had a great admiration for the American people. According to the Americans, Chou gently criticized the line of Nixon over the war in Vietnam, while the Americans praised Chou because he works hard, eighteen hours a day, and is as fresh as a daisy. They are buttering him up.


Reflections on China Volume I


(March 21, 1972)

The Chinese press had ceased its propaganda against American imperialism, but while waiting for Nixon, it was obliged to write several times «in defence» of Vietnam, which at these particular moments was being heavily bombed by the Americans. Hence, precisely at this time, when the Chinese were awaiting Nixon, the Vietnamese stepped up their attacks, Nixon stepped up the bombing, while the Soviet revisionists came out as «the only sincere friends of the Vietnamese», as «rabid anti-Americans».

During this time, the Chinese kept their mouths shut and did not reply to the Soviet propaganda, and it is easily understood why they were obliged to do this. The reason is that they found themselves in a weak position in regard to Vietnam and wanted to avoid making it appear that talks with Nixon would be against the Soviet Union.

China has great responsibility in the matter of accepting Nixon in Beijing without laying down the slightest condition. But not only China is responsible for this propaganda victory of Nixon. The Vietnamese themselves, who are allegedly «angry» with the Chinese over Nixon's going to Beijing, have long been engaged in secret talks with the murderers of their people. Not to mention the Soviet revisionists, who are up to their necks in filth through their contacts and collaboration with the Americans.

We, for our part, did not cease our struggle against American imperialism and Nixon for one moment, regardless.

This was noticed by the foreign news agencies, too, which pointed out that our propaganda differed from that of the Chinese.

Zhou Enlai eliminated the expression that the world is moving towards the revolution.

The newspapers quite rightly say: «Zhou brushed aside the world revolution». This is the scandalous and disgraceful propaganda and demagogy which Beijing is making about the rabid fascist who has shed the blood of the peoples of the world, the head of world imperialism, Nixon ! And who is doing this? Beijing, which claims to be the world centre of Marxism-Leninism!




Reflections on China Volume I



Yesterday our government delegation returned from China and today it reported to us on the work it had done there. On the economic side everything went well, while on political questions there was nothing but complete silence.

For more than three weeks the Vietnamese have been attacking the American forces and the puppets of Saigon from all sides. They have opened four important fronts:

one in the direction of Hue, which they have left behind; one front from Laos in the centre, apparently with the aim of cutting South Vietnam in two, isolating the enemy forces in the northern zone of South Vietnam from those of the Saigon front; the third front they have opened north of Saigon where they have taken the town of An Lok, an important key to Saigon, which they are threatening from the north (according to the news, they are 60 kilometres from Saigon); and the fourth front has been opened south of Saigon, from Cambodia (they have reached some 40 kilometres from Saigon). The main objective is the encirclement and capture of Saigon. A second, much more resounding Dien Bien Phu. This will be the decisive victory if they achieve their aim. The defeat of American imperialism in Vietnam will be total and ignominious.

At present, American imperialism and Nixon have their backs to the wall. There is nothing they can do, except to use their tactical and strategic air force which cannot possibly have much effect. Their vietnamization of the conflict has ended in fiasco: the puppets of Saigon are not holding their positions anywhere. The tactic of the Vietnamese is to continue their offensive and at the same time to demand that the Americans sit down at the negotiating table in Paris. So far the Americans are refusing and will not come to talks unless the Vietnamese cease the offensive.

This situation has placed Nixon and his administration in a difficult political situation, especially on the eve of the presidential elections. His opponents are fighting hard against him. There are strikes and demonstrations in the country. Yesterday Nixon was obliged to close a series of important universities, because students and professors rioted. It is said that Nixon will deliver an «important» speech next week.

The war tactic of the Vietnamese will turn out successful provided they carry on and do not retreat from this correct tactic, because this alone will bring victory.

The relations of the Chinese with the Vietnamese are cold. Many facts which I have mentioned in earlier notes confirm this situation, but by chance we are learning other facts which strengthen our conviction.

In recent days our ambassador in Hanoi had a talk with the Chinese military attache in Vietnam. He told him:

«We (the Chinese) know nothing about these offensives, because the Vietnamese do not inform us. We do not know whether this is a serious action which will be carried through to the end, or an adventure which will cost them dear. The Soviets have a finger in this offensive». Just these admissions from this very responsible person within Hanoi, clearly indicate the situation which exists between the Chinese and the Vietnamese. Apart from the major question that the Chinese are kept entirely strangers to the aims of the Vietnamese, what he said also creates doubt on the issue: are the Chinese for or against the present offensive? If they are for it, the Chinese military attaché should have approved and supported the offensive of the Vietnamese, regardless of the fact that the Vietnamese have not informed them about it. But there may also be the other aspect, that the Chinese consider this offensive of the Vietnamese an adventure, making an analogy with the war in Korea, when the Korean army advanced as far as Pu San, and the Americans counterattacked, and reached the Yalu river on the border with China.

Are these the reasons that make the Chinese call the Vietnamese offensive an «adventure»? Together with this, can they be thinking that, since the Soviets have a finger in such an offensive, they have pushed the Vietnamese into this adventure in order to bring the war to the borders of China by provoking a new attcak à la McArthur in Vietnam, and this will give the Soviets cause not only to spread propaganda against China, but also to implicate it in a war with the United States of America, or to get a foothold, themselves, in Vietnam and encircle China from the south? A l l these variants are possible.

But there is also another variant. The change in the strategy and tactics of China, and especially towards the United States of America, has made China alter its main aims.

In connection with Vietnam, China was opposed to the talks of the Vietnamese with the Americans in Paris and considered them to be in vain. When China itself entered into secret talks with the United States of America, it changed its stand on this question. The Vietnamese in Paris proposed their 7-point program, the Americans proposed theirs. This was the time when the agreement on Nixon's going to China was announced. Precisely from this time on, the Americans did not give much moreimportance to the Conference in Paris. Why? There is no doubt, it must be thought that Nixon was going to talk about Vietnam in Peking. And there are reasons why it must have been so. The North Vietnamese jumped up and certainly quarrelled with the Chinese, to the extent that Chou En-lai was obliged to declare publicly that «the question of Vietnam would not be touched on with Nixon».

Here lies the source of the conflict. However, this conflict must have taken place within the Chinese leadership, too, that is, between Mao and Chou En-lai on the one side, and Lin Piao and the armymen, or the «extreme leftists», as they have described them, on the other side. We have to suppose that Mao and Chou were in favour of Nixon's going to Peking and for softening the policy towards the United States, as well as for the settlement of the Vietnam problem to some degree with talks, while Lin Piao and the other comrades were against Nixon's visit, against this softening of the policy with him and for the further development of the fighting on the part of Vietnam. It must be for this that they have been accused as «ultra-leftists».

The Chinese conceal this main question and tell us contradictory things which don't hold water. For example, they say that «the ultra-leftists were pro-Soviet», and they link this with the fact that the Soviets might have a finger in the Vietnamese offensive. According to the Chinese, the ultra-leftists say that «politics must be in command», while they hold that «industry must be in command». This is a completely revisionist thesis. «The ultra-leftists are against industry and modern industry, against the skilled crafts». What contradictions!

And so on, a series of such stupidities. The Chinese raise many natural shortcomings and mistakes in work to principles, and blame them on the «extreme leftists». Such things can't be swallowed!

The Chinese find themselves in difficulties to make the change, therefore they don't publicly accuse the «ultraleftists» of political mistakes, but accuse them of these contradictory things of secondary importance which, even when they are obliged to turn over the page, prove as hard to grasp as slippery fish.

Now the Chinese comrades tell us that «the Vietnamese are two-faced people».

Our ambassador in Peking informs us today that a reception was given recently for an African personality.

Present at the dinner was Chou En-lai, who tried to give the guests the impression that they have «very good» relations with Vietnam. But it turned out the opposite.

He rose from the table, went towards the diplomats and beckoned to the two Vietnamese ambassadors, of the North and the South, to approach,but they did not move from their place. Chou En-lai went over and began to talk to them. They listened to him with marked indifference, which struck the eye of all those who were watching.

In the end, the two Vietnamese ambassadors, maintaining that same indifferent stand, implied to Chou that they did not understand what he said, so that Chou was obliged to summon a translator. This incident struck the eye of all present and made a big impression.

