[ The Comintern (SH) published these historical documents for the purpose to better study the early developments of modern revisionism ]
For a Lasting Peace,
For a People’s Democracy!
Organ of the Information Bureau of the Communist Parties in Bucharest
No. 35 (199), August 29, 1952
The Central Committee of the C.P.S.U. (B) has announced that the regular XIX Congress of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (Bolsheviks) will convene on October 5, 1952. The Congress will discuss the report of the Central Committee of the C.P.S.U. (B). the report of the Central Auditing Commission of the C.P.S.U. (B), directives for the fifth Five-Year Plan for development of the U.S.S.R. for 1951-55, amendments to the Rules of the C.P.S.U. (B), and will elect the central bodies of the Party.
The convening of the XIX Congress of the C.P.S.U. (B) is an outstanding event in the life of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, in the life of the en lire Soviet people. The XIX Congress of the C.P.S.U. (B) is an event of immense international significance.
The Congress will assemble almost on the threshold of a glorious and historic date—the 35th anniversary of the Great October Socialist Revolution which signified a radical turn in the history of mankind from the old, capitalist world to the new, socialist world.
The world-historic gains of the Soviet people, all their tremendous successes are inseparably linked with the Party of Bolsheviks, with the name of Lenin, with the name of Stalin. Under the leadership of the Communist Party, guided by Comrade Stalin, the working-people of the Soviet Union carried out the grand programme elaborated by J. V. Stalin for the socialist industrialisation of the country and collectivisation of agriculture, and, by so doing transformed the U.S.S.R. into a mighty industrial and collective-farm power, into a bulwark of peace and Socialism.
At the XVIII Congress of the C.P.S.U.(B), Comrade Stalin in his report, which was a programme-document of Communism, another advance in the development of Marxist-Leninist theory, placed before the Party and the entire Soviet people a great historic task: to overtake and [...strip] in the next ten or 15 years the main capitalist countries economically, that is, in volume of industrial output per capita of population, in order to create an abundance of products and to be able to “make the transition from the first phase of Communism to its second phase”. The Soviet people enthusiastically welcomed this programme elaborated by their leader and enthusiastically embarked on its realisation.
The perfidious attack launched against the Soviet Union by Hitler Germany interrupted the peaceful creative labour of the Soviet people. Rising, at the call of J. V. Stalin and the Party of Bolsheviks, for the Great Patriotic War against the fascist invaders, the Soviet people reorganised all their work on a war footing, subordinating everything to the interests of the front and to the tasks of organising the defeat of the enemy. With particular force there were displayed during the years of the Great Patriotic War the moral political unity of Soviet society, the friendship of the peoples of the U.S.S.R., the life-giving Soviet patriotism—the lofty and noble qualities inculcated in the Soviet people by the Bolshevik Party.
In selfless struggle against the fascist invader the Soviet people, inspired by the Party of Lenin-Stalin, not only upheld the freedom and independence of their home-land, they also liberated the peoples of Europe from the yoke of German fascism, saved world civilisation from the fascist pogrom-makers. As a result of the victory of the U.S.S.R. over Hitler Germany a number of countries of Central and South-Eastern Europe dropped out of the camp of capitalism and established the system of people’s democracy. The historic victory of the Soviet Union in the second world war vividly demonstrated to the whole world the tremendous vitality of the Soviet social and state system, demonstrated the might of the Soviet armed forces.
The Soviet people have never encroached on the territorial integrity and state sovereignty of other countries. True to the Lenin-Stalin peace loving policy, the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, the Soviet Government and the entire Soviet people, even while the second world war was still in progress, had their thoughts on the post-war peace, on strengthening the alliance and friendship among the nations.
Different, however, were the thoughts and actions of the rulers of the capitalist countries, particularly those of the U.S. and Britain. Already in the course of the war against fascist Germany they nurtured plans for unleashing aggression against the Soviet Union. With this aim in view they strive to preserve the war industry potential of Western Germany, to protect the Nazi war criminals from just punishment, to preserve for themselves the Hitler military cadres. To further this aim they launched the “cold war” against the U.S.S.R., resorting to the most foul means of slanderous propaganda, whipping up war hysteria and resorting to atom blackmail; they began to build war bases around the Soviet Union, to hammer together aggressive alliances and blocs directed against the U.S.S.R. and unfolded a frantic arms drive. The results of this aggressive policy of the U.S. and their satellites are plain for all to see: in the capitalist countries as a result of the tremendous inflation of war industry and civilian industry and civilian construction are curtailed, unemployment, direct and indirect taxation, exploitation and impoverishment of the working people are growing.
In contrast to the capitalist countries the Soviet Union, having smashed the Hitler war machine and Japanese imperialism, directed all its efforts towards fulfilment of the programme for the further development of the economy and culture of the socialist state—a programme outline by J. V. Stalin in his speech to the electorate on February 9, 1946. “The main tasks of the new Five-Year Plan”, J. V. Stalin said, “are to restore the devastated areas of the country, to restore industry and agriculture to the pre-war level and then to exceed this level by a more or less considerable degree”.
In the struggle for the realisation of this historic programme the Soviet people achieved outstanding success. The fourth Five-Year Plan was completed by the industry of the U.S.S.R. in four years and three months. Two years after the end of the second world war the Soviet Government effected the currency reform. abolished rationing for all foodstuffs and manufactured goods and each year reduces prices for consumer goods.
Under the leadership of the Communist Party work has been launched on a titanic scale for transforming nature by means of planting powerful forest belts and building irrigation and watering systems and water reservoirs. The giant hydro-technical constructions on the Volga, Dnieper, Don and Amu-Darya, the first of which—the V. I. Lenin Volga-Don Navigation Canal—-has been put into operation, are the precursors of the Communist morrow, beacons lighting the pathway to its future for all mankind.
The building of the material-technical base of Communism is accompanied by a rise in wellbeing and in the cultural level of the Soviet people. The Lenin-Stalin Party displays constant concern for satisfying the growing material and spiritual needs of the people, and carries on large-scale work for the Communist education of the working people.
“Now the principal tasks of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union”, the Draft of the amended Rules of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union points out “consist in building” Communist society by way of gradual transition from Socialism to Communism, in steadily raising the material and cultural level of society, in educating the members of society in the spirit of internationalism and establishing fraternal lies with the working people of all countries, in strengthening to the utmost active defence of the Soviet homeland against the aggressive actions of her enemies”.
The fifth Five-Year Plan defines a new tremendous upsurge of the national economy of the U.S.S.R. Its completion will signify a big step forward along the pathway of development from Socialism to Communism. The Draft of the Directives for the XIX Congress of the C.P.S.U. (B) envisages approximately a 70 per cent increase in industrial output in the five year period, an increase in the state capital investments for industry, approximately twofold, compared with 1946-50, and an increase in the national income of not less than 60 per cent.
The Lenin-Stalin Party is the leading and guiding force of the Soviet people in their struggle for the realisation of the grand projects of Communist construction. The Draft of the amended Rules of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union reflects the tremendous experience in Party construction accumulated since the XVIII Congress, elevates still higher the title and significance of member of the Communist Party and gives a more thorough definition of the duties of the Party members.
The Draft of the Directives of the XIX Congress of the C.P.S.U. (B) concerning the fifth Five-Year Plan for the development of the U.S.S.R. for 1951-55 and the Draft of the amended Rules of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union have been warmly welcomed by all the Communist and Workers’ Parties; they have evoked a great response throughout the international working-class movement.
