ENGLISH

 

 

Enver Hoxha on

Algeria

 

TELEGRAM
to the

First CONGRESS
of the National Liberation Front of Algeria

Algiers, April 19, 1964

first published in German and English translation of the Comintern (SH) on the occasion of the 60th anniversary of the beginning of the Algerian war of liberation on November 1, 1954

[from: Enver Hoxha, Volume 26, page 320-321, Albanian Edition]




Dear brothers in Algeria,
On behalf of the Albanian people and the Central Committee of the Party of Labour of Albania we send hot revolutionary greetings to the first congress of the National Liberation Front of Algeria, to all the brave fighters and friends of the Algerian people.
Under the leadership of the National Liberation Front, the heroic fighters of the Algerian people have defeated the French imperialist yoke, won national independence and created conditions for turning Algeria into a happy country.
At the same time the armed struggle of the heroic Algerian people has become an excellent example for all peoples of the world who suffer from the wild rule of colonialism and imperialism. It is also a victory over the traitors in the liberation struggle of the peoples that hinder their fight or spread illusions about imperialism that this would allegedly have an interest, by itself, in ending the times of their colonialist and imperialist oppression, to put aside their clubs of their subjugation and to give back freedom and independence to the people.
The Albanian people has, just like the brother people of Algeria, led a long and hard struggle against foreign invaders and domestic reactionaries. Our armed liberation war was heroic and victorious,too.
On the occasion of your first congress, we express our deep conviction that our friendship with the people of Algerian is invincible. We know that the life of the Algerian people will become beautiful and happy, if they defend their revolutionary achievements by smashing all the conspiracies of the imperialists, as well as destroying the agencies of the neo-colonialist system of the modern revisionists. The freedom and sovereignty of the heroic Algerian people is indefeasible.


I wish your Congress luck!
Long live the unbreakable friendship between the Algerian people and all peace-loving peoples!


First Secretary of the Central Committee of the Party of Labour of Albania

Enver Hoxha

Published for the first time by the newspaper "Zeri i Popullit ", no. 94 (4876), from April 19, 1964

 

 

[ "On the Near and Middle East" ]

TUESDAY- M A R C H 20, 1962

WE RECOGNIZE THE PROVISIONAL GOVERNMENT OF ALGERIA


We have recognized de jure the provisional government of Algeria.

Great joy in Algeria over the signing of the cease-fire with the French, but this is still not peace.

 

 

 

THURSDAY - APRIL 23, 1964

THE FRENCH SOCIALIST CHIEFS ARE HATCHING UP NEW PLOTS WITH THE TITOITE CLIQUE


I had a final look at the article entitled:

«The Leading Group of the French Socialists, Murderers of the Egyptian and Algerian Peoples, Hatch up New Plots with the Titoite Clique».

(1)Published for the first time in the newspaper «Zëri i popullit», April 25, 1964 (Enver Hoxha, Works, vol. 26, «8 Nëntori» Publishing House, Tirana 1978, p. 322, Alb. ed.).

In this article, the outline and main ideas of which I had prepared at the beginning of April, we unmask the aims of the visits of chiefs of the social-democratic parties of West-European countries to Belgrade and Moscow.

insult by the Tito clique to the feelings of the Arab peoples and the memory of hundreds of thousands of martyrs of Egypt, Algeria and other countries of North Africa who fell in the heroic struggle for freedom from French imperialism.
Thus the Titoite clique is showing its true features, its hostile stand towards the Arab peoples, against whom it operates cunningly, hatching up plots and subversion and supporting cliques in opposition to the lawful governments. The Titoites' warm welcome for such enemies of the Arab peoples as Guy Mollet and Christian Pinot proves that when they speak about friendship with the Arab peoples, in reality, they are profaning the blood shed by the peoples of Egypt and Algeria.

It was proved indisputably before the eyes of the
whole world that the French socialists were not only opportunists and simple lackeys of the bourgeoisie
for ideological and political diversion amongst the workers, but also the most ardent defenders of monopoly capital, colonialism and the most extreme reaction in general.

