ENGLISH

 

Enver Hoxha

 

 

"The Superpowers"

excerpts - concerning

Czechoslovakia


TUESDAY JULY 23, 1968

THE SOVIET REVISIONISTS AND CZECHOSLOVAKIA


Recently I finished the article which I began to write on July 15 about the difficult situation of the Czechoslovak people. Today I added three more parts to the article, and did some re-arrangement and updating. We sent it to the newspaper Zeri i popullit to be published tomorrow under the title: "The Soviet Revisionists and Czechoslovakia". Some of the problems we deal with:

- The Czechoslovak people are going through difficult days, being threatened from within the country and from abroad. This is a result of the treachery of the Khrushchevite revisionists, the Czechoslovak revisionists, internal Czechoslovak reaction, the external revisionist coalition and the world imperialist-capitalist coalition.

- The problem of Czechoslovakia, in fact, is not so simple. Here we have to do with a major plot against a people, against a country which has an important strategic position in Europe. Czechoslovakia is the chessboard and the cliques which have gone, have come and will come are the pawns in the hands of the Soviet revisionists and American imperialism. The international mafia is operating in all directions in Czechoslovakia.

- The modern revisionists of different countries are struggling to separate themselves completely from Soviet revisionism and are forging new links, new alliances and bridges with American imperialism and world capitalism. In this direction, the greatest, most concrete and real example is set by Soviet revisionism itself, which is bound hand and foot in an endless alliance with the United States of America and world capitalism. Today this alliance dominates the capitalist-revisionist world. The two big capitalist powers are struggling to rule the world and to divide it between them into spheres of influence, while having as their primary aim the struggle against Marxism-Leninism, socialism, and the revolution. Their struggle for spheres of influence also includes the question of keeping their satellites under their thumb. Naturally, this brings about the separation of satellites from one power and their dependence on the other. Therefore, a fight between wolves is waged, with plots and intrigues to the detriment of the peoples of many countries, one .of which is the Czechoslovak people.

- Czechoslovakia, a revisionist satellite of the Soviet revisionists, is now struggling to split away from the Khrushchevites and to link up with the Americans and Western capitalism. In these efforts Czech reaction and the Czech revisionists have the aid of world capitalism.

- The Soviet, Polish and German revisionists, in the first place, then the Bulgarians to a lesser extent and the Hungarians just to say "we're in, too" - are engaged in repeated attempts to blackmail and put pressure on the Dubcek clique to make it submit to them, to remain in the fold, and so on and so forth. They accuse the Dubcek revisionist clique of all the things they themselves have done earlier and on a colossal scale. In other words they say to the Dubcek clique: "You must not have links with the United States of America, whereas we should: you should not accept credits from the capitalists, where at, we should," and so on. The Soviets have even reached the point of threatening with military intervention in Czechoslovakia under the mask of the Warsaw Pact and the alleged troop manoeuvres. And this is not the end of this brutal threat. Now thousands of "tourists" the Soviet Union and the other revisionist countries, who are in fact militarymen, are invading Czechoslovakia and, in practice, are replacing the regular armies.

- That matters between the Soviet and Czechoslovak revisionists have reached this point, does not surprise us in the least, because we know, and we have said, that gangsters settle accounts between themselves by gangster methods.

- The Warsaw Treaty, which was signed for other purposes, has become a means of attack and aggression in the hands of the Soviet revisionist gangsters against those members who do not obey the Soviet revisionists.

- The Czechoslovak crisis is not an accidental, unexpected phenomenon, nor an isolated crisis. It is part and parcel of the great crisis of modern revisionism, the epicentre of which is in the Soviet Union. This crisis is felt, also, on the outskirts of the Soviet Union, among its satellites, which want to cast off the yoke of Soviet revisionism.

- Soviet revisionism is passing through several severe crises for which it is paying dearly, and the great evil should be sought in the Khrushchevites' great betrayal, which must be destroyed with fire and revolution.




WEDNESDAY AUGUST 21, 1968

THE SOVIET REVISIONISTS CARRY OUT THE MILITARY INVASION OF CZECHOSLOVAKIA


The Soviet revisionists, under the mantle of the Warsaw Treaty, have committed a military aggression against the Czechoslovak Republic and its people. This morning all Czechoslovakia found itself captive under the tracks of Soviet tanks. A typical fascist aggression without any excuse, violating international standards and laws and the clauses of the Warsaw Treaty itself.