The ordinary people of the world sincerely rejoice at the new, powerful upsurge of the national economy of the U.S.S,R., at the consolidation of the might of the land of Socialism marching in the van of the great camp of peace, democracy and Socialism. They enthusiastically welcome the forthcoming XIX Congress of the C.P.S.U. (B), approve the fifth Five-Year Plan for the development of the U.S.S.R., which demonstrates to the whole world the great life-giving force of Socialism and the clear superiority of the socialist system of economy over the capitalist system. All honest people in all countries realise that the fifth Five-Year Plan of peaceful economic and cultural construction in the Soviet Union will facilitate the further consolidation and extension of economic co-operation between the U.S.S.R. and the People’s Democracies and the development of trade with all countries ready to develop trade on the basis of equality and mutual benefit.
The freedom-loving peoples in all countries, all people of good will in the world see in the Soviet Union the symbol of peace and security for the peoples, the symbol of democratic freedoms. All progressive mankind, all freedom-loving peoples link their hopes for a lasting and stable peace, for a happy future, with the Soviet Union, with the name of J. V. Stalin, great leader and teacher of all working people.
The Soviet people enthusiastically welcomed the news of the convening of the XIX Congress of the Lenin-Stalin Party. The draft directives of the XIX Congress of the Party concerning the Five-Year Plan for the development of the U.S.S.R., the draft of the amended Rules of the Party and the theses of N. S. Khruschev’s report are the subject of keen study in industrial enterprises, offices, higher educational establishments, coalmines and on the collective farms. Talks and meetings are being held throughout the country at which the working people take socialist pledges in honour of the forthcoming Congress.
The workers, engineer-technical personnel and office employees of the J. V. Stalin Automobile Plant in Moscow called on all industrial workers in Moscow to launch wide-scale socialist emulation in honour of the XIX Congress, of the C.P.S.U. (B) and by so doing to make a new contribution to the cause of the further consolidation of the might and flowering of their Soviet homeland.
The socialist pledges taken by the personnel of the J. V. Stalin Automobile Plant in honour of the XIX Congress of the C.P.S.U. (B) say:
“With feelings of patriotic pride in their great homeland, with feelings of love for and loyalty to the Lenin-Stalin Party, the Soviet people express profound satisfaction that the new Five-Year Plan envisages a considerable expansion in all branches of the Soviet economy and, above all, in socialist industry which plays the leading role in the development of our national economy, ensures a continued rise in the material wellbeing and cultural level of the people and demonstrates to the whole world the great, life-giving force of Socialism.
The fifth Five-Year Plan is [....] of the peaceful, Communist construction in the U.S.S.R., and reflects the struggle of the Soviet people for the consolidation of world peace”.
The workers, technical personnel and official employees of the J. V. Stalin Automobile Plant, desirous of honouring the XIX Congress of the C.P.S.U. (B) with new production successes, pledged: to complete the nine months plan by September 25 and to produce in excess of planned hundreds of trucks, thousands of bicycles and other items to a total value of 30 million roubles; to carry out organisational technical measures ensuring an annual economy of 40 million roubles; to exceed the plan for labour productivity and to ensure an economy of 4 million roubles by means of reducing production costs in excess of plan, and by the day of the opening of the Congress to commission 4,300 square metres of additional dwelling space.
The working people of Leningrad are enthusiastically preparing for the Congress. The plan is being overfulfilled by rolling mill workers in the Kirov plant. Stakhanovite Tikhomirov, a blacksmith in the “Electrosila” plant, has fulfilled the plan 300 per cent.
Group reading of the Congress materials was held in industrial enterprises in Kiev.
Working special shifts in honour of the XIX Congress the leading workers of the “Transsignal” plant are fulfilling their daily quotas 150 to 300 per cent.
Thousands of miners in the Tkvarchel coal basin of the Georgian Soviet Socialist Republic are working stakhanovite shifts in honour of the Congress. Oil workers in the Azerbaidjan Soviet Socialist Republic have pledged to extract oil in excess of plan.
Working people in the Estonian Soviet Socialist Republic are enthusiastically studying the pre-Congress documents. Neidla, a stakhanovite in the “Volta” plant in Tallin, declared during the discussion:
Much attention is being devoted to the young Baltic Republics in this five-year period. Under the bourgeois regime the working people in Estonia could not even dream of such economic and cultural construction as that which has been carried out during the years of Soviet power. The sole interest of the Communist Party is the interests of the people, the wellbeing of the working people. The life of the Soviet people will be happier and more joyful.
The entire land of Soviets is in the grip of a noble patriotic upsurge. Soviet people are devoting their labour feats to the XIX Congress of the great Party of Lenin-Stalin leading the Soviet people forward, to Communism.
News of the XIX Congress of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union evoked unprecedented interest and a powerful response among all strata of society in all countries without exception. The working people and all progressive mankind enthusiastically and joyously welcomed the do [....] Central Committee of the [....] the XIX Congress—the [....] of the programme of struggle by Soviet people for the victory of Communism.
With great enthusiasm the news of the XIX Congress of the Lenin-Stalin Party was met by the working people of the People’s Democracies who justly evaluate this event as being of outstanding international significance.
The press of the Chinese People’s Republic vividly reflects the profound satisfaction occasioned among the people of China at news of the latest giant Five-Year Plan the U.S.S.R.
The newspaper “Takungpao” in an article headed “Forward, to Communism!”, writes that the new Five-Year Plan of the Soviet people is striking evidence of the rapid and steady advance of the Soviet people from Socialism to Communism, that the advance of the Soviet people to Communism constitutes the invincible force which will reduce to nought all the aggressive designs of the imperialists. There is no force, the newspaper concludes, capable of barring mankind’s way to its bright Communist future.
The newspaper “Hsinwenjihpao” writes that this new step along the pathway of Communist construction is a joyful event for the peace-loving peoples of the world.
We, the newspaper points out, together with the Soviet people rejoice at the new Plan because we know that the happy present of the Soviet Union is our morrow.
“The eyes of all progressive mankind fighting for peace, democracy and Socialism, are turned today to the Soviet Union which has ushered in a new era in the history of mankind”, the Polish newspaper “Trybuna Ludu” writes. “During the past 35 years the Soviet Union has been the vanguard of the world in the struggle for the liberation of man from capitalist exploitation, in the struggle for the wellbeing of the peoples, for world peace and progress. The eyes of the whole world, of all progressive mankind are turned to the heroic Bolshevik Party, tested in battles, which, under the guidance of the wise leader, Joseph Stalin, is victoriously building Communism”.
All the people of Czechoslovakia joyfully welcomed the news of the Congress of the victorious Party of Lenin-Stalin. In this connection “Rude Pravo” writes:
The world-historic victories of the Bolsheviks are a powerful stimulus for the working people of the world who see in the flowering Soviet country a happy future for their countries also. The emancipation ideas of Marxism-Leninism are gripping ever broader masses who can now test their strength and vitality on the basis of the rapid development of the economy and culture and in the rising wellbeing of the working people of the land of Soviets.
Together with all progressive mankind the Communists and all working people in Rumania wholeheartedly welcome the forthcoming XIX Congress of the C.P.S.U. (B). The “Scanteia” stresses:
The draft directives of the XIX Congress of the C.P.S.U. (B) concerning the fifth Five-Year Plan for the development of the U.S.S.R. for 1951-55 reflect, with full force and the maximum clarity, the tremendous superiority of the economic system of Socialism over the decaying system of capitalism. The draft directives are a splendid document proclaiming life and peaceful creative labour, are a vivid manifestation and unmistakable proof of the peace-loving policy of the Soviet Union and of firm confidence in the triumph of the forces of peace.
Factory workers, working peasantry and intelligentsia in Hungary highly appraise the grand goals of the splendid plan of the Soviet people. The new Five-Year Plan, writes “Szabad Nep”, is the affair of every Communist, of every honest, peace-loving person because the titanic plan for peaceful creative labour is, at the same time, a plan in defence of peace.
