1919 - 2019

100th anniversary of the Egyptian Revolution

March 1919






























































Messages of Solidarity


Greeting Message of the Egyptian Section of the Comintern (SH) on occasion of the 100th anniversary of the Egyptian Revolution

March 1919

Long Live the liberation struggle of our people

- from destruction of capitalism

to construction of socialism!


Let us crown the Egyptian Revolution of 1919 with the victory of the socialist revolution in Egypt and all over the Arab world


Like these days and from 100 years ago, starting from March 1919, the whole popular masses of Egypt started  the spark that burned the whole of Egypt and the patriotic movement in the Arab countries for years!

Not a long time after the victory of the Bolshevik Revolution led by Lenin and Stalin, not only Egypt but the whole colonialist system was shaken to the death due to the actual revolutionary influence of the Bolsheviks and the Comintern which instructed world proletariat and the oppressed peoples of the world towards the salvation, in Asia, in Africa, in America, Everywhere!

Egypt was thrown in the hell of the battlefield of the national liberation war.

But before it there was a lot of events that led to the great event of 1919 which was the start and the great influencing event on even a lot of Arabic countries and an example for the revolution, like in Morroco and in Syria, in Libya and the Arabic countries in general.

The 1919 Revolution was an event in the whole process of the development in Egypt and even in the Arab countries.

Egypt, before everything, was just a state owned to the Ottoman Empire oppressed by the Mamalek and feudal lords, but everything has changed starting from the Industrial-Eductational Revolution which Mohamed Ali Pasha the pioneer of the Egyptian and the Arab League bourgeoisie have achieved and later lost it due to the European capitalist pressure which was on Egypt and threatening it.

Ali despite anything was a revolutionary national man even though he wasn't Egyptian, nor Arab, but he declared opposition and rebelled on Egypt's lands and swiftly have taken the power and crushed all the old powers of Mamalek and landlords and made a state-monoply policies and land laws state ownership etc.

The genuis Marx himself described Egypt at this time of Ali as “the only viable part in the Ottoman Empire.”(Marx, K., 1965: 231) - Marx, K.   (1965). War   in   Burma-the   Russian question-Curious diplomatic correspondence. In The  Complete  Works  of  Marx  and  Engels (Vol.  9),  Beijing: People’s Publishing House.

All the acheviments of the Egpytian bourgeoisie didn't last for a long time because there was a rising development for the capitalist development in the old capitalist countries which is known as imperialism.

So, one of the laws of the capitalist laws appeared and Egypt that the brutal competition of capitalism should't leave not alive from little and new capitalist countries like Egypt, and if the European capitalist countries left Ali leading Egypt and the Arab League growing it would be a threatening for them and their markets which was influenced by a great harm because Ali's state monopoly's policies didn't allow to import a lot of products from the outside and to stand on the country's own legs from resources and productions also to export products more than importing and thus to conquer markets.

By the time, and when the Egyptian armies reached to the Ottoman's Capital and the Ottomanic Sultan already surrendered and he went to seek help from the European capitalist countries whom have seen Egypt and the whole Arabic countries and all of the former Ottoman states as a cake that will be divided after the death of the "old man of the Bosphorus".

The European capitalist countries went to threaten Ali and forced him to sign a treaty that led for the destruction of the Most if not all of the heavy and important industry like ships, weapons, etc industries, all of these industries were reduced to a great levels which caused a great harming effect on Egypt's economy and social structure and the people's life.

All of these specifically after Ali's death reasoned to bring Egypt nearly to the zero point but that didn't last for along time because colonialism exploited the Egyptian workers and the poor farmers and used them in factories  and fields again, and created what we can call it (It's grave digger: for both colonialism and the Egyptian bourgeoisie).

However after Ali's death in 1849 his sons were not exactly like him, they all were an expression from the bourgeoisie autocratic ruling family that the Egyptian bourgeoisie have fallen in crisis and capitulated to the pressure of the European capitalists, even Ismail Pasha who tried to fix up the industries with the education again,and tried to increase the army troops was facing a great pressure that led into the end for his expelling from the chair of the Egypt's governing and the occupation of Egypt by the British under the reason that Egypt got a lot of debt that itself can not find a way to pay for it, Egypt lost every form of sovereignty year by year till the open occupation which was an inevitable action from the British colonialist-imperialist machinery to help their war machinery of extending in the imperialist wars.

Not a long time after Egypt's occupation and due to the conditions that a lot of sections from the petty-bourgeoisie were suffering came to the field one of Egypt's heroic leaders the dear national hero Ahmed Orabi who was a farmer and became a sergeant in the army; but he didn't like the bad conditions that his fellow Egyptian in the Jihadyiat or the ministery of Defence were suffering and how was the people and the Egyptian farmers were suffering under the yoke of the feudal lords and the humilating rule of the British.

A number of events have developed till he went in 1881 with his comrades to the palace of Kedvei Tawfik who he was nothing but a lackey of the British; in order to show for him the just demands of the people, but Khedevi Tawfik refused and said in short "that you all are nothing but a slaves"..then Orabi said his flaming revoultionary words

"God created us free, and not as objects or slaves; and by Allah who is that there is no god but him; we no more will be enslaved or inherited!"

After these words, the new bourgeoisie the Militarist Caste of the bourgeoisie was historically formed and played a great role in the popular insurrection and was very near from the victory, but sadly the revolution was betrayed from within the leadership itself (a few sargeants sold themselves for the British), that was another historical lesson that to depend on bourgeoisie itself no matter of what they call national or compradore it's all a one class that has it's own interests and the vast majority and elements of this class will do their utmost to reach the highest social places even on the blood of the people, those who betrayed the revolution were promoted and Orabi was rejected and expelled and remained in his Exile for a few years and then he returned for the homeland again, and till our day Orabi was and still an example for the heroic resistance against every aggressor like many and a lot of Egyptians Omar Makram against the English, Mohammed Kuraim against the French and more heroes.



