Article published in the newspaper «Zëri i popullit»

July 29, 1975

After two years of wearisome talks, backstage bargainings and combinations, it was decided to convene what is called the European Security Conference in Helsinki, at the end of the month. On July 30, no small number of documents, full of beautiful words and sweet promises, will be placed before the heads of European states for their signatures.

The performance is being loudly advertized, but its clamour cannot conceal the dangers this perilous Soviet-American undertaking poses for the European peoples and the entire world. It cannot remove the doubts and hesitations that the Helsinki Conference has aroused among the ordinary people of the continent, among all those who really cherish peace and security in Europe.

Before the talks on the European Security Conference began, there was just one question which presented itself, a question which is being asked today and which always will be asked: Who is threatening Europe? From whom must the European peoples be secured? Can it be said that peace and security in Europe are endangered by Belgium or Switzerland, Finland or Austria, and that, therefore, the necessity arises that they, or other such European countries, should officially pledge themselves to renounce «the threat and the use of force»?

The answer is not difficult, it is known and does not require the discovery of any unknown factor. The peace and security of Europe are threatened directly and permanently by American imperialism and Soviet social-imperialism, by their aggressive, expansionist policies, by their military blocs, by the armies and bases they maint a in in other countries. The freedom and independence of the European peoples are threatened and endangered by the spheres of influence and the policy pursued by the superpowers, by their imperialist practices of political clients and their interference in the internal affairs of others, by their neo-colonialist course and insatiable appetite to subjugate and dominate countries and nations.

The Soviet-American atomic blackmail, their military adventures, their feverish preparations for a third world war, endanger and threaten Europe.

From those parts of the documents which have been made known to the public so far, it seems that the papers to be signed in Helsinki contain no obligatory political conditions, military commitments, etc. From the external aspect, from the formal standpoint, it seems as if nobody is assuming any concrete obligation and that nobody's hands are tied. In reality, however, everybody can see that through the Helsinki Conference, the Soviet Union and the United States of America have imposed on others an international document in which the present status quo of Europe is recognized and accepted in fact, i.e., the spheres of influence are recognized and accepted, the political, military and economic domination of many countries of our continent by the American imperialists and Soviet social-imperialists are recognized and accepted.

From the way the talks have developed so far it follows quite clearly that the Soviet Union and the United States of America have not been concerned about the real security of Europe, but about the security of their spheres of influence, their political and military bases, the removal of those barriers which hinder the extension of their political and economic hegemony, the pacification of their rear areas in order to direct themselves more forcefully and with greater weight to zones where «vacuums» are created or where the revolution and the liberation struggles of the peoples are taking place.

What have the European peoples gained, what is the advantage to general peace?

Can it be said that the domination of the Soviet revisionists in the East-European countries now becomes less onerous through this «European security», have the Soviet troops been withdrawn from those countries, or has their political, economic and military integration into the Soviet Union been interrupted, has Moscow's pressure on the national culture of these countries and its attack on their national traditions diminished?

Will the suffocating pressures of the United States of America on the West-European countries perhaps be eased with the European Conference, or the interference of the monopolies from across the Atlantic in their internal affairs cease, will they escape the inflation and crisis imported from the United States?

The Helsinki Conference brings nothing else apart from high-sounding words and false illusions. What we warned about long ago and what was spelled out clearly in the statement of the Government of the PRA has occurred, i.e., that the superpowers would strive to turn the European Security Conference into a means to spread their liberal-pacifist spirit on the grounds that allegedly today all the world problems, the international class conflicts, can be solved through «peace» talks and «individual contacts», because the present Soviet and American leaders are men of peace and work for peace.

