« The Afghans are a poor people but proud and with traditions of valour. Therefore, neither the large number of the occupying forces, their modern weapons, nor their savage terror can subjugate the Afghans.» (Enver Hoxha)

Enver Hoxha

On Afghanistan


collected and arranged by Wolfgang Eggers

Collection of Excerpts of his book:

"Reflections on the Near and Middle East"



We must condemn and denounce the military aggression of the Soviet Union against the people of Afghanistan. We must publish an article (1)

(1) The article was published in the newspaper «Zëri i popullit», January 5, 1980, under the title «Aggressors Get Out of Afghanistan!»

about this in which we point out that the Soviet social-imperialists and their agents in Afghanistan exploited the overthrow, first of all, of King Mohammed Zahir Shah and then of Prince Daoud as well as the desire for liberation of the Afghan people who suffered the oppression of the absolute monarchy and its foreign friends, first of all the Soviets, who financed and kept it in power.

In this article we should speak well and make a positive evaluation of the resistance movement against the Soviet invaders, which is spreading in Afghanistan. This is a just struggle of the Afghan people and cannot be suppressed. The people of that country have long-standing traditions in the fight against foreign invaders. They taught the armies of the British imperialist invaders a lesson they won't forget.

In this instance we must express the solidarity of our people with the Afghan people who are fighting in the mountains and the cities against the revisionist invaders, the Soviet socialimperialists and their tools.

Our article will serve to make things clear to the peoples, to make them aware of the military aggression of the revisionist Soviet Union against Afghanistan and the aims of the Soviet social-imperialists in this region of the world and of the justice of the struggle of the Afghan people against the foreign invaders.



Today the American president, Carter, announced that as a sign of disapproval of the military invasion of Afghanistan, the United States would not fulfil the contract for the sale of 17 million tons of wheat to the Soviet Union, that is, he announced that this contract was suspended.

Carter also announced that he is postponing the approval of the SALT-2 agreement by the Senate, that he will supply arms to Pakistan, etc.

With these activities the United States of America is trying to raise its own morale and that of its allies. We shall see what counter-measures the Soviet Union will take, but it has certainly taken such things into account. Both Canada and Australia supply wheat to the Soviets.



From "Reflections on the Middle East" Tirana; 1984; pp.355-392

Extract From Political Diaries

January 1980

The international situation is very tense at present. In many regions of the world and mainly in the large zone of the oil-producing countries, especially those of Asia, the struggle between the two imperialist superpowers, the United States of America and the Soviet Union, not excluding imperialist China and the other capitalist powers, over the division and re-division of markets and spheres of influence, as they try to elbow one another out, has reached new, major proportions just as our Party correctly predicted long ago. Their pressures and plots are accompanied with diplomatic efforts and a propaganda clamour about -agreements and compromises- allegedly to preserve the peace and the balance of power. In fact, as recent events have shown, we see that agreements and compromises are still the basic principle of their policy towards each other regardless of their very acute rivalry. One day, however, the rivalry between them may reach such a point that they can no longer overcome it and settle matters except through military confrontation. The consequences of such a confrontation will descend upon the peoples, just as has occurred in previous imperialist wars.

The most recent result of this rivalry is the military aggression of the Soviet social-imperialists against Afghanistan, the occupation of that country through armed force by one of the imperialist superpowers. The fact is that what is now being done openly by the Soviets through their armed forces against the sovereignty of the Afghan people had long been prepared by the Soviet social-imperialist chauvinist politicians and military leaders and their Afghan agents. In order to arrive at the present situation, both the former and the latter exploited the overthrow, first of King Mohammed Zahir Shah in 1973 and, later, of Prince Daoud in 1978. They also exploited for their evil aims the desire of the Afghan people for social liberation from the oppression they suffered under the absolute monarchy and its f oreign friends, first of all, the Soviets, who financed the monarchy and kept it in power. So, irrespective of the -"alliance". which they had with the king of Afghanistan, the Soviet socialimperialists worked and acted for his overthrow. In order to disguise their imperialist aims, at first they brought their men, allegedly with more progressive sentiments, to power. Later, these, too, were changed one after the other, through actions in which blood was shed, by means of putsches and tanks, and Noor Mohammed Taraki and HafizUllah Amin were sent to the slaughter.

Nevertheless, no foreign occupier, however powerful and heavily armed, can keep the people, against whom aggression has been committed, subdued for ever. In every country which is invaded the people, apart from anti-national and anti-popular cliques of agents, receive the foreign aggressors with hatred and resistance, sporadic at first and later with more organized revolts which gradually turn into popular uprisings and liberation wars. We are seeing the proof of this in Afghanistan, where the people have risen and are fighting fiercely in the cities, villages and mountains against the Soviet army of occupation. This war of the Afghan people enjoys the support and sympathy of freedomloving peoples and revolutionary forces throughout the world. Our people, too, support it with all their might. The war of the Afghan people against the Soviet social-imperialists is a just war, and therefore it will triumph.

The current war of the Afghan people against the Soviet military aggression and the anti-feudal, anti-imperialist, anti-American uprising of the Iranian people must make us reflect somewhat more profoundly, from the political, theoretical and ideological aspects, about another major problem which, in the existing situation of complicated developments in the world, is becoming ever more prominent: the popular uprisings of "Islamic inspiration", as the bourgeoisie and the revisionists like to describe these movements, simply because the Moslem peoples of the Arab and other countries have placed themselves in the vanguard of the liberation movement. This is a fact, an objective reality. There are insurrectionary movements in those countries. If we were to examine and judge these movements and uprisings of Moslem peoples in an over-simplified and very superficial way as movements simply of an Islamic character, without probing deeply into the true reasons which impel the broad masses of the peoples to advance, we could fall in the positions of the revisionists and imperialists, whose assessments of these movements are denigrating and conceal ambitions to enslave the peoples.

* * *

The events which are occurring in Iran and Afghanistan are a positive example for the peoples of neighbouring states, Pakistan, Saudi Arabia, Iraq, the Emirates of the Persian Gulf, Syria, Egypt and many others, but they also constitute a great danger to the ruling cliques of some countries in this region. Hence, the whole Arab world is in ferment, in evolution.

* * *

Employing various ways and means, the different imperialists and social-imperialists are trying to present themselves as supporters of these movements and win them over for their own aims. At present, however, these movements are in their disfavour, are against them. So true is this that the Soviet social-imperialists were obliged to send their tank regiments and tens of thousands of Soviet soldiers into Afghanistan, in other words, to commit an open fascist aggression against an independent country, in order to place and keep in power their local puppets who were incapable of retaining power without the aid of the bayonets and tanks of the Soviet army, the armed forces of the Soviet Union.

Obviously, this event, this Soviet armed occupation of Afghanistan, was bound to have repercussions and cause concern in international public opinion, to arouse great anger and indignation among the freedom-loving peoples and progressive forces and, from the strategic standpoint, to provoke the anger of their rivals for hegemony, especially of the United States of America.