The Soviet revisionist invaders and their allies of the Warsaw Treaty entered Czechoslovakia like thieves in the night, after they had embraced and kissed at Bratislava (Reference is to the meeting in Bratislava about which Comrade Enver Hoxha wrote the article "Defeat of the Soviet Revisionists at Bratislava", published in the newspaper Zeri i popullit, dated August 10, 1968. In his Political Diary, on August 5. 1968. among other things. he wrote, "The whole presidium of the Soviet Union went to 'Canossa' to make the last threat, never before has such a thing occurred, never before has the whole Political Bureau gone to such humiliation, but they went 'there like braggards: large-scale military exercises were being conducted in the Ukraine in order to threaten Czechoslovakia and defend the 'heroes' who travelled by train, ate on the train. had meetings and went back in the evening by train to sleep in Soviet territory and returned in the morning to Czech territory. And these shameful comings and goings went on for four days on end!... Will the Soviet revisionists accept these sensational defeats. or will they go further with their craziness and roguery? After all that has happened this seems hardly likely, but they are nothing but fascists in a very desperate situation, so they can be expected to do anything.... all the activities of the Soviet revisionists... are manoeuvres to conceal their sinister plans towards Czechoslovakia... a tactics to lull people to sleep and to provide a justification for them so that, when they return to the Czechoslovak question with acts of war, they will be able to sail to the public, 'We could do nothing else! We did everything we could. but the Czechoslovaks did not listen to us!'"), the declaration from which was proclaimed urbi et orbi (publicly (Latin in the original)) as an "historic document, which settled everything, strengthened the unity and friendships" between them, etc. We alone exposed this as a great fraud, and that is what it turned out to be. Bratislava was a smoke-screen for this aggression.

As I have said earlier, it could also have been the last chance, virtually hopeless, given to the liberal revisionist wing which thought it could come to terms with the Czech revisionists. The fact is, however, that at the Bratislava meeting and in the document which was published after it, there was no mention at all of Czechoslovakia, or of the Warsaw Letter, or of what had occurred and what was going to occur a few days later. It was just a piece of paper, an utterly unsavoury dish, which satisfied no one and deceived no one apart, of course, from the Czechs.

After the Bratislava meeting the Czechs triumphantly welcomed Tito, who strutted as the saviour of Czechoslovakia and departed from Prague full of confidence, full of boasts, with his head up and his chest out, and received a cheque for 13 million dollars from the Czechoslovak government and another for 16 million dollars from the Americans for services rendered. A few days later the Czechoslovaks welcomed Ceausescu. who posed as the "brave of the brave" He the treaty of mutual aid in which it is specifically stressed that "the two states will defend one another from any aggressor state or group of aggressor states!" Not content with defence against "one aggressor", Chaush (Chaush - corporal (Turkish), ironical shortening of Ceausescu's name) insisted on including defence against a "group of aggressors".

The Soviet, Polish, German, Hungarian and Bulgarian revisionists poured across the borders of Czechoslovakia from all directions and within the night occupied Prague, captured the Radio station, surrounded the buildings of the government, the Central Committee, Parliament, and the president, and not a shot was fired. Moreover, the Czechoslovak revisionist chiefs issued orders that the army and the people should "remain calm and peaceful".

There is no need for us to dwell on the aid from Rumania on the basis of the treaty. Far from defending others. the Rumanian revisionists are trembling with fear themselves.

Of course, we are still in the first moments and events are sure to develop.

The Soviet revisionists have committed a desperate act which will have lethal consequences for them. They have discredited themselves all-round even among their revisionist friends, because most of them are not in agreement with this brutal act which will have grave implications for them. However, the Soviet revisionists did not commit this desperate act from choice, but were driven to it by their problems. Crises, especially crises like this, which bring to light the decay of revisionist opportunism, are not in their favour but in favour of the revolution. The military must have had a finger in these events and their view has prevailed.

This whole development will exacerbate the international situation and possibly revisionist-capitalist opinion will become alarmed. The contradictions will be deepened, in the stinking swamp of peaceful coexistence. the waters will be disturbed, and the Russo-American alliance will suffer serious damage, or may even be split. World opinion, fear, and suspicions will play their role.

The revisionists everywhere will squabble and fight with one another worse than they are doing already. The revolutionary forces must rouse themselves to take ad-vantage of this situation which is greatly in our favour.

For our part, we must continue our struggle and propaganda against imperialism and revisionism with the greatest intensity.