The table at Helsinki is for the Americans and the Soviets — the others pay the bill . The documents to be signed there do not even remotely reflect the interests, desires, or worries of the European peoples. The hope of those people who thought that the European Security Conference would strengthen the independence of some countries which are under the domination and influence of the Soviet Union or the United States of America, that it would encourage some others towards autonomy, turned out to be only an illusion, a vain hope. The facts showed that in setting the objectives of the conference, in drafting the resolutions, in formulating the theses and concepts, the weight of the other participating states has been very slight and their role very insignificant. The superpowers discussed and decided about the conference outside it, at bilateral meetings, not only far from the eyes and ears of the others, but also against their interests. Indeed, even the final date of the meeting was decided only after the Gromyko-Kissinger talks in Geneva.

Now, when the two superpowers are caught up in grave crises and have sustained all-round defeats, when the anti-American and anti-social-imperialist tide in the world has begun to rise, they feel great need for each other's support. This is particularly so of the Brezhnev clique, the initiator of this conference, which has linked «European security», the «relaxation of tension», with its personal political future. It has to appear before the 25th Congress of the Soviet revisionist party, scheduled for the beginning of the coming year, with a «success» to show that its foreign policy is «listened to» and «respected». By means of diplomatic manoeuvres it aims to consolidate its positions at home and in the satellite countries, and to pursue its hegemonic policy in other regions with a fresh impulse.

The conclusion of the Helsinki Conference is also seen by Brezhnev as a favourable condition for summoning the conference of the revisionist parties of Europe in the immediate future and transforming it into a means to strengthen his domination over them, to bind them still more tightly to the chariot of Soviet foreign policy.

The United States, too, has no less need for a diplomatic «success». Following its ignominious defeats in Vietnam and Cambodia, following Kissinger's failure in the Middle East, following the great decline of its allies' faith in it, American imperialism needs to raise its fallen political prestige and to establish order in its shaky alliances through the fear of Soviet-American collaboration.

Ford gave the green light to the European Security Conference, because he wants to help the pro-American Brezhnev group in Moscow, just as the clique now ruling in the Kremlin wants the Nixon line of rapprochement with the Soviet Union, which Ford follows, to be carried on by the new administration which will be elected next year.

It is well known that any security is closely connected with the military aspects, with the question as to what real conditions it offers to avoid or repel an eventual aggression. But why did the superpowers refuse to discuss the military aspects of security, despite the insistence of some of the participants? They did this because they want the European peoples to be insecure and weak, so as to impose their will and dictate on them more easily, because they want to deprive the European peoples of the possibility and power of self-defence and the ability to oppose the l aw the superpowers want to make in Europe.

The American imperialists and the Soviet social-imperialists seek to compel other countries to remain unarmed or with only limited armament, ineffective in face of the ever-increasing military strength of the two superpowers, to remain passive and powerless before the ever greater improvement of their armaments, before the increase of their military bases and war budgets.

The military aspects of security were left out in Helsinki, because the superpowers want at all costs to preserve the psychosis of fear and war among the peoples.

The superpowers want to put the military security of the European countries under their two umbrellas, and their aim is that the peoples and countries will have no alternative other than to see their salvation linked with either the one or the other superpower, will not think independently, so that their will and freedom will be linked with these two monsters.

The European security agreements are a new web of the two superpowers to entangle their allies and others even more thoroughly. This is the greatest misuse that has ever been made of the European peoples' desire for peace and security, cooperation and good neighbourly relations. How can one speak of a secure Europe while it is bulging with foreign military bases and the atom bombs of the superpowers, with hundreds of thousands of soldiers, and innumerable Soviet and American tanks and aircraft? The superpowers did not want the military problems to be discussed, because they want to keep their gendarmerie intact in Europe, to preserve their permanent military pressure and blackmail, and to keep Europe besieged and isolated from the other parts of the world.

How can one speak of the security of Europe without the Mediterranean, without the Middle East, without North Africa ? History has proved more than once that even when the conflicts that have broken out in Europe have not been over the Mediterranean, North Africa , or the Middle East, these regions have always been caught up in their flames. The fates of these zones are very closely connected with those of Europe and the separation made of them by the European Security Conference seems artificial and ill-intentioned.