* * *

The Iranian Marxist-Leninists must, in particular, submit the strength and orientations of the working class to a Marxist-Leninist analysis and then their party must base its activity on this analysis, go among the working class, educate it and clarify it politically and ideologically, while tempering itself together with the working class in this revolutionary class struggle which, far from being ended, has only begun and will certainly assume diverse aspects. The revolutionary activity of the working class and the Marxist-Leninist ideology alone must become the factor deciding the correct directions which this anti-imperialist revolution must take. Certainly, in the present situation in Iran much can and must be gained from the revolutionary force of the Iranian working class, by the progressive elements, and especially by the students and the poor and middle peasantry.

The Marxist-Leninists will be committing a mistake if they do not understand the situation created and do not utilize it in the right way, if they come out as anti-religious fighters and thus damage their anti-imperialist and anti-feudal unity with the followers of Ayatollah Khomeini and the followers of Mossadeq's, Bazargan's or others' anti-imperialist bourgeois-democratities and movements.

Although anti-religious in their principles, the Iranian Marxist-Leninists must not for the

moment wage a struggle against the religious beliefs of the people who have risen in revolt against oppression and are waging a just struggle politically, but are still unformed ideologically

and will have to go through a great school in which they will learn. The Marxist-Leninists must teach the people to assess the events that are taking place in the light of dialectical and historical materialism. However, our world outlook cannot be assimilated easily in isolation from the revolutionary drive of the masses or from the anti-imperialist trends that are trying to remain in the leadership and to manoeuvre to prevent the bourgeois-democratic reforms of the revolution. The Iranian Marxist-Leninists and working class must play a major role in those revolutionary movements, having a clear understanding of the moments they are going through; they must not let the revolution die down. The working class and its true Marxist-Leninist vanguard should have no illusions about the "deep-going" bourgeois-democratic measures and reforms which the Shia clergy or the anti-Shah elements of the old and new national bourgeoisie might carry out. Certainly, if the working class, the poor peasantry and the progressive students, whether believers or non-believers, allow the impetus of the revolution to ebb away, which means that they do not proceed with determination and maturity towards alliances and activities conducive to successive political and socio-economic reforms, then the revolution will stop halfway, the masses will be disillusioned and the exploitation of them will continue in other forms by pseudo-democratic people linked in new alliances with the different imperialists.

These special new revolutionary situations which are developing among the peoples of Islamic religious beliefs must be studied, conclusions must be drawn from them and new forms of struggle, action and alliances must be found. These revolutionary situations are much more advanced than those in Europe and Asia and, to some degree, even Latin America, where the revolutionary movements have assumed a petrified form, linked with and led by reformist and counter-revolutionary social-democracy and modern revisionism.

* * *

The Moslem peoples of the Arab and non-Arab countries trust neither the American imperialists nor the Soviet social-imperialists, because they represent great powers which are struggling to oppress and plunder the Moslem peoples; also, as Moslems they put no trust in the religious beliefs of those powers.

As a result, the uprising which is developing in Iran and Afghanistan is bound to have consequences throughout the Moslem world. Hence, if the Marxist-Leninist groups, our comrades in these and other countries of this region properly understand the problems emerging from the events in Iran, Afghanistan and other Moslem countries, then all the possibilities exist for them to do much work. However, they must work cautiously there. In those countries religion cannot be eliminated with directives, extremist slogans or erroneous analyses. In order to find the truth we must analyse the activity of those forces in the actual circumstances, because many things, true and false, are being said about them, as is occurring with Ayatollah Khomeini, too. True, he is religious, but regardless of this, analysis must be made of his anti-imperialist attitudes and actions, which, willy-nilly, bring grist to the mill of the revolution.


SUNDAY - APRIL 27, 1980


For their part the Soviet aggressors are rubbing their hands in glee. They think that the American intervention and the failure of the operation will overshadow their aggression

in Afghanistan. However, both the United States of America and the Soviet Union are imperialist aggressors. The actions of both of them are aggression. That of the Soviets was carried out and is suffering defeat, while this of the Americans was aborted as soon as it began, although it could be repeated some time later. The imperialists are arrogant, war-mongering gangsters, they will never renounce such barbarous acts, therefore we must fight them and unmask them to the end.

The American aggression against Iran, like the Soviet aggression against Afghanistan and the Chinese aggression against Vietnam, will have permanent consequences in the international arena. They are clear signs which forewarn of a new imperialist world war.

Third, there is a basis for the supposition that the Soviets, observing these moves of the Americans, left them till they were committed to the action at Tabas and immediately issued the ultimatum that they must cease the operation and withdraw within a record time, certainly within a matter of hours, otherwise the Soviets would intervene with their troops, allegedly to save Iran, in other words, they would occupy that country, just as they did with Afghanistan.

In this way the Soviets avenged the slap in the face which the Khrushchevites received 18 years earlier [Cuba]. At that time the Soviet revisionists were covered with shame, this time the American imperialists were covered with shame. Like Khrushchev in the past, Carter ran away in panic with his tail between his legs. Possibly the Soviet Union was bluffing, but it had the possibility to invade Iran, because it had the troops and supplies deployed on the border of Iran, just as it had in Afghanistan.

Carter had not taken account of the Soviet factor. He had not prepared for a large-scale confrontation which would lead to an imperialist world war. He had reckoned that the operation would be carried out at lightning speed, but the Soviet social-imperialists did not allow him to act in this way. He kept the aggressive operation secret from the Senate, from his closest collaborators and also from the NATO allies. If we accept this version, the Soviet Union discovered the plan and ensured its defeat without any publicity. Carter himself made all the fuss about it. He, personally, announced the failure, the panic, the distrust which the failure of the operation caused and the discredit to the United States of America, which are on the agenda today. Carter himself worked in favour of the Soviets who are having a great deal to say about the failure of the American aggression, because this has drowned out the clamour about the Afghan problem and all the other vile deeds of the Soviet aggressors.





The Afghan patriots marked the anniversary of the occupation of their country by the Soviet social-imperialist army with big demonstrations and armed struggle. In some regions the occupiers were attacked with weapons or stones according to the possibilities and local conditions.

From what I have read in the news agency reports in recent days there was a big explosion at an important target of the Soviets in the central sector of Kabul. Many other government buildings have been stoned, while the Soviet soldiers have opened fire on demonstrators, students, workers and ordinary citizens. Some have been wounded and many arrested.

The Afghans are a poor people but proud and with traditions of valour. Therefore, neither the large number of the occupying forces, their modern weapons, nor their savage terror can subjugate the Afghans. At present their actions are still on a small scale, but in the future they will increase and be turned into fierce devastating battles against the Soviet social-imperialist hordes, until they are driven right out of the territory of Afghanistan.

Oppression by foreigners does not quell, but fans up the hatred of peoples. This we Albanians learned from bitter experience, until we achieved the final victory over the nazi-fascist occupiers and their local lackeys.





News agencies carry repeated reports about the courageous fight of the Afghan patriots against the Soviet army of occupation in Afghanistan as well as about their frequent actions in the rural zones, especially around Kabul.

They also speak about the savage and barbarous reprisals of the Soviet forces against the Afghan people. The measures of reprisal are severe, especially in the rural zones where there is resistance and the people support the freedom fighters. The units of the Soviet army carry out ceaseless indiscriminate attacks with artillery, aircraft and helicopter gunships over whole zones. It is said that thousands have been killed amongst the defenceless population.