The working people in Bulgaria reacted to the announcement about convening the Congress of the C.P.S.U.(B) with great joy.
“Every Congress of the glorious Bolshevik Party,” writes the newspaper “Rabotnichesko Delo”, “is an historic event opening bright prospects for development along the path of steady and all-round progress not only for the great Soviet country, but also for the development of the fraternal Communist Parties and the entire international working-class movement on the basis of the revolutionary theory and practice of Marxism-Leninism”.
While the U.S. aggressors are engaged in a feverish armaments drive, mobilising all forces for war purposes, writes the Albanian newspaper “Zeri i Popullit”, the Soviet Union is preparing to carry out a new colossal peace programme. All peace-loving peoples see in the further strengthening of the land of Socialism the best guarantee of upholding the cause of peace.
The news of the XIX Congress of the C.P.S.U. (B) met with an enthusiastic welcome among the working people of the
German Democratic Republic. “Neues Deutschland” writes: Working people throughout the world enthusiastically welcome the new Five-Year Plan for the development of the U.S.S.R., they study it, draw from it fresh, inexhaustible strength in the struggle for peace, for a better life, for the national independence of their peoples. And the enemies of peace, the imperialists, react with fear and malice to this gigantic plan for the further rapid development of the Soviet Union.
Saying that the new Five-Year Plan will be a grand programme for further developing the national economy and raising the standard of living of the working people of the Soviet Union, the French newspaper “L’Humanite” writes:
“What a striking difference there is between the capitalist world which, day by day, is sinking deeper into poverty and chaos, and the steady advance of the Soviet Union successfully marching towards Communism, to realisation of the age-long aspirations of [...] the imperialist plans, to a [....] place [....], a [....] of popular protest [....] man, it the imperialist policy of hunger, products and [....] existing throughout the supplied in accordance.
In an article headed “Triumph of the Lenin-Stalin Teaching”, the Italian paper “Unita”, which published the full text of the documents for the XIX Congress of the C.P.S.U. (B), writes that the new Five-Year Plan will be an historic stage
on the way to Communism”. The adoption of this plan, write the newspaper “Avanti”, “will be an event of historical significance confirming the role of the U.S.S.R., as the bulwark of universal peace”.
The goal of the new Five-Year Plan for a virtual doubling of all consumer Roods by 1955 along with increasing output of the heavy industry, writes the American “Daily Worker”, is the surest sign that the Soviet leaders are firmly convinced that peace between capitalist America and the socialist Soviet Union can be achieved and maintained.
A notable feature of the new plan, writes the British “Daily Worker”, is the vast increase in consumer goods and in food supplies that is projected. This is not a project for a war economy, with all its consequential reductions of the people’s standard of life. War can only destroy the people’s advance to prosperity, and the Soviet Union will have none of it.
September 2 marks the 7th anniversary of the defeat of the Japanese aggressor forces and of the liberation of East Asia from the yoke of Japanese imperialism.
In his historic address on September 2, 1945—the day of victory over imperialist Japan—J. V. Stalin pointed out:
“Two hotbeds of world fascism and world aggression had been formed on the eve of the present world war: Germany in the West and Japan in the East. It was they who unleashed the second world war. It was they who brought mankind and civilisation to the brink of doom. The hotbed of world aggression in the West was destroyed four months ago and, as a result, Germany was forced to capitulate. Four months later the hotbed of aggression in the East was destroyed and, as a result, Japan, Germany’s principal ally, was also compelled to sign an act of capitulation.”
The unconditional surrender of Japan signified the end of the second world war, the establishment of peace.
The aggressive forces of Japanese imperialism constituted a grave threat to the peace and security of the peoples of Asia. For a long time the Japanese militarists acted as aggressors and suppressors of the peoples. With the active help of the U.S. and British ruling circles Japan attacked Russia as far back as 1904. At that time the Japanese imperialists, taking advantage of the defeat of tzarist Russia, seized the southern part of Sakhalin and, established themselves on the Kurile Islands. With the direct support of the U.S. and Britain, the Japanese militarists engaged in sanguinary intervention against Soviet Russia during the years immediately following the October Revolution and resorted to bandit actions in the subsequent period.
The defeat of Japan in the second world war, in which defeat the decisive role was played by the heroic Soviet Army, was a crushing blow to the predatory plans of the Japanese imperialists.
The great victory of the Soviet Union over Hitler Germany determined the defeat of Japan. The war in the Pacific, however, would have continued for a long time, had not the Soviet Union sent its troops against the Japanese aggressors. The entry of the U.S.S.R. into the war against Japan, the sweeping offensive of the Soviet Army units and the defeat by them of the crack Japanese troops led to the speedy termination of the war in the Pacific.
A big role in the defeat of the Japanese aggressor forces was also played by the Chinese people. In his telegram to Comrade Mao Tse-tung on the occasion of the 6th anniversary of the victory over Japan, Comrade J. V. Stalin wrote: “Despite Kuomintang machinations, the Chinese people and their Liberation Army played a big role in liquidating the Japanese imperialists. The struggle of the Chinese people and their Liberation Army facilitated most radically, the defeat of the Japanese aggressor forces”.
The victory over Japan changed the situation in the Far East. Having liberated themselves from the Japanese yoke, the Chinese people, headed by the Communist Party, overthrew the Kuomintang clique, drove the U.S. colonisers out of the country, took power into their hands and proclaimed the People’s Republic of China.
The defeat of imperialist Japan resulted in the emancipation of the Korean people and of the peoples of other countries in Asia from the Japanese yoke. As a result, there arose the Korean People’s Democratic Republic and the Democratic Republic of Viet Nam. The peoples of Asia have unfolded on an ever broader scale, the national-liberation struggle against the U.S., British and French colonisers and native reaction.
The Soviet Union consistently and persistently fought, and is fighting now, for realisation of the decisions of the Teheran, Yalta and Potsdam conferences, for demilitarisation and democratisation of Germany and Japan, for world peace. Altogether different, however, is the policy pursued by the ruling circles of the U.S. and Britain. Grossly violating their international obligations, they took the path of reviving German and Japanese militarism in line with their criminal programme of preparing a new world war.
From the very beginning of their occupation of Japan, the U.S. imperialists began to turn it into a bridgehead for their aggressive adventures, began to rebuild the Japanese armed forces, to build military bases, airfields, etc. The U.S. interventionists use their numerous bases in Japan for the sanguinary war against the peace-loving Korean people. From airfields located on the Japanese islands. the Americans carry out their predatory raids on the peaceful towns of Korea and China.
The separate treaty with Japan signed last year in San Francisco, revealed to the whole world that the U.S. imperialists have decided on indefinite occupation of the country. Never before have the Japanese people found themselves in such a catastrophic position as they do now. Japan has fallen into bondage to the U.S. imperialists. The Japanese people have lost their independence, have lost even elementary human rights. As a result of the treacherous policy of the Yoshida clique, the U.S. occupationists dominate in Japanese industry, agriculture, trade and in the entire life of the country. Poverty, unemployment, hunger, fascist terror—these are the things that the overseas colonisers have brought to the Japanese people.
But in their distress the Japanese people have not bowed to U.S. imperialism. Despite the terror of the occupationists and the brutal police repressions, the Japanese people are resolutely fighting against the U.S. oppressors and the hated Yoshida
Government. All the progressive forces of the country are rallying more and more closely around the United National-Liberation Democratic Front, the main force of which is the alliance of the workers and peasants, for the struggle for peace, freedom and national independence. The Communist Party of Japan, equipped with its new Programme which outlines a clear perspective of advance and of victory for the revolutionary-liberation movement in the country, is fighting bravely against the U,S, occupationists and their Japanese henchmen, The working people of Japan see for themselves that the Communist Party alone is capable of taking them onto the broad highway of national regeneration, of establishing genuine democracy, of organising economic progress for the country and the blossoming of national culture, science and art.