We must take a stand immediately to condemn the aggression, to defend Czechoslovakia and the Czechoslovak people, must unmask the Soviet revisionists and the Czech revisionist capitulators and unmask imperialism and Titoism at the same time. We must tell the Czechoslovak people and the Czechoslovak revolutionary Marxist-Leninists that, if they want to live free and truly build a socialist country, their only way out is to take up arms in the revolution against the external revisionist invaders and their lackeys within the country, and against any interference of the imperialists and the Titoites. There is no other way.

The armed struggle demands the formation of a new Czechoslovak Marxist-Leninist party of the Lenin-Stalin type. Other parties which try to patch things up are useless and will not lead them on the correct course.




WEDNESDAY AUGUST 28, 1968

THE EPILOGUE TO THE CZECHOSLOVAK DRAMA


Yesterday the treacherous revisionist capitulationist leaders of the Czechoslovak people returned to Prague from Moscow. Statements were made and the "proclamation" of Moscow, the communiqué signed by the aggressors and their captive lackeys about the talks held between them, was published.

The Moscow "agreement" sanctions the continuation of the dictate of the Soviet imperialist leadership and the occupation and suppression of the Czechoslovak people.

The Soviet people, who are permitting another people to be oppressed, are not free themselves. Since they do not react with the force of arms against this treachery of their revisionist leaders, this must be so and nothing can alter the fact: the false slogans of Pravda which ought to be called not Pravda (truth) but Lozh (lies (Russian in the original)) do not alter it.

Moscow covered itself with shame; due to the acts of traitors it was covered with the veil of Berghof, when the new "Hacha" of Czechoslovakia. President Svoboda, signed the enslavement of his own people, just as former President Hacha did in his time.

The dictate of Moscow is the dictate of a bourgeois fascist clique which is strangling any freedom of the Czechoslovak people.

The Czech revisionists, headed by the traitors Dubcek, Svoboda, Smrkovsky and others, confirmed what we had said about them that they are traitors to the Czechoslovak people. They proved to be the most cowardly capitulators there could be among the bourgeoisie. Not only did they allow the Soviet army to occupy their country by appealing to the people and the army to remain passive when the tanks occupied the country, but even after their return from Moscow, the first words they said to their people were the same: "Remain calm, don't oppose, don't react," which in blunt terms means submit to the occupation.

The fascist Soviet army will never withdraw from Czechoslovakia voluntarily. Those who undertook this barbarous act of aggression and have discredited themselves forever did not go into Czechoslovakia in order to leave it, but in order to stay there. From now on everything in Czechoslovakia, every quisling collaborationist government, will be dictated from Moscow.

Even though they have imposed their dictate on the Czechoslovak revisionist leaders, for or the Soviet revisionists this is an irreparable defeat. This defeat will be enlarged and other defeats will follow, one after the other. The Soviet revisionists themselves know that nothing has been solved. On the contrary, the problems have become even more complicated and burdensome, both in the Soviet Union and in the international arena.

In all this tragedy it is quite obvious that the Soviet-American alliance fully accomplished its task. For the United States of America what occurred in Czechoslovakia was not the slightest cause of "concern". West Germany was not alarmed, either. After the Moscow "agreement" the spokesman of the State Department of the United States of America went so far as to declare that he was pleased that Dubcek remains in power and that "matters can be settled" between Czechoslovakia and the Soviet Union. It is clear that the Soviet, had been given a free hand, just as they have given and will give the American imperialists a free hand in their aggressions against other peoples. They have divided the zones between themselves. Each of them can do as it pleases in its own zone. Indeed, the Soviets gave proof of this on the occasion of the Israeli aggression against the United Arab Republic (Egypt) and the Arab peoples and in hundreds of other cases.

The Czechoslovak people are not and will not be satisfied. They understand the great betrayal which has been perpetrated against them and they will understand this still more clearly later. They will not accept the occupation and will struggle in different ways. The fact is that, despite the betrayal by their own leaders, they are putting up an organized passive resistance against the occupiers. The Soviets did not expect such a thing, and this has staggered them and ruined their demagogic plans. It is very important for Czechoslovakia and for socialism that this resistance should continue, become stronger and go from passive to active, armed resistance. The national motive is great and the moment suitable. The Czechoslovak revolutionaries must make the most of them.

The dictate of Moscow imposed on the Czechoslovak capitulationist leadership is a terrible defeat, also. for the revisionist lackeys in all parts of the world. They "condemned" the Soviet aggression, but now the Soviets will demand that they eat their own words. What filthy traitors!! But they are utterly shameless.