A short period of time didn't pass and the Egyptian masses were feeling the big heavy suffering on it's back, colonialism went to shred and to oppress the people of Egypt workers and farmers and the patriotic revolutionary elements with them, all of the pro-British public figures in the Egyptian government was hated and some elements from the revolutionary movement killed them, they faced the gallows for their actions against the local lackeys of the British colonialism, one of them was the Patriotic national hero Ibrahim Nassef Al-Werdani who shot down Botros Ghali the prime minister of the Egyptian government who was participant in a lot of actions of betrayal as that extending the time of profiting/investmenting for the British colonialists in Suez canal till 2008 (!) plus the participating in horrible Donshway's crimes which the British soldiers have committed to the public, the youth and the men of the Egyptian village for nothing they have done.

[The Donshway for those who don't know the story started when a group of British soldiers went to hunt and went to Donshway's village and burnt a storing place for harvest and Egyptian women "by wrong" ... later when the villagers saw the flames and the dead women went angry and ran behind the British; one of them died by the sun's heat; when the Egyptian Omda (leader, Big Sheikh,etc) of the village was informed about the accident he sent his guards to save the British soldiers from the civilians who were running behind the British; the British sargeants thought that the guards came to kill them and they shoot the guards down; in the end the Egyptians were killed and executed in public massacre known as 'Donshway' a one horrible massacre from a lot of massacre was committed by the British against the Egyptian people]

The National movement was developing and by the time the workers movement even though it was very backward and little in numbers were developing and have shown a great heroic revolutionary actions that wasn't seen in the region of the Middle East but nearly and only in Egypt, and that's a thing that makes us Egyptian communists and proletarians proud of;(such as the strike of the cigarette rolling workers in Alexanderia which continued for more than 3 months 1899-1900).

Even before this big strike we've read that there was a lot of strikes like that of the port workers and the harvest transporting workers.

When the first imperialist world war had risen; the British colonialists exploited Egypt to the bone, the Egyptians were wishing to see their country free by any price, the British gave the people an empty promise that if the Egyptians helped in the war effort they will gain the independence after the war directly but what happened was the complete contrary, a short time after the end of the war the Egyptian went to order their just independence after they were suffering and giving their efforts from planting the cotton and working as an actual slaves for the British and even sending 100,000 Egyptians to the war front without weapons!

All of them have died and the British didn't give anything for the Egyptians, the Egyptians remained in slavery and suffering till they were killed and have thrown themselves in the heroic struggle for national liberation struggle shortly after the victory of October 1917's Revoultion which was a great push for all the world colonies to revolt against the world colonialist system.

That was seen in the world party, the Communist International led by Lenin and later by Stalin which instructed not only for the national liberation in the colonies but for the world socialist revolltion and the victory of world communism in these countries.

When we read the historical documents of the communist international we see that clear, so the communist international can not be denied as a primary factory for pushing the world anti colonialist and anti imperialist world movement and national liberation movements within all the nations.

The bourgeoisie of Egypt started to develop in the official liberal ideology forming a party called "Al-Wafd" (In Arabic it means literally: The Delegation) It was a delegation of Sa'd Zhagloul and his fellow Wafdists sent by the time when the Egyptians were fighting in the streets and receiving the brutal blows from the British aggressors by the air, and on the lands to maintain their harsh exploitative inhuman system of the Monarchy, the same they did with the other British colonies and even worse.

The events have taken place in the whole of Egypt, On 9th of March the Azhar students and the Ameritie schools went on strike and went in riots in Cairo magnating a lot of masses with them on their way.

The women participated and thrown off buraq and created associations, went to call the masses for rebellion against the British aggressor and even participating in it and facing the bullets of the British, in the village the womens faced the rape of the British and when the men went to defend them the British broke the skulls of the Egyptians by hitting it with their guns.

A lot of massacres that can not be counted were committed by the British colonialists against the heroic beloved people of our country.

What forced the Wafd to take a radical position in the national liberation struggle was that Sa'd Zhaglul and the Waf'd party were always under the pressure of the Egyptian popular working and poor masses who owned nothing from their country but the nationality.

We can not say that changing the constitution or whatever happened from these imaginary 'achievements' is the real achievements for the people of Egypt compared to a great lesson for the people that freedom won't be gained but only through the blood and sacrafices, the Egyptians and specifically the labouring masses didn't gain anything in particular from these things and when the Egyptian proletariat had it's party and the Egyptian Section of the Comintern "The Egyptian Communist Party" was formed in 1920the Waf'd Democratic 'progressive' party and government crushed down the party and arrested it's leader Mahmoud Al-Urabi and Antun Maron.


In a very short time the communist movement after the 2nd Congress of the Comintern and after applying the conditions of admission tothe Comintern (1*to expell Joseph Rozental the syndicalist leader from the Egyptian socialist party,2*to declare an agarian reform programm,3*to change the party's name for the Egyptian Communist party) gained a great influence that could be seen in the strikes of Alexanderia of the workers in every field, when the bourgeois Wafdists have seen these events and knew that the ECP had this great influence among the Egyptian working class they crushed the whole party as we said, and since it the Egyptian Communist Party had nearly no contacts at all with the Comintern, it turned itself for an underground organization due to the laws and the oppression against communism in Egypt from the 'democratic' government of Al-Wafd.

This too was a great development and lesson in the Egyptian communist and workers movement's history that we can learn it for the 1000 time; even in bourgeois liberal 'democracy' the communist work and agitation will not be allowed or tolerated.

Bourgeoisie's democracy is it's dictatorship, and that's what a lot of bourgeois political opportunists in Egypt are trying to 'repeat the history' and to draw in the people's mind that only if "Egypt had a democratic government everything will be ok", as if we've not already seen this in the years of 1919 revoultion (!) and the banning of the ECP the party of the Egyptian workers and farmers on the hand of the Waf'd was nothing!