Of great importance for the people of Japan was J. V. Stalin’s New Year’s message. Millions of people in Japan learnt that the sympathy of the Soviet people, the sympathy of all the peace-loving peoples, is on their side. “In the past”, wrote Comrade Stalin, “the peoples of the Soviet Union themselves experienced the horrors of foreign occupation, in which the Japanese imperialists also participated. Consequently, they fully appreciate the sufferings of the Japanese people, deeply sympathise with them and believe that they will achieve the regeneration and independence of their homeland, just as was achieved by the peoples of the Soviet Union in the past”.
Celebrating the day of victory over imperialist Japan, the peoples in all countries are intensifying the fight for peace, against the warmongers. The Stalin policy of peace meets with the wholehearted approval and support of the peoples of Japan and of all the other countries in Asia. The bulwark of peace in the Far East against the imperialist aggressors is the alliance and friendship of the Soviet Union and the Chinese People’s Republic, the alliance and friendship of all peace-loving peoples.
Amendments and changes in the Rules of the Party are submitted to the XIX Congress of the C.P.S.U. (B). The need for these amendments and changes arises from the fact that certain clauses of the Rules have become obsolete and the Rules must reflect the experience in the sphere of Party construction accumulated since the XVIII Congress.
The time has come for a more exact title for our Party. It is expedient that henceforth the All-Union Communist Party (Bolsheviks) be named the “Communist Party of the Soviet Union”, taking into account that, first, the name of the Party—the Communist Party of the Soviet Union—is more exact, and secondly, at the present time there is no need to retain the dual name of the Party—Communist and Bolshevik—since the words “Communist” and “Bolshevik” express one and the same content.
Chapter I of the Rules of the Party should read—“The Party. Members of the Party, their Duties and Rights”. It is expedient that the statement of the duties and rights of members of the Party be preceded in the first paragraph of this chapter by a brief definition of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union and its principal tasks, to wit:
“I. The Communist Party of the Soviet Union is a voluntary militant union of like-minded Communists consisting of people from the working class, the working peasants and working intelligentsia.
Having organised the alliance between the working class and the working peasantry the Communist Party of the Soviet Union achieved, through the October Revolution of 1917, the overthrow of the power of the capitalists and landlords, the organisation of the dictatorship of the proletariat, the abolition of capitalism, elimination of exploitation of man by man and ensured the building of a socialist society.
Now the principal tasks of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union consist in building Communist society by way of gradual transition from Socialism to Communism, in steadily raising the material and cultural level of society, in educating the members of society in the spirit of internationalism and establishing fraternal ties with the working people of all countries, in strengthening to the utmost active defence of the Soviet homeland against the aggressive actions of her enemies.”
In view of the above-mentioned there is no need for an introduction to the Rules.
In order to raise still higher the name and significance of the member of the Communist Party it is proposed that the paragraph of the Rules as to who can be a member of the Party be re-edited:
“2. Membership of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union is open to every working person, every citizen of the Soviet Union who does not exploit the labour of others, who accepts the Programme and Rules of the Party, actively promotes their realisation, who works in one of the Party organisations and carries out all the Party’s decisions.
A member of the Party pays the established membership dues.”
The statement in the Rules to the effect that membership of the Communist Party is open to every working person, every citizen of the Soviet Union who does not exploit the labour of others embodies the gains of the Party and reflects the fact that the Communist Party is made up of people of the working class, working peasants and working intelligentsia.
As a result of the victory of Socialism in our country the exploiting classes and exploitation of man by man have been abolished. Soviet society consists of friendly classes. The moral-political unity of the Soviet people has been consolidated.
The new tasks confronting the Communist Party in building Communist society demand from members of the Party greater responsibility for the cause of the Party. Consequently, the proposed paragraph concerning membership of the Party in its new form indicates that membership of the Party is open to those who not only accept the Programme and Rules of the Party but who actively help in their realisation and carry out all the decisions of the Party.
Experience shows that the Rules must contain a more complete definition of the duties of Party members.
First of all, it is necessary to include in [....] paragraph relating to the obligations [....] the [....] it is the duty of the Committee of the Communist Party [....].
The [...] right of [....] nationalities for safeguarding the ... people’s [....] is the paramount duty of the Party member, this is not enough. The Rules must point out that the Party member, therefore it will be perfectly correct, in outlining the duties of the Party members, to begin with the basic requirement.
In order to raise still higher the vanguard role of the Party members in Communist construction and their activity in the struggle against shortcomings and unhealthy tendencies in the life and work of the Party organisations, it is necessary to supplement the paragraph of the Rules dealing with the duties of the Party members with new clauses.
It must be said that not a few Party members display a formal and passive attitude in the matter of carrying out Party decisions. This is a grievous evil which the Party must resolutely combat since such an attitude by Communists to Party decisions weakens the Party’s fighting efficiency. The Rules should indicate that Party members must be active fighters for the realisation of the Party decisions and that a passive and formal attitude by members to Party decisions is incompatible with Party membership.
Another evil which is manifest in our Party consists in the fact that part of the Communists erroneously think that the Party has two disciplines—one for the rank and file, and another—for leaders. The Party cannot tolerate such a seigniorial, anti-Party notion of discipline. This evil must also be resolutely rooted out since it undermines Party and state discipline and, consequently, is detrimental to the interests of the Party and state. It is necessary to indicate in the Rules that our Party has one discipline, one law for all Communists irrespective of their merits or posts and that violation of Party and state discipline is incompatible with Party membership.
In addition, it has been shown that not a little harm is caused to the Party by Communists who shriek themselves hoarse about their loyalty to the Party, but in practice, do not allow criticism from below and stifle it. The Party has always attached enormous significance to the question of developing self-criticism and, particularly, criticism from below, to disclosing short-comings in the work and also to the struggle against the attitude of ostentatious complacency and against being carried away by successes in work. However, experience shows that clarification of the significance of criticism alone is not enough. It is necessary to wage resolute struggle against those who hinder the development of criticism. Consequently, the Rules must indicate that suppression of criticism is a grievous evil and that he who stifles criticism, substitutes it with pompousness and bragging, has no place in the ranks of the Party.
In this connection it must be said that part of the Communists entertain the harmful view to the effect that Party members must not report to the leading Party organs, including the Central Committee, about shortcomings in work. Not infrequently it happens that leading functionaries prevent Communists from disclosing before the leading Party organs, before the Central Committee the bad state of affairs on the grounds that this, allegedly, interferes with their work. Clearly, the Party must wage ruthless struggle against such dignitaries. At present the Rules stipulate that a Party member has the right to address any application to any Party organ, including the Central Committee. As is evident, this is not enough. The Rules must point out that the Party members not only has the right but that it is his duty to report to the leading Party organs, including the Central Committee, about shortcomings in the work, irrespective of persons, while in relation to those who who hinder the Party member in fulfilling this duty the Rules say that such persons must be severely punished as violators of the will of the Party.
Instances of concealing the truth from the Party, of untruthful and dishonest behaviour in relation to the Party, evident among part of the Communists, are another great evil. Clearly, the Party cannot tolerate deceivers in its ranks since such people undermine confidence in the Party and morally corrupt the ranks of the Communists. It is necessary to say in the Rules that untruthfulness by a Communist before the Party and deception of the Party constitute a grievous evil and are incompatible with Party membership.