These days the Soviet occupation army has also shelled the city of Kandahar, including a technical school. Now the centre of the city is patrolled by tanks and other armoured vehicles.

News agencies quite rightly describe these piratical actions of the Soviets as the severest reprisals since December 1979.


MONDAY - AUGUST 10, 1981



In the chapter on the international situation in the report to the 8th Party Congress we must certainly devote as much space as the conditions allow to events which are connected with the Middle East.

3. The people of Afghanistan are fighting valiantly and boldly against the Soviet socialimperialists and their local lackeys to regain their national independence.

We have been and are in support of the just anti-feudal and anti-imperialist struggle of the Iranian people, in support of the just struggle of the Palestinian people and other Arab peoples and in support of the courageous resistance of the people of Afghanistan for the liberation of their country from the Soviet occupiers.


(Extracts from the Report submitted to the 8th Congress of the PLA) - (November 1, 1981)


Everything indicates that the present situation in the world could give rise to general and local wars, just as it may give rise to liberation wars and revolution.

In this situation, the peoples' war and the revolution are on the agenda, not only as aspirations and immediate tasks for liberation from capitalist oppression and the imperialist yoke, but also as historical necessities to defeat the warmongering plans of imperialism and avert a new general war.
Imperialism has been and still is the source of all aggressions
and predatory wars, the source of a l l the disasters and suffering which have existed and exist in the world.
The peoples have paid the price for the insatiable greed of the imperialists for conquests and exploitation and for world domination with their blood and their lives. The struggle going on today among the imperialist superpowers and the big capitalist powers for markets and spheres of influence is further testimony of this unalterable character of the nature and aims of imperialism.
American imperialism and Soviet social-imperialism are contesting with one another, are competing and manoeuvring
to carry out aggressions and occupy other countries. In many regions of the world the struggle between the two imperialist superpowers, the United States of America and the Soviet Union, not excluding imperialist China and other capitalist powers, has assumed new, major proportions.
Each of these powers is striving to achieve economic, political and military superiority over the other and to capture new strategic positions. Although the flames of world war are not blazing yet, the local fires which have broken out and the dangerous hotbeds which have already been created may turn into a great conflagration of imperialist world war.

The interests of the superpowers and those of the peoples are not in accord and do not coincide at any time or in any instance. For imperialism to exist the peoples must be enslaved, for the peoples to be liberated imperialism must be destroyed.
That policy of reactionary classes which, to protect their own power and to deceive the masses, rely on one or the other imperialist state, presenting the one as good and the other as bad, the one as a supporter of the peoples and the other as their enemy, the one as the champion of peace and the other as a warmonger, is very dangerous and must be fought to the end. The superpowers, individually and jointly, are the most ferocious enemies of the freedom and independence of the peoples, the protectors and guarantors of reactionary regimes, supporters of national bondage to foreigners and instigators of feuds and conflicts between nations. Their policy contains the direct danger that mankind is hurled into a third world war.

Therefore, now as in the past, the struggle of all revolutionary, progressive and democratic forces to expose and foil the predatory and enslaving plans of imperialist superpowers is an historic necessity, a condition and a duty for the defence of the freedom and sovereignty of the peoples, for the triumph of the revolution, for averting the war and ensuring peace.

Soviet Social-Imperialism

Today the hegemonic and expansionist policy for the establishment of world domination, the adventurous course
for the preparation and incitement of war also characterize
Soviet social-imperialism, the global strategy of which and
especially the ways in which it is applied have likewise become more aggressive.
Beginning with the occupation of Czechoslovakia, the policy of the Soviet Union has gradually assumed a pronounced militarist character which is expressed in the use of military force to realize its expansionist aims. Its military interventions followed one another. After Czechoslovakia came Angola, Yemen, Ethiopia, Eritrea, into which the Soviets intervened by third parties.

Finally came Afghanistan.

Afghanistan marked the commencement of the great march of Soviet social-imperialism towards the South, where the world's greatest resources of energy are found, together with the most important strategic junctions and the fields where the most acute imperialist rivalries collide with one another.

The policy of the Soviet Union has assumed the same aggressive, expansionist, war-mongering features as those of the United States of America. This is clearly apparent from the same objectives which they have chosen and the parallel courses on which they are proceeding. The Soviet Union is seeking military bases in foreign countries and creating political - military alliances with other countries to have them as outposts for the extension of its domination over the peoples and in its contest with American imperialism.
Likewise, it is not lagging behind in the armaments race. The Soviets have now a huge military arsenal which they are continuously building up and perfecting in the preparations which they are making for the outbreak of the war. The militarized Soviet economy has been placed in the service of realizing the plans of this new imperialist superpower for conquests.
As a result of all these things, the Soviet Union has been unmasked before the peoples as a ferocious imperialist power which is openly threatening and endangering their freedom and independence.
Nevertheless, among certain people and political forces in various countries, illusions about the Soviet Union still exist and there is a mistaken concept about the order which exists there and a naive trust in its policy. This comes about not only from the fact that the Soviet Union gambles heavily on its socialist past and that it peddles its policy of rivalry with the United States of America as an anti-imperialist policy, but also for many other reasons. The main one among them is that the Soviet expansion is generally carried out through its penetration into the anti-imperialist, liberation movements, transforming them into its instruments and exploiting them to its own advantage. The facts have shown that not only those who have trusted the
«internationalist aid» of the Soviet Union, but also those who have believed that they can rely on Soviet «aid» and alliance with it in order to oppose or gain liberation from American imperialism and other imperialisms, have become victims of its expansion.
It is particularly important to unmask the pacifist demagogy
of the Soviet Union, the Khrushchevite slogans of «peaceful coexistence» and the misleading revisionist propaganda which tries to convince the peoples that averting war and ensuring peace, indeed even national independence and social transformations, depend on the so-called détente between the two superpowers. The peoples do not want mounting tension, the development of acute conflicts, or the use of force in the settlement of international problems.
But the so-called détente, which the Soviet revisionists advocate, has nothing at all to do with guaranteeing international peace and security which are threatened precisely
by the two imperialist superpowers.
The détente trumpeted by the Soviet revisionists and the others is nothing but the old imperialist theory of balance and harmony among the great powers. The theories of «détente», «balance», or «bipolarism», which, despite some nuance in form, are identical in content, are intended to guarantee the mutual spheres of influence, to raise the dictate of superpowers in world affairs, the complete and unconditional submission of other countries to the two supergreat and abandonment of their national interests and sovereignty, to international law.
The imperialist-revisionist policy of war, oppression and exploitation has run into the great resistance of the proletariat and the peoples of the world. The peoples understand the intrigues, manoeuvres, strategy and tactics of the savage superpowers — the United States of America and the revisionist Soviet Union, and are not sitting idle.
The world today is witness to the fact that the struggle of the working class and the peoples, oppressed and exploited by world capital and imperialism, has assumed wide proportions and a variety of forms never seen before.

The people of Afghanistan are fighting valiantly and
boldly against the Soviet social-imperialists and the local
lackeys to regain their national independence.

