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Pyotr Krasikov

October 5, 1870 - August 20, 1939

150. birthday

October 5, 2020

 

Pyotr Ananyevich Krasikov (Russian: Петр Ананьевич Красиков) (5 October 1870 – 20 August 1939) was a Russian revolutionary and functionary of the All-Union Communist Party (Bolsheviks) and politician of the Soviet Union as well as a Marxist theorist and writer on political affairs. He was the first Procurator General of the Soviet Union, serving from 1924 to 1933.

Pyotr Krasikov was involved in revolutionary politics beginning in 1892, when he joined the Emancipation of Labour group. Later he joined the Russian Social Democratic Labour Party.

Professional revolutionary, Bolshevik.

Joined the Iskra organization in 1900.

At the Pskov meeting of the organizing committee for convening the Second Congress of R.S.D.L.P. (November 1902) he was elected a member of the O.K.

At the Second Congress (1903) he joined the Bolsheviks.

After the Congress, the Congress actively participated in the fight against the Mensheviks.

In August 1904, he attended the meeting of the 22 Bolsheviks in Geneva.

He took an active part in the 1905-07 revolution.

After the 1917 Russian Revolution his positions were related to legal issues and he is considered to be among the principal creators of the Soviet legal system, along with Andrey Vyshinsky. He was Deputy People's Commissar of Justice since 1918, Prosecutor General of the Supreme Court since 1924, and Deputy Chairman of the Supreme Court from 1933 to 1938.

Krasikov died in 1939. He was one of the Old Bolsheviks.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Atheistic writings

(in Russian language)

The collection contains a number of his articles and speeches

 

Красиков П.А.

Избранные атеистические произведения.

Krasikov was the author of the decree

"On the separation of church from state and school from church"

 

CONTENT:
Preface (5).
Soviet Policy on the Question of Religion (10).
Soviet power and church (19).
Women, religion and communism (28).
Religion and Communism (33).
Four manifestos of Patriarch Tikhon (46).
Who benefits from them? (55).
Peasantry and religion (58).
Proletarian and Bourgeois Conscience (88).
Do they know what they are doing? (114).
Speech by P.A. Krasikov on the X. Congress of the RCP (b) on 10 March 1921 (135).
The mystery of the Our Father (140).
Work sectarianism (143).
Hunger and Christianity (150).
Supernatural forces (159).
Freedom of conscience and separation of Church and State (179).

 

 

 

 

КРАСИКОВ, Петр Ананьевич

Krasikov participated in the Russian Revolution of 1905

 

 

 

BIOGRAPHY

 