Nor can we overlook the fact that among the Communists manifestations have become fairly widespread of political complacency and loafing, and facts of disclosing Party and state secrets. Political vigilance is obligatory for every Communist on every sector and in all circumstances. Consequently, in this connection the Rules must say that the Party member must keep Party and state secrets and that their disclosure is a crime against the Party and incompatible with Party membership.
Finally, it must be admitted that a great evil in many Party, Soviet and economic organisations is the incorrect approach to selection of cadres, often selection is made on the basis of friendly relations, personal attachment, crony-ship and kinship. Clearly, such selection of worker has nothing in common with the principles established by our Party and is harmful to the Party. The Rules must stress the duty of Party members strictly to follow the directives of the Party concerning the correct selection of cadres in accordance with their political and professional qualifications and that violation of these directives is incompatible with Party membership.
Proceeding from the above-mentioned it is necessary:
1) To set forth the points in the Rules about the duties of Party members in a new form as follows:
“3. It is the duty of the Party member:
a) to guard in every possible way the unity of the Party as the principal prerequisite of the strength and might of the Party;
b) to strive actively for fulfilment of Party decisions. It is not enough for the Party member merely to agree with Party decisions, it is the duty of the Party member to fight for the carrying of these decisions into life. A passive and formal attitude by Communists to Party decisions weakens the Party’s fighting efficiency and is, therefore, incompatible with membership of the Party;
c) to show an example in labour, to master the technique of his profession and constantly improve his industrial and professional skill;
d) daily to strengthen contact with the masses. promptly to respond to the requirements and needs of the working people. to explain to the non-party masses the essence of the policy and decisions of the Party, being mindful that the source of our Party’s strength and invincibility is its close and unbreakable ties with the people;
e) to endeavour to deepen his consciousness, to master the principles of Marxism-Leninism;
f) to observe Party and state discipline, equally binding for all Party members. In the Party there cannot be two disciplines—one for leaders and another for the rank and file. The Party has one discipline, one law for all Communists, irrespective of their merits or posts. Violation of Party and state discipline is a great evil, harmful to the Party, and is, therefore, incompatible with Party membership;
g) to develop self-criticism and criticism from below, disclose shortcomings in the work and strive to eliminate them, to fight against ostentatious complacency and against being carried away by successes in work. Suppression of criticism is a grievous evil. He who stifles criticism, who substitutes it by pompousness and bragging has no place in the ranks of the Party;
h) to report shortcomings in work to the leading Party organs up to and including the Central Committee of the Party, irrespective of whom it may concern. A Party member has no right to conceal an unsatisfactory state of affairs, to ignore incorrect actions harmful to the interests of the Party and the state. He who hinders a Party member in fulfilling this duty must be severely punished as a violator of the will of the Party;
i) to be truthful and honest to the Party, to permit no concealment or distortion of the truth. A Communist’s untruthfulness to the Party are very great evils and incompatible with Party membership;
j) to keep Party and state secrets, to display political vigilance, remembering that the vigilance of Communists is necessary everywhere and under all circumstances. Disclosure of Party and state secrets is a crime against the Party and incompatible with Party membership:
k) in any post entrusted by the Party, unswervingly to carry out the Party’s instructions concerning the correct selection of cadres in accordance with their political and professional qualifications. Violation of these instructions, the selection of workers on the basis of friendly relations, personal attachment, crony-ship and kinship is incompatible with Party membership”.
2) It is necessary also to envisage the following amendments to the chapter of the Rules—”The Party. Party Members, their Duties and Rights”:
a) To include in the Rules the following paragraphs:
“11. A lower Party organisation cannot adopt a decision regarding the expulsion of a Communist from the Party if he is a member: of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of a Union Republic, of a territorial committee, regional committee, area committee, city committee or district committee of the Party.
The question of removal [....] Party Committee [....] the party of a member of [....] Committee of the Communist Party of Union Republic, of a territorial committee, regional committee, area committee, city committee or district committee of the Party is decided by the plenum of the respective committee if the plenum decides by a two-thirds vote that this is necessary.
12. The question of the expulsion of a member of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union from the Central Committee or from Party membership is decided by the Party congress or, between congresses, by the plenum of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union by a two-thirds majority of the members of the plenum of the Central Committee. A person expelled from the Central Committee is automatically replaced by an alternate member of the Central Committee according to the procedure specified by the congress for electing alternate members of the Central Committee.”
In the present Rules the rights of Party members are somewhat restricted and not precisely formulated. It is necessary to replace point 3 in the present Rules by the following formulation:
“4. A Party member has the right:
a) to take part in free and businesslike discussion of questions of Party policy at Party meetings or in the Party press;
b) to criticise any Party functionary at Party meetings;
c) to elect and be elected to Party organs;
d) to demand to be present in person whenever decisions are taken regarding his activities or conduct ;
e) to address any question or statement to any Party body up to and including the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union.”
A grave shortcoming in the work of the Party organisations is that they do not give sufficient help to probationers in preparing them for entry into the Party, and do not verify their personal qualities. Not infrequently the probationary period is turned into an empty formality and for a considerable number of probationers is extended for a number of years. The Party cannot tolerate these shortcomings. It is necessary to improve the work of the Party organisations with probationers and also to raise the responsibility of the probationers themselves for going through the probationary period.
In this connection it is necessary to include the following amendment to the chapter of the Rules—”Probationer Members”:
“The Party organisation must help probationers to prepare to join the Party. Upon the expiration of the probationary term the Party organisation shall consider at a Party meeting the question of the probationer. If the probationer has been unable to prepare himself sufficiently for reasons which the Party organisation considers valid, the lower Party organisation may prolong his probationary term for a period of not more than one year. In cases when it has been established during the probationary term that a probationer member, due to his personal quality, is not worthy of being admitted to the Party, the Party organisation passes a decision on his expulsion from probationer membership.”
Experience shows that it is advisable to fix the following terms for convening Party congresses and plenary meetings of the Central Committee of the Party:
Ordinary congresses are convened not less than once every four years:
The Central Committee of the Party holds not less than one plenary meeting every six months.
The draft Rules of the Party say nothing about the questions of the All-Union Party conferences. In the present conditions there is no need to convene All-Union Party conferences because all questions of the day concerning Party policy can be discussed at Party congresses and at the plenary meetings of the Central Committee.
It is advisable to reorganise the Political Bureau into the Presidium of the Central Committee of the Party, organised to direct the work of the Central Committee between plenary meetings, because the name “Presidium” corresponds better to the functions actually performed by the Political Bureau at present. As regards the routine organisational work of the Central Committee, it is advisable, as practice has shown, to concentrate it in one body—the Secretariat—since there is no further need of the Organisational Bureau of the Central Committee.
In this connection paragraph 34 of the Rules should read as follows:
“The Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union forms: a Presidium to direct the work of the Central Committee between plenary meetings and a Secretariat to direct current work, primarily organising verification of fulfilment of Party decisions and selection of cadres.”
9. REORGANISATION OF PARTY CONTROL COMMISSION INTO PARTY CONTROL COMMITTEE ATTACHED TO CENTRAL COMMITTEE OF THE PARTY
With the aim of raising the role of the Party Control Commission in the struggle against violations of Party discipline and unsatisfactory fulfilment by Communists of their duties, it is advisable to reorganise the Party Control Commission into the Party Control Committee attached to the Central Committee of the Party and to create in the localities an institute of its authorised representatives, independent of the local Party bodies. To oblige the Party Control Committee to verify observance of Party discipline by members and probationer members of the Party, to call to responsibility Communists guilty of violating the Programme and Rules of the Party and of Party ethics, as well as to examine appeals against decisions of Central Committees of the Communist Parties of Union Republics, territorial and regional committees of’ the Party regarding expulsion from the Party and Party disciplinary measures.