The peoples' national liberation wars, the blood shed by the peoples who are fighting for freedom and independence, reflect the hatred for and anger against capitalist exploitation and the imperialist yoke. They confirm Lenin's theses about imperialism as capitalism in decay, as the eve of proletarian revolutions. They confirm that imperialism is heading for the abyss, that it is no longer capable of stopping the revolutionary drive of the peoples who dare to rise against it and are not intimidated by the imperialist pressures, threats and even armed interventions.

The big imperialist powers, together with those not quite so big, think and theorize that it is they who have the fate of nations and mankind in their hands and act accordingly, and on this basis they seek to subjugate the peoples. These aggressive powers underestimate the strength of the peoples. Their vision is obscured and they do not want to see that every advance of the peoples towards opposing the twofold oppression and enslavement, external and internal, makes a breach which will be widened in the wall of the capitalist and imperialist prison.

In order to emerge from the chaos which capitalism creates, to
escape once and for all capitalist oppression and exploitation, the neo-colonialist yoke of foreigners and the domination
of reaction, there is no other course apart from the revolution, the overthrow of imperialism and capitalism.
The struggle of the peoples, the struggle of the proletariat
against their enemies will surge ahead. It is an objective historical process which no force can stop.

The whole aggressive, hegemonic and expansionist foreign policy of the social-imperialist Soviet Union is further proof and evidence that the Soviet order is a capitalist order, because only a capitalist order can pursue such a policy in the international arena. As Lenin said, foreign policy is a continuation of the internal policy, and the two together are a concentrated expression of the economic relations which exist in a country. The socialist and communist disguise, which the Soviet revisionists still try to retain, is being torn f r om them day by day in the face of their capitalist reality and the social-imperialist policy which they pursue.

The cause of the proletarian revolution is inseparable from the development of the peoples' liberation movement.

An important feature of present-day national liberation
struggles is that the political awakening to win and defend
complete national freedom and independence is accompanied
with a social awakening. The present movements of the oppressed peoples are increasingly aimed not only against foreign imperialism, but also against its agencies within the country. The fact is that, regardless of their socio-economic backwardness, the peoples of the oppressed countries are displaying great vitality and making an important contribution to the anti-imperialist democratic revolution, which opens the way to the proletarian revolution.
The people's uprisings of «Islamic inspiration», as the bourgeoisie and revisionists like to describe these movements
with the aim of denying their anti-imperialist and revolutionary character, deserve special attention. It is a fact that there are insurgent movements in the Moslem countries, but the interpretations which the bourgeoisie and the revisionists make of them are ill-intentioned and denigrating. They conceal enslaving aims towards the peoples.
We Marxist-Leninists have said and still say that religion is opium for the peoples. In no instance do we alter our view in connection with this question. In its content, the Moslem religion, too, is no different from the others.
The broad masses of the Moslem peoples in the different
countries have risen and are rising in struggle, not over the question of religion, but for national and social liberation. Belief in religion is relative and does not predominate over politics. The peoples of these countries believe in and respect Islam, but when the vital interests of the people, the freedom and independence of the country are violated, they rise in struggle against the aggressor, even if he is of the same religion. It is not the religious inspiration which causes the revolts and the revolutionary awakening of peoples, but the social and political conditions, the imperialist oppression and plunder and the poverty and suffering imposed on them.
The Arabs and other Moslem peoples are valiant fighters and boast an ancient culture. The anti-imperialist, anti-colonialist and anti-feudal uprisings and wars of these peoples show that they are progressive and love freedom. If this were not so, they could not rise in struggle for freedom and national independence against their double oppression, both internal and external.
In the regions inhabited by the Moslem peoples the imperialists and social-imperialists are in difficulties. Their puppets also are in difficulties. The state of affairs in these regions speaks of a revolutionary situation, of a great social movement of these peoples, regardless of the fact that, at first sight, they have a religious character, or whether the people taking part in them are believers or non-believers.
Revolutionary situations exist or are being created in many countries today, but the socialist revolution does not present itself as an immediate task everywhere. Other movements of a democratic, anti-imperialist, liberation character are developing in the world. All these are component parts of the world revolutionary process, are just struggles which weaken the imperialist front and contribute to the acceleration of the revolutionary processes, strike blows at the capitalist system and lead to its further decay.
Therefore, as Lenin teaches us, the working class, as the most progressive class, and its communist party must actively support and assist these struggles and place themselves in the leadership of them. And if initially they have not affirmed their leading positions, still they must stand in the forefront of the fight and sacrifices, because only in this way can they come to the head of the movement and achieve its objectives, only in this way can the road be opened for the development of the anti-imperialist, people's democratic revolution into the socialist revolution.

In their struggle for national and social liberation the working class and the working masses clash every day with the savage violence of imperialism, the bourgeoisie and the forces of reaction. In these conditions, they are obliged to respond to the reactionary violence with revolutionary violence, the forms of which are and cannot but be different, according to the conditions of each country and the situations in which they occur. In some countries this violence has assumed or may assume the form of the armed insurrection. The Marxist-Leninists take an extremely serious stand on this question. They combat both nihilist stands and petty-bourgeois adventurism, expose and reject both the Maoist preachings about the «encirclement of the city by the countryside», etc., and the pseudo-Marxist theories which deny the decisive role of the popular masses in the struggle and the leadership of the Marxist-
Leninist parties.
For our Marxist-Leninist parties the times are revolutionary.
The new Marxist-Leninist parties are growing and tempering themselves all over the world. Their role and activity, their links and influence among the working class and masses are increasing. New parties have been created in many different countries and zones. All the conditions exist for them to be created even where there are no genuine revolutionary parties of the working class.
This is an imperative fighting task of the most conscious,
revolutionary elements of the proletariat.

Earlier, when Mao Zedong thought was exerting its influence in many parties, the imperialists and socialimperialists were more at ease, because they knew that this revisionist current was doing its work of undermining the Marxist-Leninist movement. Now that this current has been exposed, the enemies are trying to sow confusion by spreading all kinds of pseudo-Marxist theories, to split and weaken the parties through factional struggle, to manipulate weak and ill-formed elements in various ways and impel them to revisionist positions.
Today, however, the Marxist-Leninist parties have great experience in the struggle with different anti-Marxist currents and are better armed against the tactics which the bourgeoisie and revisionists employ. This experience helps them to wage the struggle against enemies with success, to increase their vigilance, to continuously raise the ideological and political level of the party members and a rm them with the Marxist-Leninist theory. The revolutionary struggle has taught the Marxist-Leninist parties to strengthen their links with the masses, to go amongst the different social strata and organize them, to utilize legal and illegal work, combining them correctly in struggle
against manifestations of legalism and bourgeois liberalism, as well as of narrow sectarianism and work in isolation.

The strength of the international Marxist-Leninist communist movement lies in the correctness of the ideas for which it fights and in its unity. In their struggle the Marxist-Leninist parties are guided by the teachings of our great classics, use the rich and all-sided heritage from the Comintern, rely on the experience of their own struggle against the revisionist betrayal and bear in mind the negative experience of the parties which degenerated into revisionism. A l l these lessons and this experience constitute a very great ideological, political, organizational, theoretical and practical wealth for tempering and strengthening the parties and the Marxist-Leninist movement in every direction.