Al-Waf'd Party as it's times and conditions were governing it was considered due to Egypt's conditions as a 'progressive' party which was supposed to be leading egypt to the complete liberation but it didn't(!) , Al-Waf'd was an expression from the Egyptian alleged 'national' liberal bourgeoisie that wanted to fight for it's national liberation and for sure under it's leadership and influence over all the popular masses specifically the Egyptian farmers even some workers have fought under the Flag of the Waf'd Party and welcomed the death  and the gallows because they were an active heroic elements in the Egyptian patriotic movement. All of them welcome the death and saw it a very cheap price for Egypt's liberation, while the Wafd'ists themselves (except a few leaders including Sa'd Zhagloul and other have died early or spent most of their life in Exile due to the revolutionary activity) have become a mere lackey for colonialists and a very idle aristocratic class which the 'negotiations' of the colonialist masters have killed the 'revolutionary soul' that was moving this party, and till our day Al-Waf'd Party is a mere fascist's state instrument just a useless fascist party which supports the fascist system of Egypt unconditionally in every decision.

However it's not the point we are discussing here, we as Stalinist-Hoxhaists have learned to expose and fight against all bourgeois elements with all of their masks and slogans no matter what it was.

To develop the banner of the masses, to transform the Democratic demands and revolution of the working and poor people to a Socialist Revolution.

For us communists the passing of 100 years on Egypt's revolution got a great significance. In the colonies and the Neo-colonies alike; the fight for liberation and against the 'imaginary' independence still taking place so on in Egypt. Egypt and the whole of the Neo-colonies suffering exactly like from the old colonialists even in worst ways and methods. The Foreign Imperialist capital and the barbarian predatory global organizations like that of the IMF is shredding the peoples and the countries and throwing them into the hell of unbelievable horrific poverty under the slogans of 'economic reforming'. The world imperialists behind such an imperialist organizations want to draw themselves 'the doctors' who know very well the disease of the patient countries of the neo-colonies or what they call it a "3rd world" countries.

The "brilliant" Imperialist doctors with their huge armies of economists and fascist lackeys and systems in the neo-colonies want to convince the people by any price that the poverty's ending solution IS TO SPREAD MORE POVERTY AND MORE SOCIAL MISERY!

The old methods of the world imperialists-colonialists alike the new methods and way to keep the people and world proletarians in bondage, it wasn't too much different, the same way they tried to convince the Egyptian people that the 'economic reforms' will come with it's GREAT results which we are seeing now and which is nothing but more Slavery to the world's imperialists and More Poverty to our people; tried it in the old times too and tried to convince and deceive the Egyptian people who were patient with the colonialists; that if they helped in the war effort they will "immediately" get their independence, the Egyptian gave all of their blood sweet tears and great efforts to support the British imperialists-Colonailists in their imperialist predtory war, but they gave them nothing back and the British colonialists gave 1000 argument not leave Egypt (and how they can leave it while it's a great gold mine for their wealth!) , since this time the Egyptians were truely convinced that the real way for liberation is not to follow the orders of world imperialists-colonialists but to resist and to declare rebellion against them! and this is the same lesson we should learn in the conditions of the neo-colony and the fascist Republic of Egypt which is not different from Egypt under the typical very known old colonialism.

The fascist republic of Egypt must be destroyed by the Egyptian socialist revolution and on it's ruins emanates the SSR of Egypt. The fascist state of Egypt must and will fall, no matter the fascists tried to spread the fear and phobia of 'destroying the state' in the hearts of the people,those who really fear the destruction of 'their' state are the Egyptian bourgeoisie and fascists, the state that sees it's power only by military power or the police forces that can help to oppress and fight their revolt won't last too long and will meet the inevitable humiliating destruction by the revolutionary angry rebellion of the people, and that's what we see and that's what we've learned from the history and that's what we should be applying to help the socialist revolution to be victorious in all countries, in the neo-colonies and the imperialist countries let us Stalinists-Hoxhaists stand with the coming wave of the world proletarian revolution to make it the victorious world socialist revolution!

And let us learn, too, that any other way than the Socialist revolution is with no doubt a bourgeois capitalist road that will leave our people forever in the bondage of world capitalism-imperialism-colonialism-neocolonialism & world revisionism too!

Long Live the 100 Anniversary of the Egyptian National Revolution!

Long Live the heroic struggles of our Beloved working and poor People for Socialism!

Long Live the World Socialist Revolution in all of the poor countries andneo-colonies , in the rich countries of the Superpowers and all over the world!

Long Live the Communist International ( Stalinist-Hoxhaists) with all of it's Sections!

Long live the Egyptian Section of the Comintern (SH)!



2 Documents of the

Communist Party of Germany


Die Revolution in Ägypten

aus: "Rote Fahne" vom 3. Mai 1919

Ein Beben schüttelt das ganze britische Kolonialreich. Indien, Transvaal und Ägypten sind nach einer langjährigen Erstarrung erwacht und schütteln die Ketten ab, die sie so lange im Joch gehalten. Nach beinahe 4 Jahrzehnten britischer Herrschaft tritt nun Ägypten in offenen Aufstand gegen seine Unterdrücker. Die Regierung Loyd Georges, deren heimische Sorge ihre ganze Zeit und Tätigkeit in Anspruch nimmt, hat versucht, den wahren Sinn des Aufstands zu vertuschen und zu entstellen. Sie hat von Anfang des Aufruhrs an tendenziöse Nachrichten veröffentlicht, die dahin strebten, die ägyptische Bewegung so darzustellen, als ob sie die Sache einiger ehrgeiziger ägyptischer Nationalisten wäre, die die Macht an sich zu reißen suchten. Denn als der Aufstand immer mehr um sich griff, und sich durch das ganze Niltal ausbreitete, versicherten die englischen Behörden, dass es sich um eine religiöse Bewegung, um den heiligen Krieg, von den Türken inszeniert, handelte, der das ganze Kolonialgebiet mohamedanischer Länder unter europäischer Herrschaft bedroht.