PETR ANANIEVICH KRASIKOV

Prosecutor of the Supreme Court of the USSR

Petr Ananievich Krasikov was born on 5 October 1870 in Krasnoyarsk. When the boy was barely one year old, his father Ananiy Petrovich left to seek his fortune in Semipalatinsk and then moved to Karkaraly (Karaganda). He died early, at the age of 42, leaving his wife Elizaveta Vasilievna almost without means. Only thanks to the financial support of his grandfather, Petr Krasikov was able to finish a classical grammar school in Krasnoyarsk at the age of 20. During these years his freedom-loving views were fully developed. A large library remained from his father, and the young student absorbed the works of Chernyshevsky, Dobrolyubov, Pisarev, Lavrov, Lassalle, Mill and many other Russian and foreign writers and philosophers. Political exile also had a great influence on the young man, who walked endlessly through Krasnoyarsk. High school students often managed to get inside them, and then they listened to their stories about the struggle against tsarism and sometimes even received forbidden literature.
Shortly before the end of high school, the engagement of Peter Krasikov to the daughter of a civil servant, Victoria Przhigodskaya, took place. On June 5, 1891 P.A.Krasikov received a certificate. The young people agreed that Peter would go to the University of St. Petersburg, and Victoria would continue her studies in Geneva, where she would try to meet G. V. Plekhanov, who had become the true ruler of her thoughts.
In 1891 P. A. Krasikov entered the Faculty of Physics and Mathematics at St. Petersburg University. He immediately threw himself headlong into the stormy student life and joined revolutionary youth organizations. Soon Krasikov resolutely parted with the exact sciences and transferred to the Faculty of Law, which opened up an immeasurably wider horizon for revolutionary activities. He joined the Student Aid Society, where he became close friends with prominent student leaders such as G.M. Krzhizhanovsky, S.A. Hoffman, M.V. Keller and others. He seriously studied Marxism, participated in the formation of the first working class circles on Vasilievsky Island, met frequently with workers from the Baltic, Admiralty and Putilowski factories, railroad workshops and like-minded people, printed and distributed revolutionary literature on Remington and Hectograph.
During his student vacations, Petr Krasikov visited Geneva on behalf of the Marxist revolutionaries to establish closer ties with the Emancipation of Labour group. In Switzerland, together with P. B. Axelrod and other members of this group, he met the famous Marxist and economist Georgy Valentinovich Plekhanov, the famous revolutionary Vera Ivanovna Zasulich, who shot the mayor of St. Petersburg, Trepov. He returned to Petersburg in the fall of 1892. In December 1893 P. A. Krasikov made his second trip abroad, from which he returned to St. Petersburg on March 30, 1894, bringing back "half a pound" of illegal literature. It was hardly possible to hand it over to his comrades, since he was arrested the very next day. After being temporarily detained at the police station, Krasikov was transferred to the Peter and Paul Fortress on April 12, 1894. He was released at the end of December and was ordered to travel to his home country under police supervision until the end of the case. He was expelled from the university.
In October 1895 Krasnoyarsk received a decision on the case of PA Krasikov - three years of exile with the establishment of police supervision. Despite this, he continued his revolutionary activities in Siberia. In March 1897 he met V. I. Lenin, who passed Krasnoyarsk on his way into exile to Shushenskaya. Subsequently, Lenin visited the city repeatedly and even lived with Pyotr Ananievich, sharing his ideas for founding a proletarian party in Russia.
It was not until December 1899 that P.A. Krasikov managed to return to St. Petersburg. After he was granted the right of temporary residence, he immediately joined the statistics department of the Ministry of Finance. Not for a single day did he leave the revolutionary activity: he forged links with young people, was actively involved in propaganda. An accidental police operation in one of the safe houses again led to the arrest of Krasikov and his deportation to Pskov "before the sentence was pronounced.