July 15, 1981

The struggle of a people for national existence does not and cannot depend on the combinations and diplomatic intrigues of other states, be they big or small. It depends on the consciousness of the people themselves, when they attain understanding of what their rights and true interests are, have confidence in their own strength at any moment and in any situation, and know how to defend these rights and interests with iron will, sound logic, and revolutionary struggle. Only then the strength of the people becomes invincible, is multiplied a hundredfold and bursts out like an irresistible hurricane.

The present epoch can be called the epoch of the
total destabilization of capitalism, of instability in politics, of general insecurity and gloomy and unclear prospects
for the future. The idea of war predominates,
because the world is being impelled in that direction
through the unjust imperialist wars, although still localized,
which are instigated by the imperialists and socialimperialists.
They think that the profound and acute
contradictions which are eroding them will be resolved
by means of war.





Although I am fully occupied with the proceedings of the Party Congress, I read the news from various news agencies carefully. I do this not only to see the response to the proceedings of our Congress, but also to follow the main international events.

These days I have noticed that the Afghan patriots have waged bloody battles with the Soviet social-imperialist occupiers and have taken control of the whole region near the main centre of the northern province of Takhar. The patriots' actions have been stepped up greatly also inside Kabul where the Ministry of Internal Affairs and the terrible Pul-el-Shakr prison have been attacked. The patriots control a number of roads which link Kabul with the main provinces of the country where there are major Soviet military concentrations and especially the road which leads to the border with the Soviet Union. At an airport near Kabul the patriots have shot down a Soviet helicopter.

The Soviet army and the remnants of the Afghan puppet army have apparently undertaken a large-scale offensive to «liberate» Kandahar, the second largest city of Afghanistan, which has been held for more than two months by the patriotic forces. Bravo the Afghan patriots! Their resistance and struggle will certainly be crowned with victory.





The armed resistance of the Afghan people against the Soviet social-imperialist occupiers is continuing successfully. Although the Soviets have established a strict censorship, from time to time facts are published which indicate that, despite the terror, the savage military oppression and the mass bombing by Soviet military aircraft, the struggle of the Afghan people has been stepped up and extended. A few days ago the news agencies reported a daring action at Mazar-i-Sharif in the north of Afghanistan, in which 16 top Soviet military advisers were captured.

Yesterday there were reports of a powerful attack on the big airport of Jalalabad, near Kabul, in which 13 Soviet helicopters were destroyed.

From time to time news agencies also report powerful attacks which are made on Soviet military command centres.

The build-up of the resistance and struggle of the patriotic Afghan people rejoices us because, apart from other things, it confirms the Marxist-Leninist thesis that the peoples, however small and unarmed they may be, when it comes to defending their freedom, independence and honour, can launch powerful attacks on and triumph over savage enemies, such as the American imperialists and the Soviet socialimperialists, who are much better armed and more powerful than they are.

The people of Afghanistan have a history of heroic struggles against foreign occupiers.

They offered forcible resistance to the influence and pressure of the Russian tzars. They fought the British colonialists for decades on end. They waged three wars against British armies, teaching them a lesson they will never forget. In 1921 they drove them out of the country completely and won their national independence.

This strengthens our convinction that the Afghan people will triumph over the Soviet occupiers, too, and that they will emerge from this struggle even more conscious about the need for the defence of their national and social rights.





The Afghan patriots have apparently attacked the Soviet embassy in Kabul again, irrespective of the exceptional strength of its multiple defences. In this country with a valiant people the Soviet social-imperialists are applying a scorched earth policy, but the ground under their own feet is ablaze and heavily sown with mines. They will never be secure and in peace anywhere in Afghanistan.

The reports about the armed resistance and the courageous actions of the Afghan patriots show that when a people fight for their own land, freedom and rights, no great power, however heavily armed, can defeat them.



As news agencies report, in recent days the Afghan patriots attacked the general staff of the Soviet army of occupation and the embassy of the Soviet Union in Kabul. The reports also speak of bold actions in the other major cities of the country and attacks on Soviet strategic military positions. Fire, uninterrupted fire, on the foreign occupiers!




December 1983 (Selected Works of comrade Enver Hoxha

Volume VI, page 764

This year, too, the open political-economic rivalry , and the indirect military rivalry between the two imperialist superpowers, the United States of America and the Soviet Union, in the Middle East, as well as the problems linked with this were in the centre of international events. There were new dangerous developments in the Arab-Israeli conflict, the war between Iran and Iraq continued fiercely, the resistance of the people of Afghanistan against the Soviet occupiers assumed more extensive and greater proportions, etc. At certain moments the further evolution of the events indicated that the hotbeds of local wars in this region might lead to much greater clashes, with grave consequences for the neighbouring countries and peoples, too.

As I have written previously, the real basis of all the inter-imperialist rivalry in the Middle East is the oil and the military strategic positions of the Arab countries. For years the United States of America and the Soviet Union have been clashing fiercely, openly and surreptitiously, over the oil of the Middle East and for strategic military positions in this region. Without oil, their economies as a whole, and their mighty military machines in particular, cannot go on for long. Without dominating the land, sea and air routes of communication which pass through this very extensive region it is difficult for them to realize their plans for occupation and expansion in the vast territories of the continents of Asia and Africa and the boundless Pacific and Atlantic Oceans.

These are the main reasons why both the United States of America and the Soviet Union have declared and treat the Middle East region, which extends from Algeria to Iran, as «spheres of their national interests» for the defence of which, as they say publicly, they are ready to risk everything, including war. Proceeding from this viewpoint, during 1983 they have gone over from public threats to concrete actions and measures.

The United States of America dispatched a whole naval fleet and special landing detachments to the vicinity of the Persian Gulf in order to use the force of arms if Iran were to close the Strait of Hormuz and prevent the oil tankers from passing through to the ocean. In the Mediterranean it reinforced the 6th Fleet to the maximum and landed more than 2,000 marines in Lebanon. Each of these military actions was carried out under the pretext of «defending the national interests» of the United States!

The Soviet Union acted similarly. It dispatched a part of its naval fleet to the Pacific Ocean, strengthened its Mediterranean fleet to the maximum, etc. It, too, did all these things in order «to defend» the national interests of the Soviet Union in these regions!

Hence, the two imperialist superpowers, this year more than ever before, put into practice the gunboat policy in the Middle East, totally disregarding the independence, freedom and desires of the peoples of this region. This gunboat policy and the open military actions of both sides were expressions of the further exacerbation of what is called «the Middle East crisis».

At the same time, «special envoys» of the presidents and governments of the two superpowers undertook frequent journeys with top-secret special missions to Tel Aviv , Riyadh, Cairo, Damascus, Amman and many other capital cities of the countries of the Arab world to offer «the aid and mediation» of their countries, but in reality to exert pressure and organize new plots against the Arab peoples and, first of all, against the Palestinian people.

During the year I have recorded in my Diary some of the moments and events which have impressed me most from the illegal and inhuman activity of the imperialist superpowers and Israel, as well as moments from the heroic struggle of the Palestinian, Arab, Afghan and Iranian peoples against the plots of the two superpowers. I have also recorded some of my thoughts and feelings, the grief which I feel over the misfortunes which have descended upon these peoples and the injustices perpetrated against them, as well as the great joy which I feel over their exemplary struggle for their freedom and national independence, against the savage Israeli, imperialist and social imperialist occupiers and enemies. Here I am making a summary of these general events.