However, the situation between China and Vietnam appears to be unhealthy. The Soviet revisionists and the American imperialists are benefiting from this situation to the detriment of the Vietnamese people, who are fighting heroically. It is our duty to support their just struggle with all our strength.



The Superpowers



The offensive of the Vietnamese against the aggressive American armies and their Saigon puppets is progressing successfully. Broad regions and towns are being liberated. The liberation forces are only 10 km from Hue, An loc is encircled and likely to fall, Saigon, also, is being threatened as is the entire defence and strategy of the United States of America and its puppets. They are on the verge of ignominious defeat.

Nixon's "Vietnamization" of the war has suffered the most ignominious defeat. This war is a further brilliant proof that there is no force that can withstand the people's liberation war. In face of the fighting spirit, courage and ability of a people fighting for their own just cause, the enemy will be defeated, even though it may have large forces equipped with the most modem weapons, as the United States of America has. The American demagogy which presents the question as though the Saigon puppets are waging the war, does not hold water. The Vietnamese stooges have been defeated like our ballists who were supported by v the Italian and German occupiers. Their fate is and will always be the same, everywhere and at any time. He who joins and serves the enemy of his own people is condemned to death.

The war against the people of Vietnam is the American's war. They are greatly worried because they are losing the war and they "honour", if they have ever had any. Their defeat in Vietnam increases the peoples' confidence. The American beast is writhing in the Vietnamese agony, but it is struggling to escape from the trap alive, trying to tell the world that it withdrew unscathed and not with its tail between its legs.

Now it has become impossible for the Americans to stay in Vietnam not because they do not want to, but because they cannot. The earth is ablaze under their feet. They employed all means at their disposal, including their allies, the revisionists of Moscow, but to no avail. Now only one road remains open for them "they must capitulate" but they want to keep "a certain hope" alive for the future in Vietnam, at least "to preserve" a contingent of their own men in order to have them in the future government, as contacts, as agents, as saboteurs and diversionists. The United States of America wants to make this strategic withdrawal by imposing its conditions on the heroic fighters of Vietnam from positions of strength. This is the aim of all the current military measures which Nixon is taking, from the bombing of Hanoi, Haiphong, etc., and the mining of the ports of North Vietnam to the secret and open talks which have been and will be held in Moscow between Brezhnev, Kosygin and Nixon.

The blockade of the ports of North Vietnam shows that the United States of America has lost the war on the land. The aerial bombing has proved ineffective because the Vietnamese are used to it and have taken measures to cope with it, therefore the United States of America cannot achieve any tactical or strategic objective in this war by random bombing. The defeated American armies cannot return to Vietnam again: they were there. They fought and were defeated, and if they do return they will be defeated once again. The Saigon puppets are worthless; they are melting away like salt in water. The United States of America and Nixon have lost militarily, but they are also losing heavily politically. The air strikes and the naval blockade are undertaken taken so that the United States of America will win something in the political field. But this is a Pyrrhic victory. The progressive world condemns these aggressive actions of the American imperialists.

The aggressive naval blockade of the Vietnamese ports imposed by Nixon exposed not only him, but also the Soviet revisionists. They have been and are opposed to the liberation war of the Vietnamese people and have striven for compromises and the capitulation of Vietnam to the United States of America. The Soviet revisionists wanted to see the war in Vietnam quelled and their policy of "peaceful coexistence" and "the world without wars and arms" triumph. At a time when the Vietnamese are being martyred, they are trying to emerge as "saviours" and to establish their own hegemony.

It was necessary for them to give the Vietnamese some aid, otherwise their perfidious intentions could not be disguised from the eyes of the peoples and the Vietnamese themselves. All along the Soviet revisionists have had the one unalterable main aim: to try to make the Vietnamese capitulate and, at the same time, create the impression that they were running this war, that the victories of the Vietnamese were their "victories". The present offensive of the Vietnamese, too, is being trumpeted

in the same manner. but this is precisely what is exposing them. Nixon, too, is helping to expose them. "A drowning man clutches at a straw," say the people. And so in order to save his "honour". Nixon is presenting the war of the Vietnamese people as if the Soviets are waging it, that is, as if the United States of America is fighting in Vietnam against the Soviet Union. Consequently, we, the United States of America and the Soviet Union, must "come to terms", to impose order in Vietnam, where "both you, the Soviets, and we, the Americans, have major interests", said Nixon. The two imperialist robbers revealed their bloodstained faces.

It is clear that the United States of America had forewarned the Soviet Union about its blockade of the Vietnamese ports, had sounded out the Soviets on this and was sure they would not make any move, and in fact they did not. The Soviet Union issued a communiqué of "protest" which pleased the United States of America and all its allies rather than frightened them. "We were saved from the armed confrontation between the United States of America and the Soviet Union," shouted all who want to keep the peoples under the fear of war, therefore, according to the Soviet Union, the United States of America and their sycophants this means: "Peoples, do not fight for your liberation, do not anger the great powers, accept their dictate, do as they say, leave them to settle the disagreements, etc.!" This is the vilest strategy and tactics of imperialism and social-imperialism in order to establish their hegemony, to ensure zones of influence, to intimidate the peoples, to suppress them with armed force when the situation is ripe for this and to keep them under the threat of war when they see that they cannot intervene directly.

It is they who create and foster the threat of war for purposes of blackmail, who declare war against peoples, who hatch Lip intrigues among peoples and tell them: "Do not move, because we are protecting you!". The United States of America and the revisionist Soviet Union do not protect any people, they protect their own imperialist interests and sacrifice the vital causes of other peoples to these interests.

Naturally China must not involve itself in this filthy game. But it stepped into this mire in its meetings with Nixon, so it must step back at once while it is still not too late, because if you give the enemy your finger he grabs your hand, your arm and your head. American imperialism is not only the most ferocious enemy, but also one of the cunningest. The Chinese thought that by meeting Nixon they would gain face on both sides, but in fact they lost face on both sides, and now they are in a very difficult position. Look at what Nixon is doing. The same as before. Then, will China fight him or will it proceed on the course of friendship with him? You can't dance on a tight rope. Let Tito and others of his ilk, enemies of Marxism-Leninism and servants of a hundred imperialists, play that role.

As regards our stand, we will not waver from our course even if the mountains and the heavens fall on our heads, because ours is the correct Marxist-Leninist course.


The Superpowers

MONDAY MAY 22, 1972


Moscow welcomes the American "hawk", Nixon, and justifies this shameful tragedy with the so-called policy of Leninist co-existence.

Lenin, allegedly, has taught these new imperialists to form friendships and alliances, to divide and dominate the world with the imperialists, colonialists, and the permanent executioners of peoples, the oppressors of their freedoms, the plunderers of the riches and independence of other countries. What perfidy! What betrayal!

Before he left for Moscow, Nixon mined the Vietnamese ports and coastal waters, is savagely bombing Vietnam, and is continuing the most barbarous war that could be waged. At the peak of this savage activity, this fascist bandit boarded the aircraft and arrived in Moscow where the Soviet traitors welcomed him at the airport. The anthem of the Soviets, that anthem which led the liberation war, was played for him. The guns which destroyed the Nazi beast fired again, this time to salute a second Hitler, who has been attacking the heroic people of Vietnam with guns, with bombs, with napalm, with machine-guns, and every type of weapons twenty four hours after twenty four hours, for years on end. This is how far the revisionist traitors, who are shaking hands with and smiling on the hangman, who are eating and drinking with him, who are plotting with him at the expense of the other peoples to divide !he world between themselves, have gone in their cynicism.

The murderer of Vietnamese children will certainly visit schools and nurseries of Soviet children, will bare his teeth at them in his cynical smile, will shake the hands and pat the cheeks of the grand-children of those heroes who hurled themselves into the fiercest battles which history has known, against capitalism and world imperialism. Now the new Kornilov, the new Denikin with the face of Nixon, strolls in Moscow and the Kremlin, surrounded with honours by the new Trotskyites and Bukharinites.

At the sumptuous banquet in the Kremlin, Nixon spoke "about peace, freedom, coexistence and the friendship between the United States and the Soviet Union". He said, "We are opening a new page for mankind," and did not fail to stress, "We, the biggest states of the world, must ensure that the small states moderate their feelings" It could not be put more clearly: "We must put down the revolution in the world, we must keep the peoples under rein, and they must do what we want and what we order". And Nixon uttered these words in the Kremlin where the great Lenin worked and fought at the head of the Bolsheviks, in the Kremlin where the proletarian revolution seethed.