Proceeding from the above-mentioned to set forth paragraph 35 of the Rules as follows:
“The Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union forms a Party Control Committee under the Central Committee.
The Party Control Committee attached to the Central Committee of the Party:
a) verifies the observance of Party discipline by members and probationer members of the Party, calls to responsibility Communists guilty of violating the Programme and Rules of the Party, Party and state discipline as well as violators of Party ethics (deception of the Party, dishonesty and insincerity before the Party, slander, bureaucracy, dissoluteness in personal life and so on);
b) examines appeals against decisions of Central Committees of the Communist Parties of Union Republics, territorial and regional committees of the Party regarding expulsion from the Party and Party disciplinary measures;
c) maintains its authorised representatives in republics, territories and regions, who are independent of the local Party bodies”.
Experience has shown that the structure of the Party apparatus is subject to change depending on the situation and concrete conditions. In this connection it is advisable to refrain from defining in the Rules what sectors and departments should be organised in the Central Committee of the Party and in local Party bodies.
[....] Rules of the Party the tasks and [....] of local Party organisations, as experience has shown, are not fully reflected.
[....], it is necessary to supplement the [....] Rules with corresponding paragraphs defining the tasks of the local Party organisations and showing that the Central Committees Communist Parties of Union Republics, territorial, regional, area, city and district Party committees ensure undeviating fulfilment of Party directives and direct the activities of the local Soviet and public organisations through the medium of the Party groups in them. The Rules must reflect the tasks of the Party organisations in the matter of developing Party criticism and self-criticism, of educating the Communists in the spirit of irreconcilability to shortcomings in the work of the Party and state. The Rules must also set before the Party organisations such important tasks as organising the Communist education of the working people and guiding the study of Marxism-Leninism by Party members and probationer members, being particularly mindful that the propaganda of Marxism-Leninism is still not satisfactorily organised.
Further, in order to ensure more operative handling of current questions and better verification of fulfilment of decisions, it is necessary to envisage in the Rules the setting up of Secretariats in the Central Committees of the Communist Parties of Union Republics, and in the territorial and regional Party committees. In order to avoid substituting the bureaus of regional and territorial Party Committees and the Central Committees of the Communist Parties of Union Republics by the Secretariats, it is necessary to reduce the number of Secretaries to three and to oblige the Secretariats to report on the decisions adopted to the respective bureau of the regional committee or territorial committee or to the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Union Republic.
Finally, for the purpose of timely elimination of shortcomings in the work of the local Party organisations and of ensuring that account be taken of the positive experience accumulated in their work, it is necessary to oblige the regional and territorial Party Committees and the Central Committees of the Communist Parties of Union Republics to keep the Central Committee of the Party regularly informed and to submit to the Central Committee by the specified dates a report on their activities.
Proceeding from the above mentioned, it is necessary to include in the chaplets of the Rules concerning the local Party organisations the following amendments and changes:
1) To supplement the paragraphs of the Rules of the Party concerning the duties of the local Party bodies and lower Party organisations with directives to the affect that they
—ensure undeviating fulfilment of Party directives, the development of Party criticism and self-criticism and the education of Communists in the spirit of irreconcilability to shortcomings, guide the study of Marxism-Leninism by Party members and probationer members, organise the political education of members and probationer members and ensure that they acquire the minimum knowledge of Marxism-Leninism, organise the Communist education of the working people, direct the activities of corresponding local Soviet and public organisations through the Party groups in them.
2) To supplement paragraph 42 of the Rules concerning the executive bodies of local Party Committees with the following point:
“The regional committees and territorial committees of the Party and central committees of Communist Parties of Union Republics set up Secretariats to handle current questions and verify fulfilment of decisions. The Secretariat reports on the adopted decisions to the respective bureau of the regional committee or territorial committee or Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Union Republic.”
To point out in the same paragraph of the Rules that the regional committees, territorial committees and Central Committees of the Communist Parties of the Union Republics have three Secretaries.
3) To supplement paragraph 43 of the Rules with the directive that the regional committee, territorial committee and the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Union Republic keep the Central Committee of the Party systematically informed and submit to the Central Committee by the specified dates a report on their activities.
12. CONVENING PLENARY MEETINGS OF CENTRAL COMMITTEES OF COMMUNIST PARTIES OF UNION REPUBLICS, OF TERRITORIAL, REGIONAL, AREA, CITY AND DISTRICT PARTY COMMITTEES
It is advisable to envisage in the Rules of the Party the following terms for convening plenary meetings of Central Committees of the Communist Parties of Union Republics, of territorial, regional, area, city and district Party committees:
The Plenary meeting of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Union Republic, of the territorial and regional Party committees is convened at least once every two months;
The Plenary meeting of the area Party committee is convened at least once every month and a half;
The Plenary meeting of the city and district Party committees is convened not less than once a month.
It is necessary to envisage in the Rules a change in the direction of reducing the membership dues paid monthly by Party members and probationer members in this connection to re-edit paragraphs 70 and 71 in the Rules as follows:
“70. Membership dues payable monthly by Party members and probationer members are fixed as follows (percentage of earning):
monthly earnings of not more than 500 rubles—1/2 per cent
» » above 500 rubles
» » but not more than 1000 rubles—1 » »
» » from 1001 to 1500 rubles—1.5 » »
» » » 1501 to 2000 rubles—2 » »
» » over 2000 rubles—3 » »
71. Upon admission to the Party as probationers, an initiation fee is paid amounting to 2 per cent of monthly earnings.”
It is necessary to envisage in the Rules a change in the direction of reducing the membership dues paid monthly by Party.
XIX CONGRESS OF C.P.S.U. (B)
“Pravda”, in its issue of August 26, published a letter by the Secretariat of the Central Committee of the C.P.S.U. (B) to all regional, territorial committees and to the Central Committees of the Communist Party organisations of the Union Republics which reads:
“The Central Committee of the C.P.S.U. (B) obliges you to unfold a broad discussion of the drafts of the new Five-Year Plan and of the Rules of the Party, beginning the discussion, wherever possible, with the lower Party organisations. All Party members and probationers must be drawn into the discussion and complete freedom of criticism ensured. The Party press must provide its columns for featuring both favourable and critical articles”.
Simultaneously. “Pravda” reports that the Central Committee of the C.P.S.U. (B) has obliged the Editorial Board of the “Pravda” to set aside a special column headed “Materials for XIX Party Congress” for articles and suggestions by comrades concerning the Congress agenda.
The Secretariat of the World Peace Council has published a communique in which it points out that the peoples wholeheartedly support the decisions of the World Peace Council, and that at present peace supporters are unfolding a wide campaign for the Peoples’ Congress for Peace.
In many countries a popular referendum is being carried out, in different forms, with the aid of which the Congress is being prepared.
In different countries the popular referendum assumes a variety of forms. In France and Italy thousands of brief discussion meetings are held in homes, in the streets, enterprises and in villages. All suggestions are discussed at these meetings and the best of them accepted, delegates are elected to local conferences which in turn prepare Department, Provincial (district) and National conferences.
In some countries (with the help of the trade unions) meetings of workers in defence of peace are being organised as well as peasant’s conferences at which the peasant contribution to the cause of peace will be discussed, taking into account the special interests of these strata of the population.
In Belgium peace supporters have decided to send numerous delegations to the local and provincial administrative organs (to elected representatives) and to members of Parliament in order to express the will of the population for peace.
In Transvaal (South Africa) it was decided to hold a “Peace Week” to mark the significant date, December 5, the day of the opening of the Peoples’ Congress for Peace.