The United States of America and the Soviet Union furiously opposed the linking of European security with that of the Mediterranean, North Africa and the Middle East, because the problem of the withdrawal of their fleets from the Mediterranean would have arisen, the barbarous gunboat policy they carry out around the shores of this basin would have been exposed, their brutal interference in the Arab-Israeli conflict would have been thoroughly unmasked, and their savage rivalry in this area, which endangers the peace and security of all the peoples, would have been dragged out into the light of day. The attitude of the superpowers on this question is proof that they want to further extend their domination in these areas, to make it complete and permanent.

Therefore, the participants in the Helsinki meeting should not be too hasty in singing about the «triumph» of peace and security and the relaxation of tension in Europe.

The agreements, treaties, concessions and compromises which are manipulated and concluded under the direction of the Soviet Union and the United States of America can never contribute to the strengthening of peace and security either on a regional scale or on an international scale.

This «European security» not only does not eliminate the inter-imperialist rivalry, which constitutes one of the main sources of the outbreak of aggressive wars, but, being a product of the expansionist and hegemonic policy of the superpowers, it will contribute to the increase of the existing contradictions and tensions in every zone and on all the continents.

It gives the superpowers possibilities to act more freely on the other continents, to increase their pressures and intrigues, in order to divide the peoples and set them against one another with a view to capturing markets, taking over new zones of influence and extending their hegemony. They have already begun to enter the Indian Ocean and extend in Africa , to cast greedy eyes on the riches of the Arabian Gulf and to show their claws in Asia and Latin America.

Thus, the existing situation becomes more insecure, while the possibility of the accumulation of new explosive elements is increasing and the threats and dangers to the interests of the peoples and nations are growing everywhere.

At the moment, the zealous propagandists of this European security are having a great deal to say about how, by means of this agreement, the violation of borders will be stopped and the use of force will be avoided. As a guarantee for this they offer Ford's «solemn» declarations and Brezhnev's «word of honour». But can the peoples of Europe base their security on such palaver? They have suffered too much from imperialist aggressions and the perfidy of the superpowers to allow themselves to be deceived by some bits of paper, by demagogic agreements and treaties.

Tens of times Hitler signed solemn promises that he would never violate the borders of France, Belgium, or Holland. With tears in his eyes he swore that after receiving the Sudetenland he would not touch Czechoslovakia, even remotely. Everybody knows what happened later. And Brezhnev, too. less than one month before he sent his tanks into Prague, had signed a lengthy document at Bratislava in which the non-use of force was lauded to the skies. Not only through the UNO Charter, but also in an endless number of treaties, the United States of America has pledged itself not to violate borders and not to resort to force. But it has not failed to intervene in Greece and attack Korea, to occupy Vietnam and to land in Lebanon, to interfere in San Domingo and fight the Cambodian people. Only the naive and the short-sighted can believe the imperialists' sweet words and promises about peace, only they can build their hopes on the power of declarations and general agreements, or on the false morality of the aggressors. But the peoples put no trust in words and are not deceived by the imperialist and revisionist demagogy.

The so-called policy of relaxation of tension, about which the American imperialists and the Soviet socialimperialists are now making so much fuss, is a continuation of the «cold war», but in another form. It is the old policy of strength, but camouflaged with smiles and lullabies.

Peaceful coexistence, as conceived and interpreted by the imperialists and the revisionists, is a counter-revolutionary and anti-national ideology and practice; it is anti-popular and anti-democratic from start to finish. As an expression of the expansionist and hegemonic policy of the superpowers, it represents a dangerous instrument to put the peoples in bondage, to subjugate and colonize them. The so-called «spirit of detente», which is propagated especially by the revisionists, is the spirit of submission and passivity, which aims to slacken the revolutionary vigilance of the peoples, to compel them to renounce the defence of their vital national interests and leave them politically and spiritually disarmed in face of the attacks of the two superpowers.