In der Tat ist der ägyptische Aufstand weder eine religiöse noch eine fremdenfeindliche Bewegung. Er ist vielmehr eine soziale Revolution des Volkes, deren nächster Zweck die Aufhebung der britischen Herrschaft ist. Sie hat viel Ähnlichkeit mit dem italienischen Riforgimento von 1959, in dem das ganze italienischen Volk sich gegen die österreichische Unterdrückung aufbäumte. Auch hier hat das ganze ägyptische Volk, das 13 Millionen zählt, den offenen Kampf gegen die britische Regierung aufgenommen. Christliche Kopten kämpfen zusammen mit mohamedanischen Fellachen, Stadtarbeiter mit Intellektuellen, ägyptische Beamte im Dienste des englischen Königs zusammen mit reichen Bürgern.

Die Träger aber der ganzen Bewegung sind die werktätigen Massen, die Fellachen (Bauern) und städtisches Proletariat. Die Fellachen in Ägypten bilden die große Mehrheit der Bevölkerung. Ihre Zahl umfasst ungefähr 7 Millionen. Ihr Los ist erbärmlich, das sie 12 Stunden lang in der Sonnenglut arbeiten müssen, um einen täglichen Lohn von 75 Centimes bis 1 Frank zu verdienen. Die kleinen Landbesitzer sind nicht viel beser dran, da sie im Durchschnitt ein Drittel ihres Einkommens dem Staat abgeben müssen. Nach einer neuen Statistik ist der Besitz in Ägypten mit 25 % Hypotheken belastet. Im Lande des Pharao ist nur der Boden besteuert. Die englische Regierung hat es immer abgelehnt, andere Steuern zu erlassen. Damit ist die Herrschaft um das Besitztum des ganzen Landes allmählich in die Hände der Vertreterin ges englischen Finanzkapitals, der Agricultural Bank of Egypt, geraten.

Das Schicksal des städtischen Arbeiters ist nicht viel besser. Denn in ihrer langen Herrschaft haben die Engländer noch keine Zeit gefunden, eine Arbeitergesetzgebung zu erlassen. Die Werkstätten, in denen der Arbeiter zu arbeiten gezwungen ist, sind, wie man sich denken kann, nicht gerade gesund; die Arbeitszeiten sehr lang und die Löhne sehr niedrig.

Vor ungefähr 30 Jahren gründete sich eine ägyptische nationalistische Partei, deren Zweck es war, die britische Herrschaft aufzuheben. Sie stützte sich zunächst auf Frankreich, das damals der englischen Politik in Ägypten widerstrebte. Nach dem Faschoda-Konflikt, welcher eine Versöhnung zwischen England und Frankreich zur Folge hatte, überließ Frankreich die Alleinherrschaft über Ägypten den Engländern, die sofort die Unterdrückung verschärften und eine Willkürherrschaft einsetzte. Das bei der Eroberung des Landes versprochene Parlament wurde nicht mehr bewilligt, die obligatorischen Schulen nicht eingeführt und eine unerbittliche Verwaltung setzte alle Zeitungen und Zeitschriften unter strenge Zensur. Versammlungen wurden nicht erlaubt. Alle aktiven Elemente der Befreiungsbewegung mussten entweder ins Ausland fliehen oder wurden eingesperrt.

Trotz der Tatsache, dass Ägypten das Land ist, das die größte Geburtenzahl aufweist, ist die Sterblichkeit größer als irgendwo anders. Die Ursache ist auf die Tatsache zurückzuführen, dass in diesem tropischen Lande wenige hygienische Maßnahmen von den englischen Behörden getroffen worden sind.

Es wäre überflüssig, über die Lage der Finanzen zu sprechen. Man hat ja aus Erfahrung gelernt, was ein moderner imperialistischer Staat, wie England, verschlucken kann. Obgleich Ägypten ein jährliches Einkommen von 680 Millionen Mark hat, ist es England nicht gelungen, in 40 Jahren einen einzigen Pfennig davon zu verwenden, um die ägyptischen Schulden zu tilgen. Noch mehr: Am Vorabend des Weltkrieges befand sich in der ägyptischen Schatzkammer ein Reservefond von unmgefähr 600 Millionen Mark, der heute verschwunden ist.

Der englische Kaufmann und Industrielle hat überall in Ägypten den heimischen Kaufmann und Industriellen ersetzt. In Wilsons 14 Punkten glaubte die ägyptische Bourgeoisie ihre Rettung sowie die lang ersehnte Befreiung gefunden zu haben. Dass sie enttäuscht gewesen ist, beweist ihre Stellung in dieser Revolution. Das ganze Volk ist jetzt wie ein Mann aufgestanden, um das Joch abzuschütteln, das es so lange ertragen musste.

Das ägyptische Proletariat ist der Träger der Revolution, die wahrscheinlich von der ägyptischen Bourgeoisie unter dem falschen Mantel der Volksbefreiung zu ihren Gunsten ausgefochten wird.

E. P.

From: "Red flag" - central organ of the KPD, from 24 April 1919

The strike of the native government officials

In protest against the massacres of the British government in Egypt, the government employees of Egyptian descent have entered the strike. The strike, which began on April 2, was complete on April 3. No Egyptian officials exercise more of an activity. A number of shops are also closed. The pupils of the military police school also stopped work and demonstrated at various points - including the consulates. The streets of Cairo are constantly crowded. On the occasion of a gathering in Abdin Palace Square, an Englishman was killed, a house plundered and set on fire. Similar incidents occurred in Mohammed Ali Street, where a Greek was killed.