— Tito, who poses as a «firm friend» of the Arab peoples is welcoming this Guy Mollet and Christian Pinot who bear heavy responsibility for the destruction of Egyptian cities, the grave crimes of the French colonialists in Algeria and the murders of Arab patriots. But however much Guy Mollet and his henchmen, the clique of Tito and Khrushchev and those who follow them, may try to conceal their treachery, it cannot be covered up. The world now knows what the chiefs of French social-democracy, Tito, Khrushchev and company really are.

 

 

 

 

Zeri i Popullit

from April 25, 1964



From whatever side we may look at it, it seems clear that the Belgrade meeting between the French Socialists and the Tito clique is nothing other than the weaving of a spider web of traitors, renegades and revisionists agents of imperialism against the working class, against all revolutionary forces against Marxism-Leninism.
Above all, the fact can not be denied that the visit of Guy Mollet and Christian Pinot at the Tito clique in Belgrade is a terrible insult to the feelings of the Arab peoples. Hundreds of thousands of martyrs have died in Egypt, Algeria and other North African countries in the heroic struggle for the liberation of French imperialism.
The Titoists clique thus shows its true face, its hostile attitude towards the Arab peoples who were delivered to the predatory policy of the imperialists. But Tito's clique has unmasked itself. The Arabs can not be fooled by its demagogy. The Titoists and French socialists talk big of friendship with the Arabs, but they are actually jointly complicit in the blood of the Egyptians and Algerians and the other Arab nations.
This truth about their meanness and monstrous acts are still fresh in the mind of the Arab peoples and will never be forgotten.

 

(from: "The leadership group of the French Socialists, murderer of the peoples of Egypt and Algeria, launch additional plots with the Tito clique" - Zeri i Popullit of 25 April 1964 - see Enver Hoxha, Works, Volume 26; Albanian edition, Verlag "8 Nentori, Tirana 1978, page 322-335 - the first time published in English language by the Comintern (SH) on November 1, 2014)

 

 

SUNDAY
JANUARY 31, 1965
[ "On the Near and Middle East" ]

 

...
Algeria is trying to present itself as a Cuban-style development of «Cuban socialism», or «Cuban Marxism», and the Algerian communists, who are legal and incorporated in the National Liberation Front, are allegedly operating inside it, like the supporters of Blas Rocas in the Cuban Communist Party. They are engaged with the press and propaganda. And what a «lovely» influence they are exerting!! They have adopted Koranic eclecticism and are trying to show that the Islamic religion conforms with socialism on many moral issues. For their part, Ben Bella and those in leading positions, wanting to be on good terms with the Soviet revisionists, the Titoites, the Americans and the French and to get material aid from them, do not fail to say that they are for «practical socialism» and cannot be for scientific socialism, as if these two things were divided by a Chinese Wall. The revisionists are in complete agreement with these views and they support any demagogy, any diversion, any revision of Marxism, they are in favour of any
variant, any sort of eclecticism which can be made of Marxism-Leninism, provided only that scientific Marxism-Leninism is combated. Now in the period of Ramadan, religious terror is reigning in Algeria — they beat and jail those Algerians who do not observe Ramadan, have prohibited the restaurants from serving food to Algerians during the day, compel people to go to the mosque, or to pray wherever they happen to be. And they dare to call this «socialism»!!!...

 

 

SUNDAY - JANUARY 31, 1965

«S0CIALISM» THAT HAS NO CONNECTION WITH SOCIALISM IN THE SCIENTIFIC SENSE


There is talk about an Algerian «socialism», but in reality this kind of socialism has nothing to do with our concept of the construction of socialism, with the scientific application of Marxism-Leninism. A bourgeois-democratic regime is being built there under the influence of foreign capital, especially French capital, which has deep roots there and is spreading them even now after the national liberation war. The problem is not simply that the regime of Ben Bella has liquidated the so-called Algerian Communist Party, because that party has never had a Marxist-Leninist line.

Now, with the development of modern revisionism, that party has found its course, that is, the course of total liquidation and incorporation in the National Liberation Front. No economic, political and organizational reform, which is being worked out or applied by the Ben Bella regime, has the slightest flavour of socialism. The Algerians have adopted certain formulas and organizational forms of Titoite self-administration and have created some capitalist peasant cooperatives or state farms. There is talk there about agrarian reforms and alleged expropriations of French colonists, but these are far from substantial achievement.