The Afghan People Will Kick Out the Soviet Occupiers

These days see the completion of four years since the occupation of Afghanistan by the Soviet army. The Soviet social-imperialists committed this fascist aggression with the hope that everything would quickly be forgotten and that the Afghan people would be deceived and subjugated just as quickly. But they were gravely mistaken. Not for one moment have the Afghan people reconciled themselves to the occupation of their homeland by the hordes of the Soviet social-imperialists. On the contrary, they have fought and are fighting arms in hand so effectively that the Soviet government has been obliged to dispatch continual reinforcements of fresh troops and the most modern weapons, including chemical weapons, to carry out mass bombardments by means of the air force and artillery, to depopulate, burn and massacre whole villages, to pursue the policy of scorched earth and to pack the prisons with defiant Afghan fighters. What means have the Soviet social-imperialists not used during these four years to subjugate the Afghan people? But they have been neither subjugated nor intimidated and they will not be subjugated or intimidated.

During 1983 the armed resistance of the Afghan fighters to the Soviet occupiers assumed more extensive and greater proportions. The powerful garrisons of the Soviet occupation army have been the targets of repeated attacks by the Afghan patriots and not just in mountainous regions as in the provinces of Paktya, Kandahar and Herat, etc., but also right in the capital of the country, Kabul . On a number of occasions the «fortress» Soviet embassy and the «reinforced concrete» buildings where the general command of the Soviet occupation troops is located have been attacked. Generals, other senior officers and thousands of soldiers have been killed, scores of advisers have been taken prisoner, military airports have been attacked and aircraft, helicopters, tanks, artillery and other means of warfare destroyed, while large quantities of weapons have been captured. The very ground is ablaze under the feet of the Soviet occupiers who are obliged to live in panic amongst a people who know them not as «friends» but as savage, perfidious enemies who must be fought to the death. Not for one moment can the Soviet occupiers feel themselves secure on Afghan soil, irrespective of the number of soldiers and the amount of fire power they have deployed there.

The valiant fighting people of Afghanistan, who are poor and armed mainly with weapons captured from the occupiers, are setting a very fine example of how foreign occupiers, whoever they are, however powerful and heavily armed they may be, can and must be fought, of how the ability to fight, the qualities of bravery and self-sacrifice are acquired in the course of the fighting to defend their freedom and their homeland.

Frequently when I read reports or see on the TV shots of the fighting and daring actions which the Afghan fighters carry out against powerful formations or motorized columns of the Soviet army of occupation, jumping from rock to rock amongst the snow and ice, the rain and hundreds of other difficulties, and armed only with rifles, my mind goes back to our glorious National Liberation War, to the heroism and sacrifices of our valiant, patriotic and revolutionary people. Of course, our war was at a much higher level and much better organized and, above all, it was led by our Communist Party on the basis of the teachings of Marxism-Leninism. Our people, rallied in the National Liberation Front, closely united, without distinction as to region or religion, were more conscious about the ideals for which they had to and d i d fight and about the character of the state which they would build on the ruins of past regimes, after the victory. Nevertheless, I repeat that the struggle of the people of Afghanistan is a just struggle, and the Afghan patriotic fighters deserve to be honoured and respected by all the patriotic forces of the world, to be supported so that they can step up their liberation war even further until they drive the Soviet occupiers completely from their homeland. And, whether the Soviet social-imperialists and their local lackeys like it or not, this will certainly be realized in the near future. The people of Afghanistan will regain their freedom and independence.







In the international arena, the year 1979 is closing with a revolutionary situation which is the result of peoples' uprisings against the yoke of world imperialism and capitalism. An event of special importance took place last week in an Asian country, Afghanistan, where a coup d'ètat overthrew the pro-Soviet regime of Amin, which had replaced the equally pro-Soviet regime of Nur Taraki, also through a coup d'ètat Now the pro-Soviet Amin has been replaced with the pro-Soviet Karmal. All three governments have been and are agencies of the Soviets and at the same time secret agencies of the Americans, too.

The fact is that through their military intervention, the Soviets killed the first and the second and brought the next, the third, from Czechoslovakia, where he was ambassador, and installed him as head of state.

It is rumoured that the Soviets have intervened in Afghanistan with two or three divisions of tanks and aircraft in the same way that they intervened in Czechoslovakia in 1968. Now under the pretext that Amin was a traitor and an agent of American imperialism, which might be true, they are making the law in this country and saying that they have intervened on the basis of the Treaty of Collaboration and Friendship they have signed with Afghanistan.

As is known, there are many insurgent movements in Afghanistan led by patriots who want neither the Soviet yoke nor the yoke of their agents, but they are described as Moslems and their anti-imperialist patriotic movement is described as an Islamic movement. This is a common label which world capitalism uses to revive religious animosities and strife and to give liberation movements the mediaeval meaning of religious wars. There is no doubt that the Afghan liberation fighters, who have risen against the yoke of imperialism, social-imperialism and the monarchy, are Moslem believers. Afghanistan is one of those countries where religion is still alive and active. However, it is not just their religion, which makes these people rise arms in hand against the occupiers of their homeland. Of course they are not Marxists, but they are patriots who want the liberation of their homeland, they are representatives of the democratic bourgeoisie. They do not want to live under the yoke of foreigners, regardless of the fact that their views are still far from those revolutionary bourgeois-democratic views, which result in deep-going reforms in the interest of their peoples.

But the struggle they are waging is of great importance, not only for Afghanistan, but also for the other peoples. It is evident that, with its intervention in Afghanistan, the Soviet Union is fulfilling its imperialist strategic plans to secure key military positions in those countries and especially to extend its imperialist domination to the heart of Asia and the Middle East. It is known that Afghanistan borders on China and Pakistan. So the Soviet Union wants to consolidate its strategic-military positions against China and pro-American or pro-British Pakistan. On the other hand, it is known that Afghanistan also borders on Iran, and indeed the Afghan insurgents present themselves as friends, well-wishers and co-fighters of Khomeini. Hence, if the Afghan insurgents triumph over the Soviets and their tools, this would be to the advantage of Khomeini. This, of course, is not an easy task, nor one that can be accomplished in a matter of days, nevertheless, the people of Afghanistan who are brothers lip religion with the Iranian Shiites, are creating problems for the imperialists and the social-imperialists.

With their military intervention in Afghanistan, the Soviets are encircling Iran from the north and the south, and if the United States of America intervenes in Iran with armed forces, then the Soviet Union, too, will commence its operations in that direction, of course, in order to capture part of Iran, but not, I think, to confront American imperialism in an armed struggle as yet.

Therefore, the Soviets are preparing for an eventual war, which might be waged in the big oil-bearing zone, the Middle East. Syria, where the Soviet influence is; more apparent, has not yet condemned the Soviet intervention in Afghanistan, but the other Arab countries, including Saudi Arabia and Egypt, have done so. Thus all these countries have spoken out against the Soviets over their barbarous actions in Afghanistan and their aims to dominate it. So, in this situation, the Arab countries cannot accept any intervention by the United States of America with armed forces in Iran.