We must assist the resistance of the Czechoslovak people The Czechoslovak revolutionaries have love and admiration for the correct line of our Party. They listen to Radio Tirana with the greatest attention. We must strengthen and improve our propaganda in the direction of Czechoslovakia. We have all the possibilities to do this, and we shall continue to do it in the interests of Marxism-Leninism and the proletarian revolution.




FRIDAY SEPTEMBER 13, 1968

THE PEOPLE'S ASSEMBLY OF THE PRA APPROVED THE BILL ON THE DENUNCIATION OF THE WARSAW TREATY


Today in the People's Assembly the deputies discussed the report which was presented yesterday "On the stand of the PRA towards the Warsaw Treaty" and supported the proposal to denounce this Treaty. The bill presented on the denunciation of the Warsaw Treaty by the People's Republic of Albania was approved unanimously by the Assembly.

The cup was full! We were outside the Warsaw Treaty de facto, but with the aggression against Czechoslovakia, this step had to be made de jure.

Our country's denunciation of and withdrawal from this Treaty is a measure of great importance and has to do, first of all, with the defence of the independence of our Homeland.


MONDAY OCTOBER 7, 1968

NOTES ON THE SPEECH WHICH OUR REPRESENTATIVE WILL DELIVER AT THIS YEAR'S SESSION OF THE UNO

Each people knows its own duty and the measures which must be taken in these threatening situations, but we are convinced that the peoples cannot be deceived by the imperialists and the revisionists, who are already armed to the teeth and continue to arm themselves. when they say, "You disarm because we are defending you." In other words, "Become our slaves, because we will defend your freedom, independence and sovereignty". This means to invite the wolf to guard your sheep.

A typical example is the speech of the representative of Czechoslovakia, the talented democratic and progressive people, which has recently been martyred by new invaders who, quite shamelessly, without even attempting to disguise the fact, make the law not only there, but even here, in this chamber. The Czechoslovak representative mounted this rostrum, concealed the feelings of his heart. and speaking with the tongue of the invader, attempted to persuade us not to speak about the rights, the freedom, the independence, the sovereignty of Czechoslovakia and socialism in that country, because the interests of the occupier, Yakubovsky, require him to do this. No! Neither Yakubovsky, nor his artillery, nor even his atomic missiles can close the mouths of us Albanians. The Albanian people will ardently defend their own rights and freedom, and those of other peoples of the world.

 

 

TUESDAY JULY 29, 1969

SOME ASPECTS OF THE INTERNATIONAL SITUATION

The anniversary of the occupation of Czechoslovakia by the Soviet army is drawing near. During this year the Soviet revisionists have used every means to subjugate the Czechoslovak people completely. They have not achieved their aim. It is true that they removed the revisionist Dubcek from power, and replaced him with Husak, another quisling allegedly with more personality than Dubcek, but more obedient and submissive to the orders of the occupiers.

All that this year brought forth was that the occupation troops acquired warmer quarters and greater hatred among the people. The press, the radio and the other means of propaganda were gagged, but the passive resistance of the people increased.

The economic situation in Czechoslovakia is catastrophic. the market is empty, the shops are being stripped by Ivan who grabs anything he can find and sends it off to Marushka in Russia.

Czechoslovakia has completely lost its dignity, individuality and its activity as a sovereign and independent state in the international arena is nil. It is a country completely subjugated by the Soviets with the force of arms. The Soviets have utterly discredited themselves, not only within Czechoslovakia, but also in the international arena. Even with the actions of quislings and the, pressure of the Soviets, it is hard to "gloss over" lies. The situation in Czechoslovakia will become even more embittered. There is talk of silent strikes on the occasion of the first anniversary of the occupation; illegal leaflets and articles against the Soviets are circulating wholesale in Czechoslovakia. Hatred for the occupiers is simmering in every Czechoslovak borne. There are many attempts at organization, by good and bad elements. What is important is the formation of a Marxist-Leninist party which must galvanize the resistance and energies of the people and lead them in resolute actions, lead the armed resistance.

The national moment is very suitable. The Czechoslovak problem is a gangrenous ulcer for the Soviet and other revisionists. Czechoslovakia remains a country seething with discontent and resistance. The Czechoslovak people will find sound revolutionary forces which will revolt.

The revisionist camp is trying hard to give the impression that calm and harmony exist in its ranks. Nothing they say rings true, evil cannot be covered up with words. Their quarrels and disagreements have increased and are becoming more profound.

The Soviets are no longer smiling at their "allies".

 

 

 

 

Enver Hoxha