An all-Japan Conference to elect delegates to the Peace Congress of the countries of Asia and the Pacific, took place in Tokyo on August 23-24. A report on behalf of the Japan Preparatory Committee was delivered by its Secretary-General, Hatanaka, who pointed out that the Conference was attended by representatives of different circles, from the big political parties and the main trade union amalgamations.
The Conference recommended as candidate-delegates to the Congress all 429 names put forward by the local organisations.
In its resolution the conference expressed wishes for the success of the Congress.
On August 23 the Soviet Government addressed Notes to the Governments of the U.S., Britain and France concerning the peace treaty with Germany. The Notes disclose the essence of the stand taken by the Governments of the U.S., Britain and France—their striving to drag out settlement of the question of the peace treaty with Germany and of the restoration of the unity of Germany and, in this way, to maintain their occupation troops in Western Germany indefinitely in order to utilise it more fully for aggressive aims.
In its Notes the Soviet Government proposed the convening in the near future of a conference of representatives of the Four Powers to discuss questions of preparing a peace treaty, the formation of an All-German government, the holding of free, all-German elections and the Commission for verifying whether conditions exist in Germany for carrying out these elections, its composition, functions, authority and also the date for withdrawing the occupation troops from Germany.
The proposals of the Soviet Government which open new practical possibilities for a peaceful and just solution of the German problem, met with wholehearted support among broad sections of the German people.
The proposals advanced by the U.S.S.R. are being widely discussed throughout Germany.
In Western Germany, at meetings and in the course of spontaneous discussions in the streets and public places, in personal conversation, people of different professions, views and outlooks express support for the proposals of the Soviet Government. Andres Pfister, a Nuremberg railwayman, described the Soviet proposals as containing “all the points the realisation of which the entire German people have been demanding for years”. Mathias Keil, a businessman, said that the Soviet Note shows that “the Soviet Union is making serious efforts to restore to us our unity and peace. All who do not want to negotiate, stand for war”.
“Neues Deulschland”, in a leading article entitled “Latest Note of the Soviet Government and Struggle of German People”, points out that by its clear and principled stand the Soviet Government “gives the patriotic forces of the German people the possibility of starting a wide offensive against the enemies of the peaceful reunification of Germany”.
Léo Figuères, Member, Central Committee, French Communist Party
On September 2nd each year the people of Viet Nam celebrate their great national holiday. It was on this day in 1945 that the Democratic Republic of Viet Nam was proclaimed in Hanoi by President Ho Chi Minh. This date signified the beginning of a new era in the thousand years’ history of the Viet Nam people. the era of their Independence and unity, the era of freedom.
The founding of the Democratic Republic of Viet Nam was made possible by the defeat of the main forces of the Japanese Army at the hands of the glorious Soviet Army in its sweeping offensive in August 1945. It was the result of the years of heroic struggle waged by the Viet Nam patriots, led by the Communists, against the Japanese imperialist invaders and the French colonisers. Seven years ago, in the days immediately prior to September 2, all the people of Viet Nam, responding to the call of the Provisional Democratic Government, rose in a victorious uprising, isolated the Japanese garrisons and forced them to surrender, crushed the puppet regime and established the organs of the new democratic power.
This, however, did not signify the end of the struggle for the Viet Nam people. The French imperialists who in the course of eighty years amassed fabulous profits from the ruthless exploitation of the masses and plunder of the natural wealth of Indo-China, did not relinquish the attempts to re-establish their rule. On September 23, 1945, three weeks after the proclamation of the Democratic Republic, they, in complicity with the British imperialists, treacherously seized the city of Saigon, landed troops and began war in the south of Viet Nam. To the proposals made by the Democratic Government for peace on condition that the independence of the country be preserved, they replied with new provocations.
In December 1946 when the French imperialists tried to seize Hanoi, capital of the Republic, just as they seized Saigon, the population took to arms and together with the People’s Army heroically fought the troops of the colonisers. In a few days the flames of the patriotic war spread throughout Viet Nam. In September 1945, and again in December 1946, the aggressors imagined that it would suffice to demonstrate their overwhelming superiority in manpower and military technique, in order, in the matter of few days, to carry out the so-called “operation for restoration of their rule”. However, they badly miscalculated. The temporary weakness of their armed forces did not prevent the people of Viet Nam from taking to struggle with full confidence in victory.
And today, celebrating the festival of independence for the seventh time, the people of Viet Nam can proudly glance back at the path traversed.
At the outset of the struggle the colonisers were confronted with a few regular battalions; today they are confronted with regiments, brigades and divisions. With the exception of the big cities, vital communication lines and a number of fertile districts, the entire territory of the country is controlled by the Democratic Government. However, even in the difficult conditions in the occupied cities, patriots are active, constantly hitting at the enemy.
A national industry, supplying the ever-growing ranks of the People’s Army with arms and munitions, has been created in the mountains and in the virgin forests.
The forces of the colonisers are becoming more and more isolated and their casualties are growing all the time. From December 1946 until June 1952, the People’s Army of Viet Nam annihilated more than 219,000 enemy men and officers. During the first six months of the current year the French imperialists lost 28,000 men, including 21,000 killed. The battle of Hoa Bing alone, brought to a conclusion at the end of February 1952, cost them 22,000 men including about 7,000 taken prisoner.
This serious defeat showed that it is becoming more and more difficult to organise an offensive against the People’s Army of Viet Nam. The French imperialists, however, cling to the idea of continuing the war and committing crime after crime against the civilian population, employing weapons of mass annihilation (for example, napalm) supplied by the U.S. imperialists.
Seeking to put off their defeat, the French rulers keep begging for aid from their Washington masters. For several years past the U.S. imperialists have been interfering in the war against the people of Viet Nam. They supply the French colonisers with their war materials and maintain military missions in Indo-China which actually direct the operations. At the same time they take advantage of the opportunity to seize the enterprises and the economic wealth of the districts still under occupation.
The Viet Nam people hate both the French aggressor-colonisers and the U.S. imperialists without whose intervention the war would have been ended.
The people of Viet Nam know that they will be victorious over their enemies no matter how long the struggle lasts and no matter the ferocity with which it is waged. The broad patriotic emulation, embracing all sections of Viet Nam society, facilitated not only the multiplication of the military successes, it contributed to increased output in industry and higher yields in agriculture to unfolding the struggle against illiteracy, for education and the new culture.
Twenty million Vietnamese are united in the ranks of the National United Front—Lien Viet—in which the leading force is the courageous working class of Viet Nam. They are led in the struggle by the Party of Labour of Viet Nam—continuer of the glorious, heroic traditions of the Communist Party.
The Democratic Government enjoys the confidence and backing of the entire nation, and Ho Chi Minh, President of the Republic, symbolises the energy and selflessness of the people, symbolises their will to victory.
In the struggle against the common enemy the Democratic Republic of Viet Nam is strengthening friendly relations with the fraternal peoples of Cambodia and Laos.
The people of Viet Nam know that their selfless struggle is actively supported by all peoples of the invincible camp of peace, democracy and Socialism headed by the great Soviet Union. In the north, Viet Nam is bounded by a powerful friendly country—the Chinese People’s Republic.
The war of the French colonisers against the Viet Nam people encounters increasingly sharper and bigger protests in France itself. More than ever before the French people resolutely demand: enough blood spilled solely for the sake of ensuring profits for a handful of billionaires! An end to the slaughter in the interests of the U.S. imperialists! Among all social strata the number of people demanding that the expeditionary corps be withdrawn, the war stopped and that economic and cultural agreements be signed with the Democratic Republic of Viet Nam, agreements based on full equality, is growing. The splendid example of Henri Marlin, sentenced to hard labour for his struggle against the “dirty war”, is a symbol of the bonds linking the patriots of Viet Nam and the peace supporters in France.