Algeria is trying to present itself as a Cuban-style development of «Cuban socialism», or «Cuban Marxism», and the Algerian communists, who are legal and incorporated in the National Liberation Front, are allegedly operating inside it, like the supporters of Blas Rocas in the Cuban Communist Party. They are engaged with the press and propaganda. And what a «lovely» influence they are exerting!! They have adopted Koranic eclecticism and are trying to show that the Islamic religion conforms with socialism on many moral issues. For their part, Ben Bella and those in leading positions, wanting to be on good terms with the Soviet revisionists, the Titoites, the Americans and the French and to get material aid from them, do not fail to say that they are for «practical socialism» and cannot be for scientific socialism, as if these two things were divided by a Chinese Wall. The revisionists are in complete agreement with these views and they support any demagogy, any diversion, any revision of Marxism, they are in favour of any variant, any sort of eclecticism which can be made of Marxism-Leninism, provided only that scientific Marxism-Leninism is combated. Now in the period of Ramadan, religious terror is reigning in Algeria — they beat and jail those Algerians who do not observe Ramadan, have prohibited the restaurants from serving food to Algerians during the day, compel people to go to the mosque, or to pray wherever they happen to be. And they dare to call this «socialism». We shall say no more about other matters which result from the religious practice.

Of course, the Ben Bella regime must be taken as it is, but not as something which it is not. It must be supported and assisted for those positive aspects which it has, but not for those which it does not have, boosting the regime as if it has them, and passing soap for cheese.

Theoretical issues have great political importance, too. Politics is not divorced from ideology, but it must not be confounded with the ideological principles and these must not be subordinated to the political needs of the moment, must not be diluted, corrupted or distorted, even for some long-term advantage that looks promising.

Concessions and compromises can be made in politics, but never in principles. Principles must be defended. Patient efforts are required to make them clear, understood, and have them gradually adopted, but they must not be distorted.

 



THURSDAY- JUNE 24, 1965

THE OVERTHROW OF BEN BELLA AND THE ALGERIAN PROBLEM


Boumedienne, supported by the detachments of the army, has overthrown Ben Bella. In its outward appearance this seems like a putsch, and in fact that is what it is. However, that is nothing surprising in the circumstances through which Algeria has passed. The coming to power of Ben Bella, too, was done through an army putsch.

Coming from prison in France, Ben Bella found himself at the head of the state in Algeria and, through putschist methods, eliminated all his opponents who had taken part in the war, irrespective of their political tendencies.

The war of Algeria, an heroic war of the people, truly threw the occupiers out of Algeria, but the fact is that the various nationalist factions that led this war did not manage, in the course of it, to create that sound unity of thought and action which the Algerian people needed so greatly on the eve of their liberation and before the great struggle to revive Algeria, which had emerged from heavy slavery as a sovereign state and was devastated by the war. The elements of the progressive Algerian bourgeoisie proved to be incapable, lacking perspective, divided into clans with pronounced careerist tendencies and, of course, secretly influenced by, or with vain illusions about, the trends and aims of various tendencies of French bourgeois political opinion. Algeria won the war and its political «independence» from France, but the influence of France continued to be felt in the policy of the new Algerian leaders and is still being felt after the war; faced with the instability of the Algerian leadership, that influence has begun to operate with greater force.

Hence, divorced from the «communists» who throughout the whole war played an infamous, cowardly, opportunist, revisionist, capitulationist and liquidationist role, worse than a bourgeoisdemocratic grouping, towards the personal power of Ben Bella, to whom they showed slavish obedience, the Algerian national bourgeoisie proved to be very vacillating, is still very vacillating and it is understandable and natural that it seeks to find the way out through putsches.

In these circumstances, the situation in Algeria becomes even more complicated, because that country has become a field of intrigues between internal and foreign clans. The Soviet, Yugoslav and other revisionists are intriguing there under the cloak of «socialist» aid; Castro and the Americans are intriguing there; Nasser, Bourguiba and Hassan II are also intriguing there, not to mention France and all the other «independent» countries of Africa, which are influenced in their attitude towards Algeria according to the «rewards» they get from one patron or another. This is the basis of the complication and difficulty of the Algerian question. Many issues are involved there: territorial, economic, strategic, political, ideological issues of prestige, of tribes, of clans, of religion, and a heroic people have to cope with all these things, under a leadership which is not sound, stable and energetic and has bourgeois views!