Since the unwillingness of the population is also directed against the Sultan, the following statement has been issued:

"Certain opinions in the London press have suggested that the sultan took the initiative in arresting people recently deported to Malta. The public is therefore informed that this measure was taken by the military authorities under the terms of the war law on its own initiative, without the Sultan being involved in any way.


Messages of Solidarity

 Greeting message of the Comintern (SH)
to the Egyptian Section
on the occasion of the 100th anniversary of the
Egyptian Revolution of 1919


The Comintern (SH) sends revolutionary greetings to all the comrades of our Egyptian Section.

The Egyptian Revolution of 1919 occupies a honorable historical place in the heroic anti-imperialist liberation struggle of the Arab peoples. It is an impetus and model for the liberation of the whole Arabic world.
In Egypt, the anti-imperialist struggle was directed primarily against British imperialism. Thus the Egyptian revolution of 1919 followed directly the call of the founding congress of the Comintern which took place to exactly the same time:

"Imperialists - get out of the colonies!"

The Egyptian Revolution of 1919 was the basis for the program of the Egyptian Communists. It was the first program in the world for the democratic, anti-imperialist and anti-feudal revolution. This program was published on February 14, 1921 in the Cairo newspaper "Al-Ahram" and "Al-Khisab" (newspaper of the Egyptian Communists). It also included working-class demands for the 8-hour day, labor legislation, equal pay for Egyptian and foreign workers, the founding of a farmer's union, etc.

(Such a great communist program was never put out by the Wafd Party !)

And it was the Egyptian Communists who were represented in the strike committees of the workers. It was the Egyptian Communists who for the first time linked the theory of Marxism-Leninism with the Egyptian workers' movement. 

The defense of the Egyptian Revolution of 1919, the Communist Party of Egypt, and Secretary-General Antun Marun, who died in prison, lies in this, namely the honorable continuation of their struggle against world imperialism and the counter-revolution in your own country.

World Imperialists - get out of Egypt!

Overthrow of world imperialism by the world proletarian revolution and establishment of the dictatorship of the world proletariat for the construction of world socialism.

Long live Egypt, freed from world imperialism !

Long live socialist Egypt in a socialist All-Arab republic, as part of the world socialist republic!

The Egyptian Revolution of 1919, inspired by the October Revolution, spawned Egypt's Communist Party, founded in 1920 and incorporated into the Comintern in 1922 as a Section. Thus began a qualitative leap in the history of the anti-imperialist struggle in the Arab world - namely towards Marxism-Leninism.
Due to the decisions of the VI World Congress, the Communist Party of Egypt had condemned in its manifesto the Wafd Party, the Swaharists, etc. as "a party of the bourgeoisie and landowners, as a counterrevolutionary party of national reformism." Precisely this correct Marxist-Leninist attitude of the Communist Party of Egypt, namely attacking the Wafd's party as an agent of British imperialism, is interpreted as the "cause of failure of the ECP" by bourgeois historians, by Dimitrov, Trotsky, etc.

There is no denying that the Wafd Party was afraid of the Communist Party and the Egyptian working class , namely much more than of British imperialism. In order to maintain their rule, the Egypt bourgeoisie united with the foreign imperialists against the working class, against its Communist Party, against the socialist revolution. The Wafd party turned from a democratic-progressive party into a reactionary, counterrevolutionary party.

This Marxist-Leninist stance against bourgeois nationalism strengthened in the 1920s and 1930s, particularly through the active support of Comrade Stalin. Stalin taught that the working class in the Arab countries must base itself on proletarian internationalism in the struggle against bourgeois nationalism, in the struggle against reconciliation with bourgeois nationalism. The bourgeoisie's initial progressive role in the Arab countries must not blind the Arab Communists to the reactionary role that the Arab bourgeoisie later adopted, and which today finds its highest expression in fascism.
Exploiting the growing contradictions between the national bourgeoisie and the imperialists can not be equated with support of the Egyptian bourgeoisie.
The bourgeoisie, weakened by the conflict with the imperialists, instead, must be overthrown in the revolutionary struggle of the proletariat because the imperialists need the national bourgeoisie for more exploitation of the Egyptian toiling masses.

To combine the anti-imperialist struggle with the struggle against their imperialist lackeys of the national bourgeoisie, this was the revolutionary task of the Communist Party of Egypt at that time and that is still the task of the Egyptian Section of the Comintern (SH). May the neo-revisionists denounce us as "sectarians" who would have learned "nothing" in history. We will never betray the working class and sell it not to the bourgeoisie. No one will prevent the Egyptian Section of the Comintern (SH) from taking revenge on the Wadf Party, which has brutally acted against the Egyptian Communist Party and who caused so much suffering to the heroical Egyptian communists.

With the Comintern under the revisionist leadership of Dimitrov, this Marxist-Leninist development of proletarian internationalism came to an end in the struggle against bourgeois nationalism in the Arab countries. Dimitrov condemned the correct decisions of the VI World Congress of 1928, which explicitly considered Lenin's line in the colonial question at the II World Congress as a still valid basis. This did not prevent Dimitrov from diffaming the VI World Congress as the cause for the alleged "sectarianism" of the Communist Party of Egypt.
Under the negative effects of Dimitrovism, the true communists in the Arab countries are still suffering until today.
The Comintern (SH), therefore, takes this greeting address on the occasion of the 100th anniversary of the Egyptian Revolution as an opportunity to expose and combat the revival of Dimitrovism in the Arab countries, which stands in the way of the socialist revolution.