Now the counter-revolution prevails in this Kremlin and Nixon, linked arm-in-arm with the new Kerenskys, visits the tomb of Ivan the Terrible, the relics of the Czars, the cellars where the treasures are stored. The Mausoleum of Lenin is silent, but Lenin is not dead, Leninism is alive. Today or tomorrow, it will sweep away all this vileness, too, which will be routed and crushed by the proletarian revolution. The betrayal will be smashed.

With the greatest shamelessness, Podgorny said explicitly in his speech, "We desire that tension in the world should be reduced," that is, that the revolution should die down, that the peoples should not rise for their rights.

Podgorny openly demanded from the United States of America: "We must avoid war between the two of us; as for the other things we can regulate them and reach agreement between ourselves". Clearly this means division of spheres of influence in the world between the United States of America and the Soviet Union. Podgorny asserted openly that "up till now the Soviet-American collaboration has been in favour of peace", hence, the war against individual peoples on the part of these two superpowers is not important, because for them this is a normal and necessary thing.

Meanwhile the friend of the Soviet revisionists, Nixon, openly threatened the peoples with the atomic bomb, saying, "We, the great powers, must exercise self-restraint in the use of the nuclear weapons, because we might come to the point of a head-on clash." This means: "You other peoples restrain yourselves in your demands, listen to us, the great powers, take us as your arbiters, make us your judges to settle your problems, and don't raise obstacles that will make us take off our wigs, because in that case we shall destroy the whole world," Such is the threat that Nixon and the Soviet counter-revolutionaries are making to the peoples of the world.

"A new century is being ushered in," said Nixon about the present Moscow meeting. This is the challenge which world capitalism, headed by American and Soviet imperialism, is throwing down to the proletariat, the peoples and the revolution. The peoples, the Marxist-Leninists, the revolutionaries will fight on to total victory over the enemies.

And while Nixon and Brezhnev are plotting tête-à-tête in Moscow, China is saying nothing at all about these problems, but is maintaining a policy of total silence, while the Vietnamese are continuing their offensive successfully. Bravo to the Vietnamese heroes!



Reflections on China Volume I

MONDAY - MAY 29, 1972


What have China and socialism gained by the toning down of the revolutionary struggle on the part of the Chinese? Nothing! I think that both China and the revolution have lost. In Vietnam China created a coolness and placed the Vietnamese in a position where they had to tell the Chinese openly not to talk with Nixon about the question of Vietnam. The Vietnamese, on their part, began the offensive and are continuing it with success, even

now when Nixon has completed his business in Moscow.

What does this mean? Clearly it means that there are two roads: there is the revolutionary road, on the one hand, and the road of «Khrushchevite peaceful coexistence», on the other. The latter is not a worthy road for socialist China.


The Superpowers



The spreading of such opinions and illusions about imperialism is another betrayal of the cause of the proletariat and the revolution by the Soviet revisionists. In order to smooth the way for imperialism, they are trying to convince the peoples that an American imperialism which is killing and maiming in Vietnam no longer exists, that neither other imperialisms, nor German revanchism, Japanese militarism, Indonesian reaction, fascism in Spain, King Hussein, nor the racist regime in Rhodesia exist any longer. They want to make the world believe the demagogy and hypocrisy of Nixon, who pretends to be shocked when he learns the story of little Tania who died during the nazi siege of Leningrad, while he himself has just ordered the blockade of the DR of Vietnam so that all the Tanias and children of Vietnam will die. "Imperialism does not exist, therefore there must be no class struggle, there must be no attempts to make the revolution, to win freedom and independence" - this is what the Soviet revisionists, those saboteurs and zealous extinguishers of the fire of revolution and peoples' liberation struggles, want to say.

But the demagogy, cynicism and hypocrisy of the Soviet revisionists and their American friends, however abundantly and frequently employed, do not have the magic power to deceive the entire world, as those in Moscow and Washington may think.

In their speeches and in the Moscow documents, the Soviet and American leaders declared that they adhere and will adhere strictly to the principle of non-interference in the internal affairs of other states, that they will do their utmost to avoid causing conflicts and increasing international tension. If the policy which the two big powers pursue in practice and their daily activities were not known, perhaps someone might believe this. But when the imperialists and revisionists speak about non-interference, they do not have in mind their own chauvinist and hegemonic activity and practice at all.

For them, of course, the aggression in Vietnam is not interference, just as the occupation of Czechoslovakia is not interference. The imperialists organize scores of coups d'etat and this is allegedly permissible for them, just as it is natural for them to prop up reactionary regimes in various countries with money and weapons. The American imperialists and the Soviet revisionists, who are the biggest neo-colonialists, plunder the wealth and exploit the working people of other countries, but they do not like this to be called brutal interference in the internal affairs of others, oppression and enslavement of the peoples.

Nixon did not go to Moscow to hear from Brezhnev that "the Soviet side is in solidarity with the just war of the Vietnamese people". He went there to strike bargains over the blood of the Vietnamese people with the Soviet leaders: he went there so that the Soviets would help him to get out of the Indochinese impasse.

The final aim of all these agreements, both open and secret, is the division of spheres of influence, the monopolization of the markets of big and small countries. Their purpose is to increase the wealth and profits of the superpowers and to plunder and exploit the peoples.

The peoples of the world are now facing a new, allsided attack by the American and Soviet imperialists. This attack can be repelled by exposing and opposing the reactionary content of the Soviet-American alliance and its plans for oppression and plunder with all our might. It is particularly necessary to reject the pacifist illusions, the imperialist-revisionist lies and deception with which they are flooding the world.

The peoples of the world must oppose the counterrevolutionary unity of the two superpowers with their revolutionary unity, with their resolute blow for blow struggle, in order to foil the new superpower plots against the freedom and independence of the peoples and to undermine and destroy the entire Soviet-American global strategy.

The Superpowers



Mankind must condemn the American imperialists as war criminals for the genocide in Vietnam.

The American imperialists are continuing their barbarous war against the heroic Vietnamese people with the utmost fury. The American barbarians have divided the roles with the puppets of Saigon. For years on end the latter have been using the sons of the people of South Vietnam as cannon fodder for the American slaughter. They are being chopped to pieces in the battles on the ground. Nixon's theory of the "Vietnamization" of the war has long been in operation although the puppets of Saigon have not won a single victory. The American fascists, on their part, are fighting with their air force. The aim of the Americans is to kill as many Vietnamese as possible and to completely burn and destroy North and South Vietnam. Hitlers' aims and methods of operation were no different. Fascists and racists are nothing but imperialist barbarians. And so are the American imperialists.

The entire American air force is bombing North and South Vietnam day and night with all its might. For years on end the most up-to-date bombers have been making two to three hundred sorties a day, dropping their bombs no everything, on civilian target, on cities, on factories and hospitals, on dams and forests, on schools and populated suburbs. The number of bombs dropped on Vietnam up till now greatly exceeds the total number of the bombs dropped during the Second World War by all the belligerent powers. The biggest aggressive power of the world has hurled itself against a small state and people! But this small people is resisting, fighting heroically and has placed this imperialist aggressor state in a difficult position, in a position of defeat.

This terrible tragedy is being perpetrated while the world looks on. American imperialism is hatching up intrigues everywhere, indulging in demagogy and blackmail, making threats, buying from and selling to all, buying the consciences of all who are for sale in the markets of betrayal. There are many many such people who shed crocodile tears over the crimes being perpetrated in Vietnam. They weep by day while at night they talk and canoodle with the American fascists. And all these betrayers of the peoples say that they do these things in order to save the world from war. They claim that they are saving mankind from death at a time when war is raging and people are being blown to bits by bombs. These traitors and executioners of peoples are filling the atmosphere with their phoney slogans about peace, accompanied with bombs, dollars and rubles. They are competing with one another to make proposals for open and secret meetings and talks. proposals for conferences and treaties on "European security", "Asian security", "African security", "security" everywhere! But there is and there will be no security anywhere. The mania for big movements led by various leaders of states of all colours and shapes has spread all over the world. All these movements are set up with the aim of giving the impression that something is being done, that some move, do not revolt, because everything will be put right! Have faith in this or that leader, have faith in that conference which is being prepared, in that top-level meeting!. But the mountain labours and brings forth a mouse'. The chains for the peoples are being forged and the screws are being tightened.

