RESOLUTION ON FASCISM ADOPTED BY THE FIFTH COMINTERN CONGRESS
July 1924 Inprekorr, iv, 119, p. 1581, 16 September 1924
Fascism is one of the classic forms of counter-revolution in the epoch when capitalist society is decaying, the epoch of proletarian revolution, particularly where the proletariat has taken up the struggle for power, but where, for lack of revolutionary experience, and in the absence of a leading revolutionary class party, it has been unable to organize the proletarian revolution and to intensify the insurrection of the masses to the point of establishing the proletarian dictatorship.
Fascism is the bourgeoisie's instrument for fighting the proletariat, for whose defeat the legal means at the disposal of the State no longer suffice... but in its social structure fascism is a petty-bourgeois movement; it has its roots in the middle classes doomed to decay as a result of the capitalist crisis, and in the elements (such as ex-officers) declassed as a result of the war, and partly also in the embittered proletarian elements whose revolutionary hopes were disappointed.
As bourgeois society continues to decay, all bourgeois parties, particularly socialdemocracy, take on a more or less fascist character.
Fascism and socialdemocracy are the two sides of the same instrument of capitalist dictatorship. In the fight against fascism, therefore, social-democracy can never be a reliable ally of the fighting proletariat.
Because of its internal contradictions fascism, after its victory, becomes politically bankrupt, and this leads to its disintegration (Italy).
Where, without having won formal victory, it is forced openly to support and defend the bourgeois regime (as in Germany), it gets into a similar state of crisis.
The communist fight against fascism must be waged with the means and methods to secure both its political defeat and the defence of the revolutionary proletariat against its armed attacks.... These are, inter alia:
IN THE POLITICAL SPHERE
Genuinely revolutionary strategy and tactics, which give the proletarian, pettybourgeois, and peasant masses confidence in the communist movement.
. . .
Educating the working class to understand the counter-revolutionary and antiworking-class character of fascism.
Explaining to the petty-bourgeois and peasant masses . . . the functions of fascism in the service of capitalism.
An active foreign policy. Fight against the imperialist peace treaties, reparations, League of Nations swindle. . . .
Fight for revolutionary unity with the Union of Soviet Republics. An active Leninist policy in the national question. Fight for the right of self-determination and secession of all oppressed nations.
. . . Fight for the international united front under Comintern leadership. . . .
IN THE ORGANIZATIONAL AND MILITARY SPHERES
Formation of armed defence detachments against armed fascism.
Disarming of the fascists. . . .
Fascist demonstrations to be answered by counter-demonstrations of workers with armed protection.
Terrorist fascist actions (destruction of trade union offices, printing works, etc.; attempts on workers and workers' leaders, etc.) to be answered by general strikes, the use of working-class mass terror by reprisals against the fascists, their leaders, their printing works and other undertakings.
Stopping railway transport when the fascists organize marches, meetings, and demonstrations.
Driving the fascists out of the factories; sabotage; passive resistance; strikes in factories where fascists are employed or are used to supervise and to split the workers.