With the 7th World Congress, the correct Leninist-Stalinist line of the Comintern regarding the Arab countries was betrayed, liquidated and turned into a revisionist line. We criticize, condemn and fight Dimitrov's popular front policy in the Arab countries, especially against the Arabic neo-revisionists of the ICMLPO. The lessons of the 1919 Egyptian Revolution are invaluable to our struggle against the Arab neo-revisionists today. We all know that the Arab neo-revisionists are particularly referring to the popular front policy of Dimitrov and that they are trying to revive it in the Arab countries just for the sole reason of preventing the transition of the Arab Spring into the socialist revolution. Thus, the neo-revisionists act as lackeys of world imperialism, namely to extinguish the flame of the world revolution in the Arab countries so that it does not spread to other countries.

Of central importance is the Dimitrov resolution "Tasks of the Communist Parties in the Arab Countries in the Fight for an Anti-imperialist Popular Front" (February 29, 1936).

The purpose of this resolution was to force the Arab communist parties to subordinate under the revisionist decisions of the 7th World Congress of 1935. According to this resolution, the main enemy was no longer the rightist opportunism, but the "leftist" opportunism !! - a through and through anti-Stalinist definition of the main enemy in the communist movement of the Arab world !! Globally, the main enemy is right-wing opportunism to this day!
In this resolution, almost all Sections of the Comintern openly were accused of "sectarianism" because they allegedly pay no attention to the Arab liberation struggle and that they would be inactive. Even if this were true, that would not be a reason to give up the correct Leninist-Stalinist line of the Comintern in support of the Arab peoples and replace it by a revisionist line.

In the contrary. It would have been the task of the Comintern's leadership to help all Sections to put into practice the teachings of Lenin and Stalin in support of the national liberation struggle of the Arab peoples better than before.

With the feigned criticism of the alleged "sectarianism" of the Sections, Dimitrov did not want to support the Arab peoples, but betrayed them instead by means of his revisionism. Dimitrov's policy towards the Arab peoples was a policy of capitulation to world imperialism. Dimitrov disarmed the Arab peoples and handed them over to the imperialists. This was last not least an attack against the achievements of the Egyptian revolution in 1919. Dimitrov has liquidated not only the Arab sections but also their leadership, the Comintern itself. Without international leadership, the path of the Arab Communists led to the most difficult situation in their history. This has changed fundamentally only with the founding of the Comintern (SH).

With this revisionist resolution of the ECCI: "Tasks of the Communist Parties in the Arab Countries in the Fight for an Anti-imperialist Popular Front", the liquidation of the formation and further strengthening of Bolshevik parties in the Arab countries was prepared. This was justified with the fake argument, that the Arabic communist parties would allegedly be "isolated from the masses". The Comintern of Lenin and Stalin was accused by the bourgeoisie of "instrumentalizing" the anti-imperialist struggle of the Arab peoples. The Comintern, for example, would have "failed" because it wanted to impose its will on the Arab peoples, regardless of the special conditions in the Arab countries, regardless of the mood of the masses there. This is in line with Maoism, which refused any interference of the Comintern in Chinese affairs. Maoism and Dimitrovism are identical ideologies of the bourgeoisie. This became also evident in the Arab countries.

It was also Dimitrov who followed this ideology of the world bourgeoisie, which defamed the communist movement in the Arab countries as an externally controlled "foreign body", which had "no connection" within the Arab masses. The bourgeois historians speak of students at universities who have been infected with Marxist ideas imported from the West. By the way, this may well be true, but the historical fact is that the Egyptian revolution of 1919 was carried by the broad masses, in which the strikes of the workers played a prominent role. This shows that the working masses in Egypt were the real bearers of the democratic revolution and not the bourgeoisie or single bourgeois intellectuals. But Dimitrov did not want the working masses in Egypt to go one step further. He rejected the transition from bourgeois-democratic to socialist revolution. This is characteristic of Dimitrov's anti-Leninism, who had set this slogan, namely, to transform the bourgeois-democratic revolution into the socialist revolution. And this is also the anti-Leninism of today's neo-revisionists, who try to prevent us from turning the bourgeois-democratic Arab Spring into a socialist Arab spring.

Dimitrov went further and accused the Arab Sections of their alleged "sectarianism" in the anti-imperialist struggle. We reject this accusation and defend the heroic principled anti-imperialist struggle of all the Arab Sections of the Comintern at the time of Lenin and Stalin.
This pseudo-argument of the so-called "anti-sectarian mass line" of the Seventh World Congress was Dimitrov's justification for his policy of compromise with the bourgeoisie at the front of the national liberation movement.

Lenin and Stalin strived for the formation ( and not for the dissolution) of Bolshevik (!) mass (!!) parties. In contrast, Dimitrov understood by "masses-line", the union with bourgeois parties up to a merger with them. So, just the opposite. The danger of this revisionist "mass line" persisted and persists in being sold under the mask of a "Leninist" line.

We must therefore wage a consistent and uncompromising struggle by defeating the neo-revisionist united front policy by means of our own Stalinist-Hoxhaist united front tactic. If we reject the Dimitrov united front with the bourgeoisie, that does not mean that we can do without the proletarian united front policy. No, we are fighting for a global proletarian united front. We defend the proletarian united front policies of the 5 Classics of Marxism-Leninism by relying on them and applying them correctly to today's conditions globally. We are for a globalized united front policy of the world proletariat under the banner of Marx, Engels, Lenin, Stalin and Enver Hoxha, under the banner of the Comintern (SH) ! Without leadership of the Comintern (SH) there will be no united front policy in the struggle against world imperialism !

Stalinism-Hoxhaism teaches that Dimitrov's popular-front policy could only be enforced successfully on condition that it is implemented in combination between the working-class movement of the West and in the anti-colonialist movement of the East, that is globally.
The revisionist slogan of Dimitrov was:
Proletarians of all countries and oppressed peoples - unite ! - namely in the revisionist Popular Front, and thus no longer against the bourgeoisie, but together with the bourgeoisie.
Dimitrov demanded that the communists in Egypt subordinate themselves to the Wafd party and become an appendage of the bourgeois party.
And what has become of Dimitrov's popular front out of this today?
From the bourgeois elements who supported the Egyptian revolution in 1919, a bourgeoisie has emerged today, who, with her fascist regime, performs services for the world imperialists. This is Dimitrov's betrayal of the Egyptian working class and the Egyptian people.