The Soviet fascists are in agreement with the American fascists. There is only one difference between them, the American fascists are bolder, while the Soviet ones are more cunning, because they want to disguise themselves. They have the same aim although they operate with different means. The American fascists bomb Vietnam, the Soviet fascists try to make it capitulate. The former are open enemies, the latter disguised enemies... History shows what kind of friends the Soviet revisionists are. Where are the Soviet bombers for Vietnam? Where are the Soviet modern fighter-bombers for Vietnam? Where are the modern Soviet missiles for Vietnam? No, there are no such things for Vietnam! Apparently the skies of Vietnam are to be mined by the Americans! The Soviet skies must be protected, the Soviet soil, wealth and people must be protected! But why must they be protected?! For the final war, for the "preservation of peace".

"We have great responsibilities to mankind", said the traitor Podgorny in Hanoi when he went there recently to play Nixon's game. "We have responsibilities to prevent the outbreak of nuclear war. The Americans are very well prepared militarily and the United States of America has contradictions with its allies. If we exacerbate matters with the United States of America, then it and its allies will close their ranks against us," etc., said Podgorny.

The traitors have neither dignity nor scruple. In other words, the Soviet revisionists told the Vietnamese: "Surrender, we cannot help you, the Americans are strong.

You will have only yourselves to blame if you continue the war! There is no end to perfidy.

Despite this great betrayal, through the press, the radio, through their "loudspeakers" the Soviets are setting up a deafening clamour that they are helping Vietnam in its war. They, too, are war criminals. They are not making the slightest effort to break the blockade of the Vietnamese ports. All they know to do is to accuse China. However, it serves China right, because it put a weapon in the enemy's hands. The presence of Nixon in Peking in the situation that existed in relations between China and the United States of America was condemnable. To welcome the war criminal, Nixon, at a time when he was killing and maiming the Vietnamese, burning and devastating Vietnam, this, especially, is an act which is and will be severely condemned throughout the history of mankind. Of course China may say that it "received Nixon because of major world interests, in order to deepen the contradictions between the two superpowers. to avert an attack by the Soviet Union on China, to conduct trade with the United States of America", etc., etc. The Soviets, too, say all these things in other forms. But Vietnam is the conscience of the world which is fighting for freedom and independence against imperialism, against fascism and barbarity. Are you for this struggle and with this struggle or are you not? This is the big issue, an issue that cannot be dodged.



Reflections on China Volume I

TUESDAY - JUNE 13, 1972


The Soviets and the Americans have certainly talked long and extensively in Moscow about Vietnam and to its detriment. These two savage imperialists want to emerge from this war «with their honour and reputation unscathed», to profit from the blood shed by the Vietnamese people. The question is what different pressures the two will employ simultaneously to force the Vietnamese to their knees. The Americans will continue to use the weapon of war and terror, while the Soviets will use demagogy, pressure and blackmail about cutting off, or «difficulties» in supplying, their so-called aid to Vietnam.

Of course, everything depends on the stands of the Vietnamese. Up till now the Vietnamese have been fighting the Americans and resisting the Soviets. Now Hanoi, and the Vietnamese ambassadors abroad, are speaking openly about their dissatisfaction with the Soviets and condemning them, a thing which they did not do previously.

As a consequence of this, faced with the situation which has been created, the opportunist wing in Hanoi must be in a difficult position and in the minority.

At present this minority is obliged to submit to the correct view of the majority, which is for fighting through to victory on the basis of the 7 points. They are saying nothing about China, but have softened the stony attitude which Nixon's going to Peking brought about.

On the 15th of this month, Podgorny, personally, will go to Hanoi for talks. Of course, he will go allegedly to tell the Vietnamese about the «heroic stand of the Soviets» towards Nixon, about «the stern criticism» which they made of the American President, and claim that they did not permit themselves to make «any concession» in principle not only over the war in Vietnam, but also over all the world issues which were discussed. This will be what the Ukrainian horse carries in his saddlebag, this will be the dung he drops at the door of the Vietnamese.

To what extent the Vietnamese will be taken in by this, is another matter. However, behind these «breast-beatings», pressure and blackmail will be exerted in the form of «wise council», allegedly «in the impossibility of sending aid in the situation that has been created», «because of the lack of readiness on China's part to allow this Soviet aid to pass through its territory», etc. Podgorny will not fail to tell the Vietnamese that the United States of America is allegedly in difficulties and that Nixon gave obvious indications that: «If you concede a little (enough to save his reputation), he will concede, too», and other such tales.

The Ukrainian Podgorny will not fail to denigrate China in the eyes of the Vietnamese. Of course, Podgorny will tell them that «Nixon has sympathy and respect for the Chinese leaders, because they have reached agreement with the Americans over many vital problems of Asia, that it has been announced officially in China that Kissinger is to go to Peking on the 19th of June to continue the talks Nixon left off with Chou En-lai». Podgorny will build up a mountain of slanders to the Vietnamese about these coming Sino-American talks. To what extent the Vietnamese will be taken in by this, is another matter, just as Kissinger's third visit to Peking, of course, is another important matter.

The cordial Sino-American talks are continuing in Peking in a total black-out. Nothing is allowed to leak out either to their friends or to anyone else. Secret diplomacy is in force between «communists» and imperialists.

«The world, and even our friends, must not know what we are talking about and what we are deciding, because this will spoil things for us.» This means: «We are collaborating closely in secrecy, and outside we launch a few multicoloured fireworks, possibly of the most brilliant red colours, to amuse the gallery».



Reflections on China Volume I

SUNDAY - JUNE 25, 1972


Last evening we put on a dinner in honour of Sihanouk. He spoke very well both about Albania and his stands in politics and the war against the American aggressors. During the meal, we continued the political talks with him about the current international problems, about China, Vietnam and Laos. We also talked about culture and art in Cambodia and Albania. Sihanouk liked the Albanian songs and dances which our artists performed during this dinner.

A journey synchronized by the American diplomacy.

The question of Vietnam is the key problem to be solved, of course, in favour of the United States of America and to the detriment of Vietnam.

The two mendicant monks, who set out, one from Moscow and the other from Washington, have harmonized their roles: the Soviets uphold the thesis that «China is encouraging the Vietnamese in the war», the Americans sing the other refrain: «the Soviet Union is encouraging the Vietnamese in the war». These two theses add up to the same thing and have as their aim to show that the Vietnamese are fighting for nothing. Hence, according to these gangsters, the Vietnamese are being killed and burned in vain, have gained nothing and have nothing to gain, and that the only course open to them is «to reach agreement with the Americans on American terms».

Podgorny slipped away from Moscow for Hanoi furtively, like a thief in the night, to promote this lie and to exert pressure and blackmail on the Vietnamese. Nothing appeared in the Soviet press about the departure of the President of the Supreme Soviet of the Soviet Union, while Hanoi received him, and at the same time ignored him completely.

Before Nixon went to Moscow, the Soviet revisionist liars had promised the Vietnamese that they would send them modern long-range missiles. However, when Nixon arrived, of course after they reached agreement with him, the dispatch, not only of missiles but also of other war materials which they had promised, was withheld. The excuse found for this was: the sealing of Vietnamese ports by American mines. «How could the Soviets have tried to break the blockade? This would have meant being attacked by the Americans, and this would have kindled the flames of a nuclear war!», «Tavarishi, are you in your right minds?! Do you want us to burn the quilt for one flea? But what about the world revolution, socialism, the communism which we are building in the Soviet Union?!!». All these things, of course, must be understood correctly. The revisionists judge matters like this: «We do not sacrifice our friendship with American imperialism, we have reached agreement to live in peace and friendship with it, we have divided our spheres of influence, which we defend with our bombs, and we have them in colossal number, and can easily drop them on any third party which might rise in revolt and not obey us. Today the Vietnamese are being hit by American bombs, and that's all right, we say nothing.

Tomorrow, someone else will be hit by our Soviet bombs, and the United States of America will keep quiet. Between friends this stand is something natural».

Thus, after Nixon's visit to the Kremlin, the missiles were removed from the list, and after Podgorny's return from Hanoi, the missiles were turned into five guns and five trucks to pull them! But when are they going to arrive!

The Vietnamese did not accept Podgorny's proposals, because they were American proposals accompanied with Soviet blackmail and threats. They stood firm on their 7 points. Either war to the end, to victory, or acceptance by the Americans of the Vietnamese 7 points. This was a heavy slap in the face for Podgorny, who left Hanoi «with his tail between his legs». As long as the Soviet mendicant monk, the «special envoy of the Americans to Hanoi», was engaged in talks with the Vietnamese, Nixon stopped bombing Hanoi, while as soon as his friend departed, he recommenced the bombing even more barbarously.