Thus, all world opinion has been aroused against the actions of the Soviets and, as the foreign news agencies report, Moscow has been forced to declare that it wilt withdraw its troops from Afghanistan as soon as the situation is stabilized. This is the same old refrain which the imperialists always resort to after they have intervened with military force and occupied countries and peoples. But the reaction of world opinion against the Soviet intervention makes an American intervention in Iran less possible or more difficult. In other words, the world is realizing that the imperialists and social-imperialists are aggressors, that they are oppressors of the peoples and exploiters of their wealth.

Naturally, the two superpowers reach secret agreements over the division of spheres of influence between them, but this division also gives rise to great opposition, causes a fierce militant revolutionary reaction on the part of the masses of the people who suffer the consequences of these agreements; this situation impels the peoples to revolt against the internal and external oppression of local and world capitalism.



...The situation was threatening even before, but now, following the events in Iran and after the Soviet aggression against Afghanistan, that is, after the occupation of that country by the Soviet Union with tanks and armed forces, the threats and preparations for local wars, or a general war, are assuming more definite form.

As I have said at other times, the Middle East, the great oil-bearing zone, has become a hot-bed of war in the world today. It is that part of the globe where the political-economic-strategic predatory interests of the great powers, first of all, of the United States of America and the Soviet Union, and also, those of China, the capitalist countries of Western Europe, Japan, etc., are colliding and coming to grips with one another. Uprisings of those peoples who are living under the double oppression and exploitation of the big multinational oil companies and cliques, kings, sheiks, feudal lords, emirs and the local capitalist bourgeoisie are taking place in that region.

The energy problem in the world, which is linked with the production and distribution of oil which holds first place as a source of energy, has become very acute. This has brought about the further deepening of the world-wide general economic crisis.

The overthrow of the shah, naturally, created major problems inside Iran and abroad. The positive aspect of the uprising of the Iranian people, irrespective of who is leading it, is that it brought about the overthrow of the shah, a lackey of American imperialism, and further threatened the oil supplies of the United States of America. Besides this, the United States of America suffered another great political blow, because the Iranian people and students stormed and took the American embassy in Teheran, are still holding captive the entire personnel of this embassy and have seized all the documents of the embassy which are proof of the criminal actions of the CIA and the shah.

The United States of America tried to escape unscathed, politically and economically, from the events in Iran, therefore it threatened an armed attack, dispatched its naval fleet to the vicinity of the Persian Gulf and the Indian Ocean and is keeping it there. President Carter proclaimed a number of economic and other sanctions against Iran. In fact it proved impossible to apply these measures with the effect desired by their authors. Nevertheless, they provided the pretext for which the Soviet Union was waiting, and had long been preparing, to intervene in Afghanistan where the puppets it had brought to power were endangered by the Islamic "popular" I say "popular" because, in fact, the Afghan people have risen against the Soviet puppets, but the Chinese, the Americans and the Pakistani are trying to manipulate and exploit their struggle for their own ends. It was precisely this turbulent situation and the threats of Carter against Iran, as I said, which provided the Soviets with the opportunity to send their tanks into Afghanistan.

Naturally this aggression and occupation created a dangerous situation in the world and made the Middle East a very delicate zone where the superpowers are directly confronting each other in a state of cold war which threatens to turn into a hot war at any moment.

Nevertheless, following the open aggression of the Soviet Union against Afghanistan, American imperialism has somewhat lowered its bugles against Iran, but this does not mean that it has given up its manoeuvres and plots within the country, neither does this exclude efforts to reach certain compromises with the current Iranian leadership in order to avert the outbreak of war in the oil zone. Notwithstanding this, the United States of America is keeping its warships and has increased the number of detachments of marines in this region, is strengthening the military bases it has in the Persian Gulf such as those in Saudi Arabia, the United Emirates and Oman, and is trying to establish other bases in Somalia and North Yemen in order to counterbalance the important strategic points which Soviet social-imperialism has occupied in South Yemen, Ethiopia and, especially, in Afghanistan.

In Afghanistan the Soviets encountered resistance. The men of the American government exploited this quite openly, came to terms with the reactionary leadership of Pakistan and declared that they would provide, and did in fact provide, economic and military aid to Pakistan so that it can defend itself against an eventual Soviet attack and the USA can make use of the Afghans' guerrilla war for their own interests.

As is known, the meeting of Moslem countries was held in Islamabad. There it was decided that all the Moslem countries should help the Afghan people and the so-called Committee which is directing the war against the Soviets inside Afghanistan. We see that China is active in these open actions and subversive manoeuvres, declaring that it is helping the Afghan refugees in Pakistan with arms and ammunition and also giving them economic aid. Hence, we can say that a new confrontation has emerged around the borders of Afghanistan, within which the Soviet troops are stationed, on the one side is the Soviet army which is fighting against the Afghan insurgents, and on the other side, Pakistan and China, and behind them the United States of America, which are trying to use the war of the insurgents to their own advantage. Thus, in this zone there is an open local conflict between the Soviets and the Afghans, and a disguised conflict between the Soviets and the Americans behind the scenes, and the present Afghan officials and the Chinese likewise behind the scenes.



Following the military invasion of Afghanistan by Soviet social-imperialism and the intervention of military commandos of American imperialism in Iran, allegedly to rescue the hostages that are held in the American embassy in Teheran, the international situation is becoming more and more turbulent and aggravated, from day to day. Now we see that the social-imperialist Soviet Union is operating openly and brutally with military forces and with subversion in Afghanistan and in other regions of the Middle East, in Africa and elsewhere.

We see also that, faced with this expansionist policy and acts of aggression of Soviet social-imperialism, American imperialism is in a dilemma over whether it, too, should act like Soviet social-imperialism, that is, undertake similar aggressive steps. But the question presents itself in this way when both American imperialism and Soviet social-imperialism have been gripped by a great economic and political crisis.


Part I

Part II


The Peoples of Asia

The peoples of Asia, too, have traversed a road full of suffering and hardship, ruthless imperialist oppression and exploitation. On the eve of the Second Word War, nine tenths of the population of this continent, Soviet Asia excluded, was in a state of colonial and semi-colonial oppression and exploitation by the imperialist powers of Europe, Japan and the United States of America. Great Britain alone, had colonies totalling 5 million 635 thousand square kilometres of territory with more than 420 million inhabitants in Asia. The colonial oppression and exploitation of the overwhelming majority of the countries of Asia had left them in a state of marked socio-economic and cultural backwardness and utter poverty. They served only as sources to supply the imperialist metropolises with raw materials such as oil, coal, chromium, manganese, magnesium, tin, rubber, etc.

After the war, the colonial order was shattered in Asia, too. Separate national states were set up in the colonial countries. Most of these countries won this victory through bloody war waged by the popular masses against the colonialists and the Japanese invaders.

The liberation war of the Chinese people, which led to the liberation of China from Japanese imperialist rule, the routing of the reactionary forces of Chiang Kai-shek and the triumph of the democratic revolution, was of special importance for the collapse of colonialism in Asia. For a time, this victory, in such a large country as China, exerted an extensive influence on the liberation struggle of the Asian peoples and the peoples of other countries dominated by, or dependent on, the imperialist powers. But this influence gradually declined, because of the line followed by the Chinese leadership after the founding of the People's Republic of China.