In 1900 P. A. Krasikov succeeded in recovering at the University of St. Petersburg. However, due to the hurricane of the revolutionary struggle, he did not go to classes. At the beginning of the century a kind of Marxist center was formed in Pskov. Lenin had just left the city, obsessed with the idea of founding the first all-Russian revolutionary newspaper, with the aim of uniting the dispersed social-democratic organizations. After obtaining a passport, he went abroad to print Iskra. Pyotr Ananievich joined the Iskra group and was then admitted to the organizing committee for convening the Second Congress of the RSDLP. In 1902 he became completely illegal. PA Krasikov became co-editor of Iskra, visited VI Lenin abroad and then, on his instructions, visited all the important social-democratic organizations in Russia as an agent of Iskra. He visits Kiev, Odessa, Moscow, Kharkov, Saratov, Samara, Vilno, Minsk and many other cities. In the years before the first Russian revolution Krasikov crossed the border illegally more than once. As a delegate of the Kiev Party Committee, he took part in the II Congress of the RSDLP in London. At the congress he was elected to the presidium together with V. I. Lenin and G. V. Plekhanov.
After the events of January 1905, Fr. A. Krasikov came to Moscow and then moved to St. Petersburg. In October, he became one of the organizers of the First Soviet of Workers' Deputies and then joined its Executive Committee from the Bolshevik Party. From October to November of the same year, under the pseudonym of Anton, he had to speak almost continuously at numerous meetings and sessions to attend all meetings of the executive committee and council. At the same time he headed the agitation department of the Petersburg Party Committee.
In early December 1905, almost all members of the First Soviet of Workers' Deputies were arrested during a meeting at the Free Economic Society. P.A.Krasikov ended up in the 2nd building of Vyborg Prison, where he was held until June 1906. The case against him and several others was dropped due to insufficient evidence. After his release, Pyotr Ananievich was again one of the most active revolutionaries. However, after the defeat of the first Russian revolution and the defeat of the party, PA Krasikov decided to take a legal position. In 1907 he was exiled to the city of Ozerki near St. Petersburg. By this time his health had been thoroughly undermined and his financial situation was very difficult. He decided to recover at the University of St. Petersburg. Pyotr Ananievich spent six months preparing intensively for examinations as an external student. On April 16, 1908, Krasikov graduated in law and on June 26, he began working as an assistant to the famous St. Petersburg lawyer ND Sokolov. Three years later, he was admitted to the estate of lawyers in the St. Petersburg district of the St. Petersburg Court of Justice and was already managing his own affairs in July 1913.
PA Krasikov was mainly involved in political affairs or labor conflicts, which quickly made him famous among the workers of the capital and especially of Vasilievsky Island. Petr Ananievich embraced the February Revolution of 1917 with enthusiasm. From the early days, he was in the thick of it: he participated in the organization of the Soviet Workers' and Soldiers' Deputies, was elected a member of the Petrograd Soviet and a delegate to the VI Congress of the RSDLP (b). In June 1917, at the First All-Russian Soviet Congress, P.A. Krasikov became a member of the All-Russian Central Executive Committee and in August passed from the Bolshevik faction to the Petrograd Duma.

After the October Revolution, PA Krasikov, together with M. Yu. Kozlovsky led a commission of inquiry into counterrevolution and sabotage in the Military Revolutionary Committee and then in the Petrograd Soviet. He had to deal with almost all political affairs in the first months after October. In particular, the affairs of Purishkevich, Colonel Rimani, Gendarme General Dzhunkovsky, provocateur Aleksinsky, cadets Kishkin, Shingarev, Kokoshkin, former Minister of Justice and Prosecutor General Shcheglovitov, Countess Panina, the last Minister of War of the Manikovsky Provisional Government and many others passed through his hands ...
While working on the commission of inquiry, Krasikov simultaneously performed many other tasks: In particular, he was a member of the College of the People's Commissariat of Justice, a member of the Commission on the Regulation of Financial and Economic Obligations of Soviet Russia in relation to Germany under the Brest Treaty, participated in the work of the Press Commissariat, agitation and propaganda with the Petrograd Soviet led by Volodarsky.