Our Stalinist-Hoxhaist critique of Dimitrov's Popular Front policy would therefore be incomplete if we would ignore its necessary unmasking in the colonial question. Only on the basis of this criticism at neo-revisionism, we will be able to defeat today's fascist development of the rule of the bourgeoisie throughout the Arab world.
The betrayal of the Popular Front policy of Dimitrov is thus not limited to its application to the capitalist countries of the West.
Dimitrov turned Lenin's revolutionary unification between the West and the East into a revisionist slogan, namely a pact with the bourgeoisie in the West and in the East.
Without our criticism of Dimitrov on the colonial question, our anti-imperialist line of the Comintern (SH) can not be put on genuine Stalinist-Hoxhaist basis. Without rejecting Dimitrov's wrong line, the Arab peoples can not win.

Stalin teaches that the world proletariat only supports such national movements that serve to weaken and overthrow world imperialism.
Dimitrov, on the other hand, supported with his Popular Front policy those national movements which served the reconciliation with the national bourgeoisie and thus the protection of the reserves in the hinterland of world imperialism. From this, modern revisionism developed into a doctor at the bedside of the bourgeois national movement and the gravedigger of proletarian internationalism in the question of the national liberation movement.
Dimitrov's united front policy meant the separation of the national liberation struggle from the proletarian world revolution, the separation from the world proletariat.
Dimitrov's popular front means separation of the national liberation struggle from communism, means purification of the national liberation struggle from the influence and of the necessary leading role of the communists.

The Comintern (SH) says:
Whoever separates the anti-imperialist struggle from the world socialist revolution, from the abolition of class society, from the teachings of the 5 Classics of Marxism-Leninism, no longer represents the interests of the world proletariat, but has already begun to serve the interests of the world bourgeoisie.
Dimitrov's revisionist resolution "On the struggle of the Arab communist parties" is a critique where the Arab masses would not have seen in the Arab Sections of the Comintern representatives of the national liberation struggle. The Arab masses would allegedly see the Arab communists only as an "extended arm" of the Comintern, Stalin and the Soviet Union. Dimitrov called on the Arab Sections not anymore to engage in communist propaganda because it would offend national reformists and deter the peasant masses. If the imperialists portray communism as a specter of fright, then, in the view of the revisionists, it is not necessary to fight anti-communism but instead simply renounce communist propaganda. This is nothing others than pure capitulationism and liquidationism, betrayal at communism.

"Anti-imperialist struggle - yes - but without communist influences, without the slogan of the world socialist revolution etc." - that is the revisionist phenomenology of Dimitrovism in the colonial question.

The Comintern (SH) says: The colonial question can not be solved without the social question.

The Comintern (SH) goes on to say that the colonial question must be subordinated to the social question.

The Comintern (SH) finally says: The anti-imperialist struggle is inseparably part of the struggle for the world socialist revolution.

One must neither separate the struggle for colonial liberation from social liberation, nor equate the two, or even superordinate the colonial struggle over social struggle.
One must neither separate the anti-imperialist struggle from the world socialist revolution nor equate or even superordinate it.

At the time of the Egyptian revolution of 1919, the slogan of Lenin was valid, namely the unification of the proletariat in the capitalist countries with the oppressed masses in the colonies against the common enemy - world imperialism.
This slogan is no longer valid today under the conditions of globalization of capitalism. Today the whole world is capitalist, and thus the world proletariat is the hegemonic revolutionary class in every country in the world. Today, the world no longer divides into the "capitalist West" and the "colonized East" as in 1919.

Former colonial countries of the East have now become themselves imperialist countries (such as the social-imperialist superpower China, which does not only exploit and oppress the workers of the former colonies, but even has penetrated into the old capitalist countries of the West). Therefore, such old division of the world no longer exists since globalization.

The teachings of the 5 Classics of Marxism-Leninism on colonialism are still valid. Colonialism is a feature of imperialism. According to the lessons of Lenin , colonialism, in particular, the same as imperialism in general, namely is characterized by parasitism, rotting and decay.

In accordance with all the other contradictions within the camp of world imperialism, there are two contradictionary trends in the colonial question, too.

The one tendency is mutual support, namely uniting global counter revolutionary actions in the struggle against revolutionary uprisings of the anti-imperialist world camp.

And the other trend is the struggle against each other within the global network of colonialism for the purpose of maintaining predominant positions or conquering new ones.

Both tendencies of these contradictions among the world-colonialists within the world imperialist camp inevitably create a revolutionary counter-tendency in the anti-imperialist world camp, which will contribute to the further maturing of the world socialist revolution.

Meanwhile, world imperialism has transformed the whole world into a one and only "world colony", into a globalized network of capitalist enslavement. The world colonists of today do not regard only this or that country as their colony but the entire world as one and only global colony.

The old forms of colonialism had been changed to global forms of colonialism, however the nature of colonialism still exists as before.

The character of exploitation and oppression did not change and remained the same: the rich countries exploit and oppress the poor countries. The rich world exploits and oppresses the poor world.

The only difference between yesterday and today that is the intensity of exploitation and oppression which increased significantly since globalization.

The anti-colonial struggle as part of the anti-imperialist struggle has developed into a part of an all-round, globalized struggle against the entire world imperialist system, which will mainly be decided between the world proletariat and the world bourgeoisie - namely in a world scale, both in the rich and poor countries all over the world.

Stalinism-Hoxhaism teaches to unite proletariansand poor peasants around the world to overthrow world imperialism and to tear in pieces its global colonialist network. In any other way, the anti-colonial struggle can neither be correctly understood nor successfully implemented.