The Chinese leadership proclaimed that China had set out on the road of socialist development. The revolutionaries and the freedom-loving peoples of the world, who wanted and expected China to become a powerful bastion of socialism and world revolution, ardently welcomed this proclamation. But their desires and hopes were not being fulfilled. Hard though it was for people to believe, the facts and the very troubled and confused situation which prevailed in China showed that it was not marching on the socialist road.

Meanwhile, the struggle of the Asian peoples had not ended with the destruction of colonialism. While being obliged to recognize the independence of the former colonial countries, the British, French, Dutch and other colonialists wanted to preserve their economic and political positions in these countries in order to continue their domination and exploitation in other, neo-colonialist forms. The penetration of the United States of America into Asia, especially the Far East, Southeast Asia and the islands of the Pacific, made the situation particularly serious. This region had and still has great economic and military-strategic importance for American imperialism. It established big military bases and deployed powerful fleets there. Parallel with this, US capital got the economies of the countries of this area firmly into its blood-stained clutches. Meanwhile the US imperialists undertook large-scale military operations, diversionist and espionage activities to put down the national liberation movements of the Asian countries. They succeeded in dividing Korea and Vietnam in two, setting up reactionary, puppet regimes in the southern parts of both these countries. Pro-imperialist landowner-bourgeois regimes were established in many former colonial and semi-colonial countries of Asia. In this way, the mediaeval slavery, the savage rule of maharajas, kings, sheiks, samurais, and modernized. capitalist gentlemen was preserved there. These regimes sold their countries to the imperialists again, especially to US imperialism, thus immensely hindering the socio-economic and cultural development of these countries.

Under these conditions, the peoples of Asia, who were again languishing under the heavy imperialist and landowner-bourgeois yoke, could not lay down their arms, but had to continue their fight for liberation to get rid of this yoke. Generally, this struggle was led by the communist parties. Wherever these parties had succeeded in establishing sound links with the masses, making thern conscious of the liberation aims of the war, and mobilizing and organizing them in revolutionary armed struggle, positive results were reached. The historic victory which the peoples of Indochina, especially the Vietnamese people, won over the US imperialists and their local landowner-bourgeois stooges, showed the entire world that imperialism, even a superpower like the United States of America, with all its mighty economic and military potential, with all the modern means of war at its disposal, which it uses to put down the liberation movements, is unable to subjugate peoples and countries, whether big or small, when they are determined to make any sacrifice and fight selflessly to the finish for their freedom and independence.

Liberation armed struggles have been waged and are still going on in many other countries of Asia, like Burma, Malaysia, the Philippines, Indonesia and elsewhere. Had it not been for the antiMarxist and chauvinist interference and stands of the Chinese leadership, which have brought about splits and disorientation among the revolutionary forces and the communist parties leading these forces, these struggles would certainly have scored greater successes and victories. On the one hand, the Chinese leaders proclaimed their support for the liberation wars in these countries, while on the other hand, they supported the reactionary regimes, welcomed and farewelled the chiefs of these regimes with paeans of praise and a thousand honours. They have always followed the strategy and tactic of subordinating the liberation movements of the Asian countries to their pragmatic policy and hegemonic interests.

They have always brought pressure to bear upon the revolutionary forces and their leadership in order to impose this policy on them. They have never been really concerned about the question of peoples' liberation and the revolution in the countries of Asia, but only about the realization of their chauvinist ambitions. They have not helped these peoples but have hindered them.

The question of the revolution and the liberation struggle in Asia has never demanded solution so forcibly and imperatively as it does now, it has never been more complicated and difficult to solve.

This complication and these difficulties have resulted mainly from the aims and activities of the American imperialists, as well as from the anti-Marxist, anti-popular, hegemonic and expansionist aims and activities of the Soviet and Chinese revisionists and social-imperialists. The United States of America is aiming and striving with might and main to preserve and strengthen its strategic, economic and military positions in Asia, for it considers these positions of vital importance to its imperialist interests.

The Soviet Union, too, is aiming and striving by all means and with all forces to expand the Positions it has already occupied in Asia.

China. on its part, has openly displayed its. Pretension to become the ruler of Asian countries, by forming alliances, to this end, with the United States of America, and especially with Japan, and directly opposing the Soviet Union.

Japan, also, has the ambition to dominate Asia, the old ambition of Japanese imperialism.

That is why the Soviet Union is so greatly afraid of the Sino-Japanese alliance and is opposing it so strongly. But neither does American imperialism want this alliance to become so solid that it goes beyond the limits which might infringe American interests, although it encouraged and gave its ,Kblessing- to the signing of the treaty between China and Japan, from the standpoint that this treaty might contain the Soviet expansion which is to the detriment of American domination.

India, which is a bige country, also, has ambitions of becoming a great power with the atomic bombs and great weight in Asia, of playing a special role, in particular concerning the strategic position it has at the nodal point of the expansionist interests of the two imperialist superpowers, American and Soviet, in the Indian Ocean, the Persian Gulf and on its northern and eastern borders.

British imperialism has not given up its aim of domination in the Asian countries, either. And certain other capitalist-imperialist states also have similar aims.

That is why Asia has become one of the areas of the fiercest inter-imperialist rivalries today, and consequently, many dangerous hotbeds of world conflagrations, for which the peoples will pay the price, have been created there.

In order to quell. the revolutions and the liberation struggle in thecountries of Asia and open the way to the realization of their hegemonic and expansionist plans, the Soviet and Chinese revisionists, in feverish competition with each other, have been and are engaged in a very filthy job of splitting and destroying the ranks of the communist parties and the revolutionary and freedom loving forces of these countries. This activity was one of the main causes of thecatastrophe suffered by the Communist Party of Indonesia, and of the splitting and destruction of the Communist Party of India, etc. They advocate the alliance and unity of the proletariat and the broad popular masses with the local reactionary bourgeoisie, while each of them is trying to Win the friendship of this ruling bourgeoisie, for its own ends

The interference of the Soviet and Chinese social-imperialists in the various countries of Asia from their hegemonic and expansionist positions and ambitions has faced the liberation movements of these peoples with great dangers and has even Put the victories of the liberation war in'Vietnam, Cambodia and Laos directly in jeopardy.

The revolutionary and freedom-loving forces Of the Asian countries, which are led by the Marxist-Leninist communist parties, have to face up to and eliminate both the danger from local reaction, which is armed by its imperialist patrons, and the dangers from the splitting and disruptive activities, and the hegemonic and expansionist plans of the Soviet and Chinese revisionists. They also have to free themselves from a series of old reactionary, mystical, Buddhist, Brahmanic and other religious ideas and concepts, which hold back the liberation movement. They also have to prevent <<new>> renctionary ideas and concepts from striking root, such as the revisionist ideas of Khrushchevism, Maoism, and other just as reactionary theories, which disorientate and deceive the masses, deprive them of their militant class spirit, and lead them into wrong and hopeless paths.

The liberation struggle ahead of the peoples of Asia is truly difficult and has many obstacles indeed, but there never has been, and never will be, an easy liberation struggle or revolution, without great difficulties and obstacles that must be overcome, which do not require bloodshed and many sacrifices to achieve ultimate victory.


Enver Hoxha