In March 1918, the Soviet government and all People's Commissariat moved to Moscow. Here, the duties of PA Krasikov were expanded to include new tasks. He became deputy chairman of the Court of Cassation in the All-Russian Central Executive Committee and a member of a special troika to oversee the investigations in the All-Russian Cheka. Pjotr Ananyevich has managed to do a variety of things.
During this period, PA Krasikov devoted a lot of attention to anti-religious propaganda. Together with A. V. Lunacharsky, P. I. Stuchka and Professor M. A. Reisner, he prepared the text of the decree of the Council of People's Commissars of 23 January 1918 on freedom of conscience, church and religion, which consolidated the separation of church and state. Then it was processed by V.I. Lenin. To enforce the decree, a department of cults was established in the People's Justice Commissariat under the direction of Krasikov. He also published the magazine "Revolution and Church", around which an activist of the so-called militant atheists formed.
On December 30, 1922, the 1st Soviet Congress of the USSR was held in Moscow. It examined two important documents - the Declaration and the Treaty on the Formation of the USSR. The First Constitution of the USSR, adopted by the 2nd Session of the Central Executive Committee of the USSR on July 6, 1923, and approved by the Second Soviet Congress of the USSR on January 31, 1924, states: "In order to establish revolutionary legality on the territory of the USSR, the Supreme Court shall be established under the Central Executive Committee of the USSR." The Supreme Court was established by the Central Executive Committee of the USSR. The Prosecutor's Office of the Supreme Court of the USSR was also established. The prosecutor and his deputy were appointed directly by the Presidium of the Central Executive Committee of the USSR. The Prosecutor was entrusted with the duty to comment on all issues to be resolved by the Supreme Court of the USSR, to maintain prosecution in criminal cases, to appeal against decisions of plenary sessions of the Supreme Court of the USSR, etc. The prosecutor also monitored the legality of the actions of the political administration of the United States of the USSR. Pyotr Ananievich Krasikov was appointed Prosecutor of the Supreme Court of the USSR by Decree of the Central Executive Committee of the USSR of March 21, 1924. The professional revolutionary Sergei Ivanovich Kavtaradze became his deputy.
The most important place in the activities of the Prosecutor of the Supreme Court of the USSR P.A. The Archive Fund of the Prosecutor's Office of the USSR preserved a considerable number of representations and protests of P.A. Krasikov, which he sent to the Presidium of the Central Executive Committee of the USSR, the Supreme Court of the USSR, insisting on the abolition of illegal legal acts violating the Constitution of the USSR. Often he tried to eliminate the violations that were found.

From May 1925, the structure and personnel of the Prosecutor's Office of the Supreme Court of the USSR looked as follows. The prosecutor of the Supreme Court of the USSR had a deputy and a secretary. The Prosecutor's Office had five departments: general supervision, judicial supervision, supervision of the OGPU, military prosecutor's office and general. The departments of general and judicial supervision were headed by the heads, supervisors of the OGPU and military prosecutor's office - assistants to the Prosecutor of the Supreme Court of the USSR, and the general department was headed by the Chief Secretary. In total there were 59 people in the Prosecutor's Office (including secretaries, clerks, typists, couriers, statisticians and a librarian).
Despite all the difficulties and unresolved problems, the prosecutor of the Supreme Court of the USSR P.A.Krasikov acted quite actively within the limits of the powers vested in him. The subordinate staff of the Prosecutor's Office of the Supreme Court of the USSR regularly reviewed the decisions of the People's Commissariat and departments of the entire Union, the republican authorities and administration, and the plenums of the Supreme Courts of the Union republics, both on general issues and on specific criminal cases. They immediately reported to the Prosecutor of the Supreme Court of the USSR P.A.Krasikov any revealed inconsistencies with the Constitution of the USSR or the Union Law. Petr Ananievich decided together with them how to react to these violations: to file or limit an official protest or official representation, if the violation does not constitute a fundamental written or oral statement for one or another official. At the plenums of the Supreme Court of the USSR, the protests of P. A. Krasikov on various issues were frequently discussed. After his intervention, usually illegal decisions of People's Commissars and heads of other departments, both of the entire Union and of republicans, were overturned. Petr Ananyevich addressed the plenary session of the Supreme Court of the USSR on the interpretation of certain legislative acts and on the material of certain criminal cases protested by him. He often rose to the podium and at meetings of the Central Executive Committee of the USSR as a speaker on basic draft laws. At the second session of the Central Executive Committee of the USSR (October 1924), P.A. Krasikov reported on the basic principles of criminal law of the USSR and the union republics and on military crimes, and at the third session (February 1927) he was a speaker on the draft decree on state crimes.
Krasikov was involved in the preparation of many important legislative acts of the first post-revolutionary years, such as: Order of the Supreme Court of the USSR (1924), Regulations on Military Courts and Military Prosecutor's Office (1926), Regulations on the Supreme Court of the USSR and the Prosecutor's Office of the Supreme Court of the USSR (1929), Criminal Code and Code of Criminal Procedure, Code of Marriage, Family and Guardianship, etc.
According to a submission of P.A.Krasikov to the Central Executive Committee of the USSR in 1929, the investigators of the most important cases, which had previously been part of the investigative section of the Supreme Court of the USSR, were transferred to the direct subordination of the Prosecutor of the Supreme Court of the USSR.
Pyotr Ananyevich held his high office for more than nine years until the prosecutor's office of the USSR Supreme Court was abolished. He often spoke with prosecutors and court officials with reports and accounts.
PA Krasikov was elected a candidate member of the All-Russian Central Executive Committee (12th and 13th Convocations) and the Central Executive Committee of the USSR (3rd and 4th Convocations).