Meanwhile, Kissinger sang the same song in Peking, but «set to an appropriate Chinese tune». We can guess this «tune», but to keep up appearances, the Chinese allegedly gave us, through our ambassador in Peking, «a general outline» to bring us up to date, from a certain Yu Chang, Deputy-Foreign Minister, who said: «I do not know the details about the talks which were held with Kissinger». Of course, this is not true, but even if it is so, go and get complete information and then come and tell us, if you have decided to inform us.

But what did Yu Chang say? He said that through Kissinger, Nixon assured the Chinese that nothing was decided in Moscow against China, that Nixon rejected all the hostile insinuations of the Soviets against the Chinese.

In other words, it turns out that the American allegedly defended China against the Soviets! Hence, the Soviets are bad, while the Americans allegedly are friends of China! See what times have come! Therefore, according to Yu Chang, Kissinger demanded that as many Americans as possible should come to China and develop trade.

The Chinese replied: «We shall allow Americans to come to China, but we shall choose for ourselves those whom we (the Chinese) want!»

About Vietnam, Yu Chang said that in the past Kissinger allegedly told them that the Americans wanted to end the war as quickly as possible, but the Vietnamese were «stubborn». And the Chinese informed Kissinger of their «well-known» thesis that the question of Vietnam must be solved at the Paris Conference.

This was all Yu Chang said! Rubbish!!



Reflections on China Volume I



In regard to the policy which China is pursuing towards the United States of America, Chou En-lai said almost nothing; perhaps, knowing our views, he deliberately passed over this question in silence, or did not want to reveal the «provisional approaches to relations», which may burst into flower after «peace is signed in Vietnam». I think that Chou En-lai did not speak on this point for both these reasons.

Chou En-lai's view in connection with the perspective of the war in Vietnam reinforces this opinion. He said that the Soviet Union is giving Vietnam little aid. This is true, but to give Vietnam little aid means to weaken its defence. Chou En-lai was of the opinion that the Soviet Union wants the war in Vietnam to continue. Here there is a contradiction in that «on the one hand, you do not help the Vietnamese, and on the other hand, you want the war to continue». The Soviets may want the war in Vietnam to continue, they may want the United States of America to remain tied up in this war, to hinder China from strengthening its «friendship with the United States of America», so that it continues not to have diplomatic relations with the USA, and the question of Taiwan and the «stationing» of the US 7th Fleet in Chinese waters to remain «unresolved».





From the speech at the meeting with the electors of Tirana No. 209 - October 3, 1974

A close fraternal friendship binds our people with the heroic people of Vietnam. Our country has always resolutely supported the just war of the Vietnamese people for the liberation of South Vietnam, the defence of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam and the re-unification of the homeland. The Party, the government, and the entire Albanian people forcefully condemn the aggressive policy followed by the United States of America towards Vietnam where it is continuing its military involvement, urging the Saigon administration to violate the Paris Agreements, and inciting it to grave provocations against the Vietnamese

people. We express our unshaken confidence that, through their resolute struggle, the fraternal Vietnamese people will achieve all their national aspirations and their just cause will triumph completely.





The Superpowers



The Americans are washing their hands of South Vietnam, too. One after the other three or four American presidents dropped more bombs, more napalm and more defoliants on Vietnam than were used during the Second World War! The numbers of killed and wounded, the amount of destruction and devastation are incalculable. History describes the Huns as very barbarous, as they were in fact, but the Americans have outdone them in barbarity to such an extent that we would not be wrong to describe the Huns as humane. in comparison with the Americans! But the Americans, too, have had their "Catalaunian Plains" (The battlefield where Attila was defeated). The noose has tightened around the neck of Thieu, their puppet in South Vietnam, and is strangling him. Facing defeat, lie is screaming to the Americans to help him. But Ford has turned a deaf ear to him because the last smoke is rising from a new "Dien Bien Phu" called Saigon, where the American general does not wish to suffer the same fate as General de Castries.

Now Ford has launched a "humanitarian campaign" for Vietnam. He is evacuating the "orphans" caused by his atrocities, 100.000 Vietnamese refugees, an-long whom he prefers as many young men and women as possible. These are the new colonists whose skin, unlike that of the slaves who were bought in Africa in the past after their teeth and muscles had been examined, is not black but yellow. The new slaves are coming from Asia, although once again their teeth are examined and those whose teeth are not in order are thrown into the sea. The Americans need such reserves of slaves, and that is why they launched the operation to "rescue the Vietnamese refugee", an operation which will be blessed by Pope John-Paul VI and "wept over", by American old women who will give each of the refugees. "these victims of communist barbarians", an old nylon shirt to wear.

Yesterday, after a meeting with Ford, Kissinger sang another de profundis, that over Vietnam. "All we have", he said, "is 150 million dollars in aid which will be used for the rescue of refuges" i, e., for the above-mentioned operation and for the preparation of some compromise. The arrogant United States of America has slight the aid of France or some other country (read the Soviet Union) to do something to save the face of the American aggressors, and in return, the United States of America will give a bone to those who come to its aid.

The bells of defeats for the United States of America are ringing out everywhere. They are not yet tolling its death knell, but announcing great and fatal defeats.

The Superpowers



The whole of South Vietnam has been liberated. Saigon was taken by assault and not on the basis of the Paris agreement. With the fall of Saigon one of the most protracted and barbarous wars the world has seen during the 20th century came to an end. American imperialism had taken the place and played the role of Hitlerite fascist imperialism, while the valiant Vietnamese people fought heroically and relentlessly against the French, the Japanese, against the French again and against the Americans, for 35 years on end. From its duration, the war of Vietnam is like the Hundred Years War and the Thirty Years War of by-gone centuries, but the war waged by, American imperialism in Vietnam far outstripped the Second World War in its ferocity, the barbarous atrocities committed. and the quantity and variety of means employed.

Nevertheless the fraternal heroic Vietnamese people fought arms in hand, resisted and triumphed. The greatest world power, American imperialism, suffered the most sensational, ignominious and costly defeat. The United States of America poured 150 billion dollars into the war against Vietnam to earn disgrace and the hatred of all the peoples of the world. The friends and allies of the United States of America, also, suffered the greatest disillusionment and they are terror-stricken over this victory of the people of Vietnam and Cambodia.

This war confirmed the Leninist thesis that power is won with the rifle, through fighting. Wild pigs on the rampage must be shot. American imperialism, Soviet social-imperialism and the reactionary bourgeoisie must be fought arms in hand. Only in this way can the peoples liberate themselves. There is not a single example to show that the people and the working class can take power by the parliamentary, reformist road. The revisionists loudly advertise this road, indeed they stress it as the only road, because they are against the revolution in general, and against the proletarian revolution, the liberation of the peoples, in particular. They are for the conciliation of the proletariat with the capitalist employers, for reforms which give the proletarians the crumbs from the capitalists' well-laden table, for the "historic compromise" of the Italian revisionists. This is the road which the Soviets support everywhere in order to dominate others. They even employed this tactic with the Vietnamese... The Paris agreement was the offspring of this dirty Soviet-American compromise at the expense of the Vietnamese. The Paris agreement prolonged the existence and domination of the American and the Saigon bandits for another two years. The Vietnamese had to continue to fight to achieve their complete liberation, which, in fact, they did. We told them openly what we thought about the Paris agreement. We told them that unless they threw it in the waste-paper basket they would never secure their liberation. And so it turned out.

Even now that Vietnam has been liberated the Soviet and American intrigues will continue, the fierce struggle will continue with other means...


Reflections on China Volume II

Thurstday, August 21, 1975

Off the record, the Vietnamese and the Chinese do not speak well of each other. The Vietnamese say that the Chinese are interfering in their internal affairs. How true this is we do not know, but China is interested in ensuring that Vietnam does not become a base of the Soviet Union. Vietnam is a great danger to China in case of an attack by the Soviet revisionists.


* * *

Thus China is twisting and turning between the cunning and hostile Japanese, the vacillating, revisionist megalomaniac, Kim Il Sung, the pro-Soviet Vietnamese, and hostile India! Nothing healthy can emerge from such a policy lacking a Marxist-Leninist backbone.