Today, the world socialist revolution is on the agenda which includes the unification of all kinds of revolutionary movements in every country, thus the anti-colonialist struggle, too.

Stalinism-Hoxhaism in the Colonial Question is the theory and tactics of the abolition of global colonialism by the world proletarian revolution, in general, and in particular the theory and tactics of transforming the colonial reserve of the dictatorship of the imperialist world bourgeoisie into an antiimperialistic, socialist reserve of the dictatorship of the world proletariat.

The basic contradiction in the Arab countries is that between wage labor and capital.
Maoism sees the peasants as the leading force of the national liberation movement. Stalinism-Hoxhaism, on the other hand, sees the world proletariat as the leader of the national liberation movement, while the leading proletarian force entirely depends on how far it is supported by the poor peasants.
As long as capitalism prevails - and all Arab countries are now capitalist - there can be no genuine national self-determination for the Arab countries. National self-determination can only be realized in an Arab world that is socialist, in which the antagonistic class contradictions are eliminated.

But national self-determination can only be finally guaranteed on a world scale, in world socialism, in the socialist world republic.
However, world imperialism does not want a united socialist Arab world with its own self-determined nations. World imperialism wants to continue the exploitation and oppression of the Arab world by means of instigating hatred among the Arab nations ("divide and rule" ! ) - if necessary, with blood and sword. And only with blood and sword can the Arab peoples defeat world imperialism.

We do not give up any demand for national self-determination voluntarily, however we will never forget to always link this demand of reforms to the revolutionary struggle for the overthrow of the bourgeoisie.

There will be no liberation of the Arab world as long as world imperialism rules the Arab world.
If the Arab world is on its own, it alone can not defeat world imperialism. World imperialism can only be defeated by the world socialist revolution. Therefore, it is the task of the Arab world to support the socialist world revolution and to help it to victory.
As Enver Hoxha teaches, we are currently living in the stage of the worldwide collapse of imperialism and the victory of the world proletarian revolution. This collapse is especially valid for the present stage of colonialism. It is therefore the task of the Arab communists, the Arab revolutionaries, the Arab working class and the Arab peoples to join the decisive struggle of the world proletariat against the world bourgeoisie and to rise together for world socialism.

On the basis of the 7th World Congress, the revisionist ECCI of the Comintern wrote a "Resolution on the Links and Relationships between the Arab Communist Parties" on February 28, 1936.
Dimitrov fought with this resolution the idea of ​​a united All-Arabic communist party and called it an "ideology of the national bourgeoisie". Dimitrov was against an All-Arab socialism. An All-Arab socialist republic considered Dimitrov to be "sectarianism" and "wishful thinking". And he shared this wrong opinion with the other revisionist Comintern leaders such as Otto Kuusinen and D.Z. Manuilsky and , by the way, also Wang Ming.
This revisionist line of rejection of an All-Arab communist party continued in 1970, notably by Bagdash, the leader of the revisionist party of Syria. After having followed the revisionist line of Dimitrov's people's front, the Syrian "communist" party became the forerunner of Soviet revisionism in the whole Arab world and a bootlicker of today's Russian imperialism and of the regime of the fascist bourgeoisie in Syria - thus a dangerous source of social-fascism within the whole Arab world.
History has convincingly refuted the false views of all these revisionists: the Arab Spring has invariably involved all the Arab countries without exception. And all the Arab countries, as well, will inevitably be involved and united in the All-Arab socialist revolution. The question of colonial liberation movements has been transformed by the world imperialists, themselves, into a global question for the overthrow of the world bourgeoisie, more precisely in a question of world proletarian revolution and thus no longer in a question of bourgeois-democratic revolution (Maoism = "New Democracy").
From this inevitably results the unification of the Arab socialist countries in the united socialist Arab republic. And from this it further follows also inevitably that the Comintern (SH) has made a clear decision in the organization question, which is oriented at the long-term goal of the All-Arab socialist republic. This corresponds perfectly to Leninism in the national and colonial question, namely the irreversible trend towards the fusion of nations.

The creation of an All-Arab Section not only strengthens the Comintern (SH) in general, but also the Sections in each Arab country, in particular. In this way, we clearly distinguish ourselves from Dimitrov in the organizational question of the Arab revolution.

The Comintern (SH) sees in the All-Arab Section the necessary and indispensable link between the Comintern (SH) and the individual Sections of the Arab countries for the creation of a unified socialist Arab world. The All-Arab Section of the Comintern (SH) fights for the All-Arab socialist republic in the socialist world republic.
We fight for a unified Arab proletarian army as a strong detachment of the proletarian world army, which can only be guided by an All-Arab Section of the Comintern (SH).
We fight for the socialist revolution of the entire Arab world, for the Arab socialist revolution as part of the world socialist revolution.
This is the line of the Comintern (SH), the only principled line with which the Arab world finds the way to its liberation.
The line of the Arab neo-revisionists, on the other hand, is to follow Dimitrov's path and stop the Arab world from making its revolutionary way to socialism. That's why the neo-revisionists are fighting the Comintern (SH). And that's why the Arab Sections defend the Comintern (SH) against the neo-revisionists.
There will be no socialist Arab world without world socialism. And world socialism will not exist without having defeated the neo-revisionists.

The Egyptian Revolution of 1919 will be defended by defeat of the neo-revisionists in Egypt, Especially, it is our task to beat Dimitrovism in Egypt by means of our invincible weapons of Stalinism-Hoxhaism.

Long live the Egyptian Revolution of 1919!

Let us crown the Egyptian Revolution of 1919 with the victory of the socialist Egyptian revolution!

Long live the Egyptian section of the Comintern (SH)!

Long live the Stalinism-Hoxhaism!

Long live world socialism and the world communism!


Wolfgang Eggers
Comintern (SH)
March 26, 2019