On August 17, 1933, he was appointed deputy chairman of the Supreme Court of the USSR and remained in this position until September 15, 1938. At the Supreme Court of the USSR, he supervised the military and water transport colleges. In addition, he devoted great attention to participation in the judicial and supervisory boards, repeatedly reported and reported when dealing with certain criminal cases, and always reacted sharply and fundamentally to all revealed facts of violations of the law.
In recent years, PA Krasikov became ill frequently and therefore sometimes went abroad for treatment. In one of his letters to his wife he wrote: "In general, I will tell you that I am quite tired of foreign countries. The people here are greedy, greedy, hostile to each other and silent. The French are grumpy and gloomy. Their crisis is healthy, so all interests are focused on gathering and saving the wildest. "
In the fall of 1939, PA Krasikov went for treatment to a sanatorium in Zheleznovodsk, where he died on September 20. There, at the foot of the North Caucasus, he was buried.
Despite his revolutionary spirit, Petr Ananievich always found time for his favorite activities: chess, sports and music. One of his many party nicknames was musician. PA Krasikov played the violin masterfully. During the emigration Russian revolutionaries often gathered in PN Lepeshinsky's apartment in Geneva, where they enjoyed his brilliant performance of Braga's Serenade or Raff's Cavatina. He often used the violin for other purposes as well - in this case he kept coded addresses of comrades and party documents.

 

 

Krasikov was the first prosecutor general of the USSR

1924 - 1933

The Procurator General of the USSR (Генеральный прокурор СССР in Russian, or Generalnyi prokuror SSSR), was the highest functionary of the Office of Public Procurator of the USSR, responsible for the whole system of offices of public procurators and supervision of their activities on the territory of the Soviet Union.

The office of procurator had its historical roots in Imperial Russia, and under Soviet law public procurators had wide ranging responsibilities including, but not limited to, those of public prosecutors found in other legal systems. Offices of Public Procurators were and are still used in other countries adhering to the doctrine of Socialist law.

The Office of Public Procurator of the USSR was created in 1936, and its head was called Public Procurator of the USSR until 1946, when it was changed to Procurator General of the USSR. According to the 1936 Soviet Constitution, the Procurator General exercised the highest degree of direct or indirect (through subordinate public procurators) control over the accurate execution of laws by all ministries, departments, their subordinate establishments and enterprises, executive and administrative bodies of local Soviets, cooperative organizations, officials (including judges in court proceedings), and citizens on behalf of the state.

The Procurator General was appointed by the Supreme Soviet of the USSR for a 7-year term and given a class rank of the Active state counselor of justice. His deputies and Procurator General of the Military were appointed by the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR on recommendation from Procurator General. The Procurator General appointed public procurators of the Soviet republics and, on their recommendation, public procurators of autonomous republics, krais, oblasts and autonomous oblasts. He also issued orders and instructions for all of the offices of public procurators, instructed on differentiation of their competence, etc.

The Procurator General had the right to present his issues to the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet that needed to be solved in the legislative manner or demanded interpretation of the law.

The Procurator General's participation in the plenary sessions of the Supreme Court of the USSR was mandatory. He had the right to obtain on demand any case from any court for checking purposes, voice his protest over a law, verdict, decree, or definition, which had already come into force, of any court and to suspend them until the matter was resolved.

Even under the world dictatorship of the proletariat, the Comintern (SH) will create a prosecutor general on a global scale.