Reflections on China Volume II



Apart from other things, China is angry with the Vietnamese over the question of some islands which «North Vietnam has occupied». China claims that they belong to it, and must be returned, in a word, is bringing out the old «title-deeds», activizing its geographers and historians to prove its theses. Vietnam is keeping quiet, remaining on the islands, because it is said there is oil there, and grabbing credits from China. Meanwhile, China tells us, «We cannot give you credits as big as you require, because we are assisting Vietnam».





Reflections on China Volume II



In regard to China's alleged good relations with a series of countries with which it has had friendship, the situation shows that these relations are at rock-bottom.

It is the same with Vietnam. Le Duan went to China recently, and according to reports, the two sides did not manage to strengthen the friendship between them, because China has pretentions to Vietnamese territories. It does not want to give credits to burnt and devastated Vietnam, nor is it in a position to do so, but in addition to this, it does not want Vietnam to take credits from Soviet social-imperialism. What would please China will be for Vietnam to become a vassal of the United States of America.



Reflections on China Volume II



Thus the policy of China in its relations with the other countries developed into the China-United States of America axis. Taiwan was forgotten. Hong Kong and Macao were forgotten, and even Vietnam, which was fighting, was forgotten. And precisely at the time when Vietnam was being savagely bombed the final talks between Mao and Chou En-lai on the one hand, and Kissinger and Nixon on the other, took place. Hence Mao set out on this anti-Marxist, pro-imperialist course when Vietnam was being devastated by the bombs from the B-52 aircraft of Nixon, who went to Peking, was welcomed and engaged in heart-to-heart talks with Mao Tsetung and Chou En-lai.

Precisely at this time the United States of America gave the green light and all the friends of the Americans began one after the other to establish diplomatic relations with the «socialist» China of Mao Tsetung.



The Superpowers



The war against Vietnam is continuing, indeed it is becoming fiercer (On February 16, 1979, China began its aggression against Vietnam). For the first time the Chinese issued a communiqu6 and showed a three minute telefilm for the whole world to see. They transmitted this telefilm for the Chinese people, too. It was terrible to see it! It seemed as if they were fighting against German nazism. Fire poured from the barrels 3f heavy guns and rocket launchers, turning the sky to flames. These were the artillery shells of Deng Xiaoping's China which were being poured upon Vietnam to kill its people and destroy the country. Meanwhile the Chinese communiqué with the vilest hypocrisy that could exist in the world said that China had no motive other than to teach Vietnam a lesson. (with artillery fire on the Vietnamese people!) and that allegedly it has no need for even an inch of its territory.

On the other hand, China says that it is ready to hold talks with Vietnam and sign an agreement, but naturally it wants to do this while keeping its troops in Vietnam, that is, to impose its conditions on Vietnam through force of arms. To this end the Chinese government has sent a note to Vietnam, which has replied that it is willing to come to terms with them, on condition that all the Chinese troops down to the last soldier, are withdrawn from Vietnamese territory. But the Chinese hypocrisy is like that of the Americans who on the one hand continued the war to bring Vietnam to its knees, while on the other hand launched test balloons, saying that they were ready to sign the cease-fire. Johnson did this, Nixon did this, and this is what Deng Xiaoping is doing at present.

However, no one believes China's words. China is reinforcing its troops on the border and in the regions it has occupied in the north of Vietnam. There are rumours that the Chinese have captured the town of Lang Son...

Anything could happen with the great Chinese adventurer, Deng Xiaoping. As I have said before, he is trying to incite a major world war, which might break out in Southeast Asia, and then spread to Western Europe. This, of course, is a plan co-ordinated with the Americans. For the moment their plans are for hotbeds of war in various regions of the world, which might one day lead to world war. The Americans think that an involvement of the Soviet Union in a war with China would ease matters for them on the Eastern front and if the Soviet Union were to attack Western Europe, too. then it would be easier to defeat it, because in a world war the Soviet Union would find itself encircled.




2. Cambodia





The Superpowers

FRIDAY MAY 1, 1970


Once again Nixon has shown his face as the warmongering representative of American imperialism and exposed his own pacifist lies and demagogy. Two or three days ago he declared he was going to withdraw 150 thousand troops from Vietnam. This was just another bluff, but on the other hand, it shows that American imperialism, which has got itself caught up in a terrible meatgrinder, is lashing out wildly, trying to extricate itself from its very great difficulties, and now, by sending its troops into Cambodia, it has gone deeper into an even vaster, more intense and destructive sea of fire. Now American imperialism will have to throw new, greater forces into the holocaust and face more numerous united forces, which have great possibilities to manoeuvre.

The peoples of Indochina are uniting as one against their common enemy and will put him in his grave all the sooner. The American imperialists and their friends, the Soviet revisionists, are frantic and they have good reason to be. Their plans have been and will be foiled.

The Soviet revisionists have been caught like rats in a trap. They cannot extricate themselves from the consequences of their treachery and are sinking deeper into the mire. Their statements on Cambodia are stale, false, cynical. Their ambassador still maintains close links with Lon Nol. A positive thing is that Sihanouk is not in their clutches. Sihanouk is beginning to recognise what the Soviet revisionists, who are trying to carry out many actions to weaken the united front of the peoples of Indochina, really are.

But with the Americans' invasion of Cambodia, the North Vietnamese, too, must certainly be greatly disillusioned with the lies of the Soviets who are for talks with the Americans.

The American imperialists have recommenced the bombing of North Vietnam This is a ...eat defeat for the Soviet revisionists, a terrible exposure for them as friends of American imperialism. The Vietnamese will draw the proper lessons.




Reflections on China Volume I

SUNDAY - JUNE 25, 1972


Last evening we put on a dinner in honour of Sihanouk. He spoke very well both about Albania and his stands in politics and the war against the American aggressors. During the meal, we continued the political talks with him about the current international problems, about China, Vietnam and Laos. We also talked about culture and art in Cambodia and Albania. Sihanouk liked the Albanian songs and dances which our artists performed during this dinner.





From the speech at the meeting with the electors of the Tirana No. 209 - October 3, 1974

We hail the historic victories which the valiant Cambodian

people are achieving under the leadership of the

National United Front in their struggle against the

American imperialist aggressors and the puppet regime of

Lon Nol. We are convinced that the ultimate victory of

the Cambodian people over the foreign aggressors and

the Phnom-Penh traitors is inevitable.






The Superpowers



The United States of America has washed its hands of Cambodia. Together with their puppet, Lon Nol, the Americans killed and maimed Cambodians, burned cities and villages and now, being unable to continue with their atrocities, they have removed Lon No and the war criminals and sung the de profundis over Cambodia.



The Superpowers



The United States of America has received a sound thrashing, has suffered an irreparable defeat in Cambodia. First, the whole world has seen very clearly that despite its military and economic potential, American imperialism cannot impose its will even on a very small people who are determined to resist and fight it with weapons. The United States of America threw its modern weapons, advisers, generals, armies, and incalculable economic supplies, on the balance of Cambodia, brought a handful of traitors headed by Lon Nol, on the scene, organized mercenary armies and staked its "prestige" as a great superpower, but despite this the balance tipped to the side of the Cambodian people.

What lessons do the peoples draw from this colossal defeat of the United States of America? They learn that imperialism is in decay, that the empire of the United States of America is cracking in its foundations, its organization and in the policy on which it is built. It has to use wars, weapons, puppets, military bases, credits, exploitation and blackmail to keep the peoples under domination. But everybody knows the blood-stained character of the dollar. The puppets are used to the last to support their patron, they shed the blood of their own peoples, but in the end, they are smashed to smithereens by the people's war. A most recent example are Lon Nol and Van Thieu who are at their last gasp. Therefore the demagogy that the "democratic" United States of America is fighting together with its "democratic" friends, Lon Nol and Van Thieu, for the "freedom and democracy" of the peoples, has no basis on which it can stand.

That means all-round political, military and economic defeats for the United States of America. Understandably the "confidence", of the allies in the United States of America is at a very low ebb. The former confidence of the cliques and puppets in their "powerful", patron has vanished. In fact, now more than ever before, the cliques and puppets think that their patron has become dangerous, is working only for itself, uses them as murderers of their peoples and leaves them in the lurch whenever it is defeated in battles against the peoples of the world. It is not only the cliques and puppets like Lon Nol and Van Thieu or the Chilean fascists who think like that, there are even officially declared "major allies", who have long been having doubts about this rotten alliance which is dominated by an imperialist superpower which, despite the treaties, has the same aims towards them and is acting and will act with them in the same manner it is acting with the cliques and puppets.