All defend Ben Bella, apart from us, China, Korea and Vietnam. All of them are weeping over the downfall of their creature, Ben Bella, and are putting terrible pressure on Boumedienne and Algeria to free Ben Bella and restore him to power, or to make Boumedienne give full guarantee that he will be obedient to the French, the Soviets, the Titoites, the Americans, and so on.

Ben Bella is a typical present-day adventurer.

He is a dubious character, a petty-bourgeois careerist and megalomaniac, ready to adopt any colour, a person who regards himself as «a great man of history», with not only Algerian, not only African, but world «perspectives». He dressed himself in the «toga» of the fighter without firing a shot, took advantage of the war to seize power and to become a «world figure», to follow the «road of Castro», etc.

Openly and secretly Ben Bella retained, developed and went on developing his connections with the French capitalists; he posed as a Khrushchevite and succeeded in getting from the Soviet revisionists the decoration «Hero of the Soviet Union», the Lenin Peace Prize and the Order of Lenin. All this shows the true aims of the Khrushchevites towards Ben Bella and Algeria.

The Soviets did everything in their power to make Ben Bella their man and to this end they issued the directive to the Algerian revisionists to liquidate their communist party and place themselves under his orders. These «champions of the fight against the cult of the individual» supported the dictatorship of a bourgeois adventurer, intriguer and secret agent of imperialism.

Hence, under the disguise of a certain amount of aid and phoney social slogans, the Soviet revisionists sought, by means of Ben Bella and his men and to the detriment of the heroic Algerian people, to replace colonialist France in Algeria, to penetrate into Africa, to combat the revolution and Marxism-Leninism and to extract numerous advantages of all kinds. This was covered up ideologically with Ben Bella's declarations that he was «building socialism», a kind of socialism about which the French revisionist communists, such as Garaudy and others, began to concoct theories, describing it as a new form of «Islamic socialism».

Ben Bella became a close friend of Tito's and adopted the capitalist form of self-administration which, in the eyes of the revisionists, strengthened Ben Bella's «socialism». Tito boosted the personality of Ben Bella, built up his credit with the Soviets and the Americans, and set him up as an opponent to Nasser in the Arab League and in Africa. Hence, Ben Bella was a pawn for all the imperialists and the revisionists, a means of political blackmail in the hands of them all, while these savage beasts were rejoicing at the expense of the long-suffering Algerian people.

Castro considered Ben Bella his revolutionary double, and through him sought to penetrate into Africa, allegedly in order to activize «the struggle of the African peoples» for «socialism», as in Cuba.

Then, where was Algeria heading under Ben Bella? For disaster. Therefore, his overthrow is a positive act, irrespective of the forms in which it was done and who did it. It does not please the imperialists and revisionists. This shows that what was done was a good thing, therefore it should be defended. What direction the country will take now depends on the progressive Algerian revolutionary forces, on the Algerian people, and the aid of the internationalist and revolutionary communist movement abroad.

Now, how far will Boumedienne and his group proceed on the revolutionary road? We do not know him, but he must be better than Ben Bella because he has fought and seems more modest.

However, the basic question is what policy he is going to pursue and whether this policy will be supported by the masses of the Algerian people, will this policy be in the interests of the Algerian people, will it be a revolutionary policy? If so, if he takes this course, then the great difficulties on the question of the state power will be overcome, and the important internal and external problems which face the Algerian people today will be solved correctly on the revolutionary course. In addition to the internal difficulties and complications which were created for Algeria on the eve of liberation by the different political groupings in struggle with one another for power, there was the hostile work of Ben Bella, which resulted in new groupings, old and new feuds, all kinds of combinations of cliques, with different opinions and political sympathies.