There has been a long-standing illusion in Europe which has cost it dear. Many politicians have thought that concessions could be made to aggressors on this continent, to direct war towards far-off fields. History, however, has proved that peace is indivisible. In the conditions of the present-day world, this is truer than ever. The aggressors have not been stopped, and never will be stopped with concessions and. even less, with illusions. Retreat before them has only whetted the appetite of those who have sought to attack and occupy.

True relaxation of tension, removal of the danger of war, is not achieved through illusions and hopes based on the «reasonableness» and «realistic attitude» of the American imperialists and the Soviet social-imperialists.

They constitute an objective which must be attained by the peoples themselves, by fighting the hegemonic and expansionist policy of the superpowers, by exposing and hindering their deceitful diplomatic manoeuvres, by combating the sham pacifist psychosis they spread, by strengthening the sentiments of defence of the freedom and national dignity of the peoples and independent states, and above all, by strengthening the revolutionary spirit and international unity of the proletariat and the working people throughout the world.

A year ago we declared [11 See p. 866 of this volume.]: On what does the security of the peoples of Europe or the peoples of the world depend? On the public or mysterious travels of a certain Kissinger, of a certain Gromyko, or on the wiles of a certain Brezhnev who has made the Soviet and other peoples bleed, on the travels of a certain Nixon who has drowned the world in blood and led the American Mafia in the shameful Watergate scandal which has shaken the whole of America? Should it be left to such individuals to ensure the future of the world? A fine future, indeed!

Of course, those who put their trust in tragic illusionists are free to attend the meetings in Vienna, Helsinki and anywhere they like. Let them indulge in their palavers!

But for our part, we are free not to go to those meetings, and we will not go there. And it is not only we who are absent from those meetings and conferences, but the peoples, too. This has importance for us.

This clear stand of our Party, government and people concerning European security responds not only to the supreme interests of Albania, but also to the cause of strengthening peace and security on the European continent.

We have pointed out openly and sincerely that the sovereign states must in no way be taken in by the plans of the revisionists and imperialists, because these plans are to the detriment of their national sovereignty and the security of the peoples.

Now many of the participating countries, which went to the talks in the hope that a dialogue among equal states about settling European and world problems would take place there, are left disillusioned. But they were dragged into the dance by the Soviets and the Americans and were quite unable to get out of it. Indeed, even many of their efforts over procedural matters and requests for some moderation of the formulations were arrogantly rejected and brutally squashed by the super-mighty.

Real peace and security of Europe is not something which can be donated by the superpowers, or be ensured by some worthless bits of paper, by demagogic statements and false promises of the American imperialists and the Soviet social-imperialists. First of all, the military bases and foreign troops which are still in many countries of Europe must be removed, the superpowers' policy of armaments, threats and military blackmail must be opposed and combated, the aggressive blocs and other agreements which are utilized by the United States of America and the Soviet Union to pursue their policy of domination and subjugation of the European peoples must be smashed.

Of course, the threats and dangers are great, but they must not be viewed in a fatalist spirit as inevitable. The battles will be severe, but they can be won if the pacifist illusions, the imperialist-revisionist lies and deceptions are forcibly rejected, if the chains with which the super powers seek to bind the peoples of Europe are severed with the sword. There can never be relaxation of tension between the peoples, on the one hand, and the American imperialists and the Soviet social-imperialists, on the other hand, just as there can be no real peace and security as long as the present hegemonic policy of the superpowers continues to exist.

Peace and security, the relaxation of tension and collaboration are problems which must be solved, and can be solved, only by the peoples, by means of a permanent, consistent and determined struggle against those imperialist and expansionist forces which seek to rob the countries and nations of the things they hold most dear, their freedom and independence, the prospect of their future.

«Against Modern Revisionism 1971-1975»



Enver Hoxha