This real distrust in their perfidious ally is becoming evident from the forms of blackmail they are exerting on it "National" feelings and "national" defence have begun to appear in the "alliances". Even if they don't say so, the "allies", have begun to think and move: "How are we going to defend ourselves? Nothing is certain with the United States of America: it leaves you in the lurch for its own interests".

For its part, Soviet social-imperialism is experiencing a similar major crisis. Nobody believes its demagogy, because every action it takes shows the peoples that its policy, objectives and ambitions are identical with those of American imperialism: world hegemony, division of markets, while doing its utmost to avoid confrontation with the other superpowers. But the struggle for markets does not prevent these two superpowers from having cliques and puppets, from playing them one against the other in order to draw the chestnuts out of the fire for them. The "allies" of Soviet social-imperialism are extremely disatisfied with their patron: their countries are occupied and cannot be liberated without war. But this they cannot undertake. Up to a certain point, they can do some trade with the capitalist countries and obtain some credits from them, to the extent the patron finds it advantageous to allow them. But if they pull too hard at the leash the patron jerks them back into line with stern brutality.

American imperialism has suffered defeats, but the Russians do not appear to have done so. This is an illusion, because both of them have suffered defeats and both are manoeuvring for a new strategy and new tactics. Ford issued a blunt warning, "let nobody try to fish in troubled waters against the United States of America". The "troubled waters" are Cambodia, Vietnam, the Middle East. This "nobody" is the Soviet Union, in the first place.

It is important that the decline of the two superpowers should continue, that their hegemony and arrogance should be undermined, their intrigues stopped and combated, that the psychosis of fear which the two superpowers are keeping alive should be combated, that the sentiment for the defence and the national dignity of the peoples and independent states should be strengthened and the revolutionary spirit and international unity of the proletariat and the people all over the world should be enhanced and tempered.

The defeats of the superpowers must be exploited to the maximum and in all possible ways. We must make our contribution to this struggle as we have always done and more than over before.





Reflections on China Volume II



China appears to have good relations with Cambodia. Of course, Cambodia is a very poor state, just emerged from the war, still without a crystallized policy. In these conditions, and

also because of the very tense situation which exists between Cambodia and Thailand, as well as between Cambodia and Vietnam over territorial conflicts, it seems to have good relations with China.



Report to the 8th Congress of the PLA

(November 1, 1981)

Our country has good relations also with a number of countries of Asia. With the Socialist Republic of Vietnam, with Laos and the Democratic People's Republic of Korea, our relations are developing in a friendly way and we express our desire that they should be further strengthened in the future.

In regard to Cambodia, our Party and state have condemned the bloodthirsty activities of the Pol Pot clique, a tool of the Chinese social-imperialists. We hope that the Cambodian people will surmount the difficulties they are encountering as soon as possible and decide their own fate and future in complete freedom without any «guardian».



Zeri i Popoullit


This [the Sino-American imperialist alliance] is obvious, also, from the fact that now the American government is trying to put China, which has attacked Vietnam, on the same plane as Vietnam because, allegedly, it has attacked Cambodia. In Cambodia, the Cambodian people, communists and patriots, have risen against the barbarous government of Pol Pot, which was nothing but a group of provocateurs in the service of the imperialist bourgeoisie and of the Chinese revisionists, in particular, which had as its aim to discredit the idea of socialism in the international arena.

Even Prince Sihanouk, who was incarcerated for nearly four years in Pnom Pen, has spoken publicly at UNO about the crimes of the Pol Pot government and its extermination of the Cambodian people. The anti-popular line of that regime is confirmed, also, by the fact that the Albanian embassy in the Cambodian capital, the embassy of a country which has given the people of Cambodia every possible aid, was kept isolated, indeed, encircled with barbed wire, as if it were in a concentration camp. The other embassies, too, were in a similar situation.

The Albanian diplomats have seen with their own eyes that the Cambodian people were treated inhumanly by the clique of Pol Pot and Yeng Sari. Pnom Pen was turned into a deserted city, empty of people, where food was difficult to secure even for the diplomats, where no doctors or even aspirins could be found. We think that the people and patriots of Cambodia waited too long before overthrowing this clique which was completely linked with Beijing and in its service. When the first conflicts broke out on the Cambodian-Vietnamese border, the view of socialist Albania was, and the world is witness to this, that disagreements between the two neighbour countries should be resolved through talks and without the interference of the Chinese or Soviet social-imperialists. But this was not done. On the contrary, the Pol Pot group, incited by Beijing, brought out in Pnom Pen daily communiques in which they announced that thousands of Vietnamese were being kill led by its army on Vietnamese territory.

It was quite apparent that this provocative and warmongering activity was supported and carried out for the expansionist aims of Deng Xiaoping, Hua Guofeng and on their account. And why should Deng Xiaoping not support and back the clique of Pol Pot and Yeng Sari when he has rehabilitated all the scum of Chinese reaction, when he has returned property, money and power over the plants and factories to the big bourgeoisie, the men of the Kuomintang and all the counter-revolutionaries, and has turned China into a social-imperialist capitalist country, as our Party has rightly described it? The bourgeoisie in the party and the bourgeois intellectuals are in power in China. There this scum is considered the élite, while they demand that the working class bend its head and work for the «modernizations». It was precisely these capitalists, the clique of Deng Xiaoping and Co., who kept Pol Pot in power in Cambodia and now, after he has been overthrown, are trying with every means to restore him. The Chinese leadership are trying to cover up the aggressive act they undertook against Vietnam with the absurd pretext that Vietnam is seeking «small-scale hegemony», thinking that in this way they will be excused for the large-scale hegemony of China.

But the question must be asked: Why do the Chinese imperialists allegedly have the right to defend the barbarous fascist Pol Pot group, and Vietnam does not have the right to support the revolutionaries and the people of Cambodia to build a free, independent and sovereign country? The Vietnamese government has officially and publicly rejected the Chinese allegation that it is aiming to set up a federation of Indochina and has declared that Vietnam wants the peoples of this zone to live free, in friendship and independence, each in its own country.

 — From The Chinese Leadership headed by Deng Xiaoping have Launched a Military Attack on Vietnam from the newspaper “Zeri i Popoullit.”





3. Laos



The Superpowers



A foreign military force over 40.000 strong has invaded Laos. The various news agencies say that 30.000 of them are soldiers of the Saigon puppets and 10.000 American soldiers and officers. Their aim is to extend the scope of the aggression, to "Vietnamize" the war, and to attack the "Ho Shih Min", trail which passes through Laos and serves as a supply route for the national liberation war of South Vietnam. The entry of the American-Saigon military forces into Laos also has the major aim of weakening the liberation struggle in South Vietnam and the partisan war in Cambodia and Laos, and achieving some sort of unity and solidarity of the "ballists" (This is what the members of the reactionary organization of Balli Kombetar. which collaborated with the nazi-fascist occupiers in Albania during the National Liberation War, were called) of Indochina, under the direction of the United States of America, against the peoples of both parts of Vietnam, Cambodia, Laos and Thailand.

In this way American imperialism is involving itself more disastrously in the war and will certainly suffer overwhelming defeats. There can be no more hope for it. The more it escalates and extends its aggression, the more defeat becomes imminent and inevitable for it and its, puppets. The attacks it is launching are nothing but hopeless efforts it is forced to make in an attempt to get out of the difficult situation it is in. Blood-thirsty American imperialism cannot withstand people's wars. The bombing of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam for three years on end brought it no success; against villages and partisan units which are launching fierce and incessant attacks on airstrips and in the jungle, it will be even less successful.

Nevertheless, the Americans are accompanying the operations in Laos and Cambodia with the recommencement of the bombing of North Vietnam. They have also announced the landing of fresh amphibious forces at the 17th parallel allegedly to reinforce the border between the two Vietnams and to prevent the "North-Vietnamese military forces" from crossing the border and coming to the aid of the forces in the South.

The other side of the medal: the great and continuous betrayal by the Soviet revisionists, their secret and open collaboration with American imperialism on the Vietnamese question, must be seen in the light of these developments.

The Soviet revisionists directed their whole policy and all their efforts to quelling the liberation war in Vietnam, to making the Vietnamese capitulate to the Americans, reach a compromise and enter into negotiations with them...