In what way will Boumedienne harmonize these tendencies? On what will he base himself and to what extent will he rely on the creation of a unity of thought and action, to what extent will the true interests of the people be taken into account, how thorough-going will be the reforms of all kinds which have to be carried out in many directions — this is the fundamental problem.

If Boumedienne and his associates establish and consolidate the alliance of the working class with the peasantry, that is, if they rely firmly on the people, with deeds and not with demagogy, if they have the army under their control and educate it to defend the true interests of the people and not of pro-imperialist bourgeois factions and combinations, if they strengthen the Front and make it a monolithic principled organization and not a field of intrigues and combinations, if they courageously carry out the agrarian reform and win the support of the poor peasantry, carry out bold social reforms and attack the foreign secret agency which is operating, without mercy or hesitation, then the Algerian revolution will be on the right course, the prestige of Algeria will be raised, and it will be able to foil the external intrigues and make the enemies respect it or fear to touch it.

A good example in this direction is socialist Albania. Although we were a small people, we emerged triumphant, while the Algerian people are bigger in numbers. The Algerians have difficulties, but we have had major difficulties, too, however we overcame them successfully, solely because we pursued a revolutionary course.

They have many enemies, but our enemies were not and are not few even now, however, we have attacked them without mercy and routed them.

We have had friends, have known how to choose and test them. Provided the Algerians know how to rely on their true friends, know how to distinguish true friends from false, know how to consolidate their alliances with their true friends, to benefit from their temporary alliances and «friendships» without violating principles, know how to pursue a wise, dignified and principled policy, they will be able to defeat their external enemies and win good friends for Algeria.

The overthrow of Ben Bella took place before the 2nd Afro-Asian Conference, and this was a good thing, because at that conference Ben Bella would have created political capital for himself for new adventures and would have certainly created difficulties within the conference, would have played the game of the Khrushchevites, the French, the devil and his son inside it...

The Soviets counted heavily on him and, together with Tito, were basing their big gamble on this person. Now that he has fallen, the Khrushchevites are putting terrific pressure on the Algerians. This is clear to us. We can guess it even without knowing all the details. We have had bitter experience. We have had relations with the Soviet Union and know all about such things!

If the Algerians like, they can learn vital lessons, from our experience! It is an open book. The big stick, used without fear, repels the dogs that bark and try to bite you. And since the Algerians are religious, let them learn from the saying, «The stick came from paradise».

The only way out is to fight back at the external and internal enemies with every means, this is the only way to have the people with you and to strengthen the independence and sovereignty of your homeland. If Boumedienne and his associates are good men, if they are revolutionaries and with the people, they must do this. With the Arab countries, of course, they must manoeuvre intelligently because there are major differences in the stands they take. There are those who like them and those who do not like the new Algerian leaders, many are waiting, many are intriguing, many are hoping to make them their own «friends», their own «allies», in their specific Arab policy, whereas some others want to have them under their own leadership. The imperialists, the revisionists and other enemies, too, are awaiting the outcome of this business; in particular, they are operating behind the scenes through other Arab and African leaders, increasing their intrigues and promises according to the political gestures of these leaders. Some of them liked Ben Bella, because his game was in their interests, some did not like him, because they saw a threat to their power, to their prestige, a possibility of interference in the intrigues they hatched up repeatedly. Therefore, in this situation the Algerian leaders can manoeuvre successfully to emerge triumphant, provided they rely firmly on the people, and have the army under their control, strike hard where they ought to strike, manoeuvre where they ought to manoeuvre without violating principles, and provided they rely on their true and sincere friends, such as our people are.

We recognize the Boumedienne government and will assist our Algerian brothers on their revolutionary course with all our strength.

We shall carefully follow the development of events which are of great interest to all and will act consistently.

 

 

THURSDAY - M A Y 25, 1967

THE ANTI-IMPERIALIST STRUGGLE OF THE ARAB PEOPLES IS JUST

Egypt, Syria, Iraq and Algeria have risen against Israel and also against its allies.

The American, British and French imperialists, the Soviet revisionists, the Titoites and the others, are defending nothing but their own dirty interests to the detriment of the Arab peoples. Openly or behind the scenes, all of them are exerting and will go on exerting a thousand forms of pressure on the Arab countries, so that the latter retreat from the defence of their rights and capitulate! We shall see how this blackmail will end.

We have defended and will continue to defend the just anti-imperialist cause of the Arab peoples who have seen, are seeing, and will see that small socialist Albania is not afraid of imperialists and revisionists and that it will always be a sincere and loyal friend of the Arab countries, in good times or bad.

We must support the Arab peoples because they have awakened and are proceeding towards the consolidation of their states. Today they live under democratic bourgeois regimes and some of them feudal. Their progressive sentiments are burgeoning,
especially in the resistance they are organizing against the intrigues of and political and economic enslavement by foreigners.

 

 

TUESDAY - JUNE 13, 1967

THE REVISIONIST PALAVER WILL NOT DECEIVE THE ARAB PEOPLES

 

— The Arabs, like all honest people in the world cannot fail to see that the Khrushchevite revisionists have degenerated into unprincipled politicians who trample over the vital interests
of the peoples, who buy and sell you like any ordinary commodity in the market. The betrayal by the Soviet leaders has been grave for the Arab peoples and has caused them major damage.
On the other hand, however, it has also done them a good service — it has shown the peoples how wrong and dangerous it is to base even the slightest hope on the revisionists.

 

SATURDAY - JUNE 17, 1967

THE GUN-BOAT POLICY OF THE AMERICAN AND SOVIET NAVAL FLEETS IN THE MEDITERRENEAN

 

We ask the question: Which are the states of the Mediterranean basin that are threatening Italy, Greece, France, Spain and so on? Moreover, some of the latter are linked with the NATO alliance. Can it be that Algeria, Albania, Morocco, Libya, Tunisia, Egypt, Syria, or Lebanon is threatening those countries? Ancient and very recent history provides the answer to who has been the victim and who the aggressor.
We ask a further question: Does not France have a fleet adequate to defend its own shores, and Spain, Italy, Greece and so on, likewise? Of course they have, indeed very much more than they need.
Then, what is the American 6th Fleet doing in the Mediterranean? It is there as a watchdog for aggression and to back up aggression and war.
No, American imperialists, you will not deceive any people or any honest government, which defends the interests of its own homeland and people, with your phoney olive branch, with your blood-stained demagogy.
Perhaps, you will say that you are defending yourselves against the Soviet Union in the Mediterranean, but you are close friends and allies with the present leaders of that country.
You know full well that the so-called aid of the Soviet revisionist leaders for the peoples of the Mediterranean basin is a great hoax. It is fair to say that the Soviet revisionist imperialists have the same aims as you towards the peoples of the world, and, particularly, towards the freedom-loving peoples of Albania and the Arab countries, and it is quite clear that you are fighting to suppress us and to put us in thrall. But
you will not achieve this aim. Our peoples will defeat you. You are terribly afraid of your own peoples, that is why you have these weapons and these fleets to protect yourselves also from your own peoples who, together with us, will one day exact a fully deserved retribution from you.

Likewise, gentlemen, I am not preaching in the desert. It is you who are isolated, not we. We are the majority here, we are the overwhelming majority in the world. We are those who smashed Italian and German fascism, we are the immortal heroes of Vietnam, Algeria, the Congo, Cuba, Latin America, China and Pakistan, the heroes of the Arab peoples, of the peoples of Asia and Africa, the heroes of the enslaved peoples of Europe and the whole world.
Therefore we will triumph over you, you will never defeat us.

 

 

MONDAY - SEPTEMBER 19, 1977

THE ENEMIES OF THE ARAB PEOPLES MUST BE STERNLY DENOUNCED

All the sound elements amongst the Arab public, the Palestinians, Syrians, Algerians, Iraqis, Libyans and even the Egyptians, have expressed their opposition to the agreement and compromise with Israel. Likewise, all who are genuine fighters against American imperialism and Soviet social-imperialism, against reaction and oppression, all who are for the freedom of the peoples and their liberation struggle, have unequivocally condemned and criticized the surrender to Israel and have taken a clear-cut stand
against the compromise with Israel.

 


 

THE JUST CAUSE OF THE ARAB PEOPLES IS INVINCIBLE

November 24, 1977

 

 

 

Enver Hoxha on Africa