As a result of many secret Soviet-American deals, the Americans had, they say, given some sort of undertaking that they would stop the bombing of North Vietnam. "A great victory has been achieved," shouted the Soviets. They thought that heaven was within their reach., that now everything would be accomplished as they desired and the secret plan would be easily applied, until the Americans would leave Vietnam "of their own free will". Thus, they set out with great zeal on the opportunist course of bargainings and talks with the Americans...

The fact is that during these "famous" talks... Nixon did his bit, declaring that he would allegedly withdraw from Vietnam, leaving the Vietnamese to fight Vietnamesc. And in order to deceive the American public he did withdraw a minimal contingent of forces from South Vietnam.

This whole manoeuvre was in favour of the Americans, and for them everything went on as before. Why? The American imperialists needed a pause in the fighting and this they gained. During this period, while enganing in empty talk and palaver, they reorganized, trained and built up the army of Saigon to the point that it was capable of dispatching a force 60-70 thousand strong from Vietnam to invade Cambodia and Laos, attack the partisan forces and endanger their supply routes to the South.

This is the result, also, of the treacherous policy of the Soviet revisionists.




4. Malaysia



Reflections on China Volume II



The Chinese revisionist leaders acted likewise in splitting and liquidating the Communist Party of Malaya, against which British imperialism had aimed its blows and killed tens of thousands of communists.



Reflections on China Volume II

DECEMBER 2, 1977


The Chinese revisionists have done the same thing also with the heroic Party of Malaya, with the Party of Burma, the communists of which U Ne Win, the friend of Mao Tsetung and the Chinese revisionists, routed. The Chinese couldn't care less about the other parties of the Far East either, towards which they have acted in the same way.

This is a crime committed by the Maoist leadership against the Marxist-Leninists of Asia. Now it is carrying out the same activity all over the world, in Europe, in Latin America, Africa, Australia, and everywhere else.

Under the disguise of Marxism-Leninism it aims to lead these countries and these parties on the capitalist road, while China becomes dominant over them in order to counter-balance the two superpowers and become a superpower itself.





5. Thailand

Reflections on China Volume I



Now, Nixon has declared at a recent press conference that «he would withdraw a contingent of troops» from Vietnam. Of course, this is «the sprat to catsh the mackerel» and is linked with the secret negotiations: you concede to me and I concede to you; the more you concede, the more I concede. At this time, a military coup d'état took place in Thailand, dominated by the Americans. A «marshal» became prime minister and ten generals members of the government, all of them agents of the Pentagon.

Therefore, «if we reach a compromise in Vietnam», says Nixon, «we shall continue the war in Cambodia and Laos, with reliable bases in Thailand».





6. Myanmar (Burma)





Reflections on China Volume II



China divides the world into three and wipes out any class difference, internally and externally, because it has deviated from the struggle of the popular masses against oppression and exploitation, because the present Chinese strategy confounds the aims of the state with the interests of the masses of the people oppressed and exploited by this state of the reactionary bourgeoisie. For China, only states which support its policy and strategy exist, and this policy and strategy consist of the struggle against a single enemy, Soviet social-imperialism, and the cessation of the struggle against the United States of America.

This means that China is preaching social peace simply so that this social peace serves its strategy, which is intended to strengthen the dominant positions of China in the so-called third world, and to protect the United States of America from the blows which the peoples may strike at it, either directly or indirectly, by striking at the capitalist groups in power in the states of the so-called third world which are closely linked with American imperialism. Meanwhile, China is totally disinterested in the states which are under the domination of the Soviet Union; it has lumped the peoples of these countries together with the modern revisionist and capitalist groups which are in complete unity and jointly oppress these peoples.

This means that China does not make any differentiation, overlooks the interests of these peoples, either of the former countries of people's democracy or of other capitalist states which are under Soviet influence. China identifies these countries with the state power of the bourgeoisie and the hegemonic line of the leadership of the Soviet Union.

Hence, this division of the world which the Chinese make, has as its purpose to quell the struggle of the popular masses to shake off the yoke of local and foreign capital. This cannot be a Marxist-Leninist revolutionary line, since it ignores the revolutionary struggle of the working masses against oppressing capital and since China does not defend the revolution and the peoples' national liberation struggles.

Let us take an example — Burma.

China should have diplomatic relations with the Burma of U Ne Win, but not in these very narrow forms as it is acting. It considers its relations with Burma everlasting, extremely close, while on the other hand, as is known, there is a movement of people's national liberation forces in Burma led by the Communist Party of Burma, which is fighting with its forces in the jungles and the mountains in extremely difficult conditions against the oppressive reactionary forces of U Ne Win. He launches attacks and kills the communists and patriots. The general secretary of the Communist Party of Burma, personally, fell in these battles. But is it right and Marxist-Leninist, that, during this time, China should exalt its links with the Burma of Ne Win and send on a friendly visit precisely to this Ne Win, the wife of Chou En-lai who throws bouquets at this executioner of the Burmese people? You see, this is how China conceives these relations with the capitalist states and how it underrates its relations and the aid which it ought to give the peoples who are fighting against reactionary cliques which oppress and exploit them to the bone.

Therefore, for China, the «third world» is alliance with the governments and states of this so-called third world, and not alliance and friendship with the peoples of these countries.

China does not support the aspirations of these peoples in any way, aspirations which are in open opposition and struggle against their leaderships, because these leaderships are capitalism in power.

Not even the slightest defence can be seen in the Chinese press or the Chinese radio of the peoples' national liberation movements, not a word is said or written about the powerful demonstrations of the proletariat in all the capitalist countries, there is no mention of the struggle of the Marxist-Leninist parties in those countries. Yes, such propaganda has disappeared from the pages of the Chinese press. This stand supports its strategy in order to let the capitalist states and American imperialism know that China has ceased its revolutionary struggle and its aid to the peoples who are fighting for liberation.

On the other hand, China's deception and demagogy lies in the fact that it poses precisely as if it is revolutionary, as if it assists the revolutionaries and the Marxist-Leninist parties, a thing which is utterly untrue. In fact, China assists only those elements and those so-called Marxist-Leninist groups that sing paeans of praise to its counterrevolutionary policy and strategy. In these conditions, then, in no way can it be said that the political and ideological line of the Communist Party of China is correct, revolutionary and Marxist-Leninist. It has entered a blind alley, an anti-revolutionary course. Therefore, with our propaganda and stands, we must emphasize the genuine Marxist-Leninist line which consists of powerful defence of peoples' national liberation movements, of genuine Marxist-Leninist parties and of all the progressive democrats who are fighting against oppression by local capital and cosmopolitan capital.

China appears to support the countries of the «third world». Its support is for the positions of the governing circles of these states, including those which are linked with American imperialism and of all the bourgeois-capitalist states which oppose Soviet social-imperialism. But, not being in revolutionary positions, failing to fight in the interest of the peoples, China does not take a single step forward, on the contrary, it is taking steps backwards.


Reflections on China Volume II



Mao Tsetung wanted to restore China to its ancient majesty of centuries ago. In other words, in the modern age, China was to become the «Middle Kingdom» as it was called in the ancient times of Confucius and the emperors. Mao Tsetung, Liu Shaochi and Chou En-lai did not fight for the triumph of socialism and communism. They have worked to avoid proletarian revolutions in Asia and now throughout the world. The Maoist leadership of China allowed the troops of Chiang Kai-shek to pass into Burma where they fought against the national liberation movement in Burma, led by the Communist Party of Burma, and, indeed, even today they are still fighting against it. Regardless of the fact that some of these troops are said to have gone to Taiwan, still the Maoist leaders of China, in friendship with U Ne Win, have become his main supporters in his aim to liquidate the Communist Party of Burma.


Reflections on China Volume II

DECEMBER 2, 1977


The Chinese revisionists have done the same thing also with the heroic Party of Malaya, with the Party of Burma, the communists of which U Ne Win, the friend of Mao Tsetung and the Chinese revisionists, routed. The Chinese couldn't care less about the other parties of the Far East either, towards which they have acted in the same way.

This is a crime committed by the Maoist leadership against the Marxist-Leninists of Asia. Now it is carrying out the same activity all over the world, in Europe, in Latin America, Africa, Australia, and everywhere else.

Under the disguise of Marxism-Leninism it aims to lead these countries and these parties on the capitalist road, while China becomes dominant over them in order to counter-balance the two superpowers and become a superpower itself.











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