The cause of the imperialist aggressors who attacked the people of Viet Nam, is a lost cause—lost, because it is unjust. On the other hand, the Viet Nam people are fighting for a just cause, the cause of freedom and national independence.
No matter what measures the imperialists undertake, the just cause of the Viet Nam people will triumph.
This confidence of the patriots of Viet Nam is shared on the day of their national holiday by their friends all over the world.
“UNITA”, central organ of Communist Party of Italy; ‘THE ACTIVIST’S NOTEBOOK”, journal of the Communist Party of Italy
On July 5, “Unita” published an article by Comrade Secchia, Deputy Secretary-General of the Communist Party of Italy, written 10 days after the plenum of the Central Committee, in which he pointed out a series of shortcomings in organising discussion of Comrade Togliatti’s report and the decisions of the plenum by some Party sections and branches.
“We have repeatedly pointed”, wrote Comrade Secchia, “to the tardiness with which vital decisions are transmitted to the Party masses by the Party organisational channels. Lack of initiative and of a feeling of responsibility for doing work in good time on the part of some leaders of Party sections and branches is a shortcoming which must be eliminated as quickly as possible... We cannot tolerate the state of affairs when a whole month passes before a Party branch discusses the decisions of a plenum”.
Referring to the decisive significance of the political education of Communists for purpose of making them active Party members, active and persistent transmitters of Party policy, Comrade Secchia stressed the significance of regular Party meetings, which must thoroughly discuss and explain the Party decisions and outline concrete measures for their realisation.
A month later, on August 2, again referring to this question, Comrade Secchia wrote in “Unita”:
“The Organising Department of the Central Committee, on the basis of press reports. letters, conferences and inspection visits, has verified and established that while many Party federations, sections and branches displayed initiative and efficiency in discussing and outlining measures for popularising Comrade Togliatti’s report and the decisions of the plenum of the Central Committee, there are still essential shortcomings in some of them”.
The new-paper calls upon the Communists to struggle against sluggishness in work, against the tendency to substitute general Party meetings by meetings of bureaus of sections and branches, to confining themselves to inner-Party discussion of the various vital questions instead of convening big public meetings.
Certain leading committees of the Party federations did not make the problem of peace the keynote in discussing the Central Committee decisions (Pisa), did not properly link the fight for peace with the fight for democratic and trade union rights (Cremona, Modena), did not stress the need for the Communists to intensify work in the trade union organisations (Terni, Lecce), and did not adopt concrete decisions for carrying out the tasks set by the plenum of the Central Committee.
“The Activist’s Notebook” in the article “The Way to Decision” published on August 1, shows that the Party committee of the Florence Federation discussed the materials of the plenum on June 27, but even by July 14 it had failed to ensure discussion of them by all the committees of the sections and also by the committees in the big enterprises. Only a few branches elaborated concrete plans of work on the basis of the discussion of the plenum decisions.
“To lose tempo in work”, the article says, “means in fact to lose contact with events and the opportunity of influencing them, to tail behind events and to give up the role of conscious vanguard of the working class, of the leading role in the entire democratic movement. Hence the need for fixing the minimum time for carrying out the decisions”.
In an atmosphere of enthusiasm and great joy the Rumanian people celebrated the 8th anniversary of the liberation of the country by the Soviet Army from fascist enslavement.
Comrade J. V. Stalin, Chairman of the Council of the Ministers of the U.S.S.R. addressed the following telegram to Comrade Gh. Gheorghiu-Dej. Chairman of the Council of the Ministers of the Rumanian People’s Republic:
“On the occasion of the national holiday—Liberation Day—I ask you, Comrade Chairman, and the Government of the Rumanian People’s Republic, to accept my sincere congratulations and friendly wishes to the Rumanian people of further success in building the People’s Democratic Rumania”.
In reply Comrade Gh. Gheorghiu-Dej wrote that the Rumanian people are filled with heartfelt gratitude to the great Soviet people, to the Soviet Government, the Communist Party of the Soviet Union and Comrade Stalin personally for the constant all-round aid rendered on all sectors of socialist construction. This aid is a remarkable expression of the ideology of proletarian internationalism, of the policy of fraternity and co-operation among peoples which form the bedrock of relations among the countries of the camp of Socialism and peace headed by the Soviet Union.
The celebration meeting held in Bucharest on August 22 was attended by the leaders of the Rumanian Workers’ Party and the State headed by Comrade Gh. Gheorghiu-Dej, the Soviet Government delegation headed by Comrade Kuznetsov, Chairman of the All-Union Central Council of Trade Unions, the Government delegations from the Chinese People’s Republic, Korean People’s Democratic Republic, German Democratic Republic, Poland, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Bulgaria, Albania, the Mongolian People’s Republic, the Democratic Republic of Viet Nam, by stakhanovites, leading workers in industry, workers of art and literature and also by representatives of Party and public organisations.
The meeting was opened by Dr. Petru Groza, Chairman of the Presidium of the Grand National Assembly. Dr. Petru Groza proposed that the best friend of the Rumanian people, wise leader of the working people of the world, Generalissimo
J. V. Stalin, be elected honorary chairman of the celebration meeting. The members of the Political Bureau of the Central Committee of the C.P.S.U. (B) and the members of the Political Bureau of the Central Committee of the Rumanian Workers’ Party headed by Gh. Gheorghiu-Dej, were elected to the honorary presidium.
The report on the 8th anniversary of the liberation of Rumania by the Soviet Army was delivered by Gheorghe Apostol, Vice-President of the Council of the Ministers and Secretary of the Central Committee of the Rumanian Workers’ Party.
The outstanding victories of the Soviet Army over the Hitler forces 8 years ago, said Comrade Apostol, made it possible for the Rumanian people, led by the Rumanian Communist Party, to smash forever the fetters of the fascist dictatorship and to turn their arms against the mortal enemy—German fascism.
The liberation of Rumania from the yoke of foreign imperialism and fascist dictatorship ushered in a new era in the history of the Rumanian people, signified their genuine national and social regeneration and opened the way for big political, economic and cultural revolutionary transformations...
The speaker pointed out that the changed correlation of forces on the international arena in favour of the camp of peace, democracy and Socialism is linked with the growth of the might of the U.S.S.R... The convening of the XIX Congress of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union is an outstanding event in the international working-class movement. Communists and all working people in Rumania welcomed this news with great joy and enthusiasm. The glorious history of the great Party of Lenin-Stalin is the most reliable guide for the Rumanian Workers’ Party and for all Communists throughout the world in their struggle to build a new society. The immense growth in strength of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union and the consolidation of the Soviet State give renewed strength to every honest man and woman, to every patriot who, in the grandeur of the Communist construction in the U.S.S.R., sees the future of his own country.
The people of Rumania celebrated their national festival—August 23—the day of liberation of their homeland by the glorious Soviet Army, in conditions of a tremendous political and labour upsurge. The working people of town and countryside are enthusiastically discussing the draft of the new Constitution of the Rumanian People’s Republic which registers the great victories won by the Rumanian people under the leadership of the Rumanian Workers’ Party during the eight years that have passed since August 23, 1914. Gheorghe Apostol pointed out that since the nationalisation, industrial output has increased almost threefold. After the defeat of the Right deviation by the Central Committee of the Rumanian Workers’ Party industrialisation has developed at an even more rapid rate. Work on the big constructions of Socialism is steadily going forward. The Rumanian people celebrate the August 23 festival with big successes also in agriculture. Despite fierce resistance of kulaks, despite the opportunist policy pursued by the Right deviators who were undermining the work of state farms and agricultural producer co-operatives and retarding formation and development of associations for joint cultivation, the crop yield in 1951 was 20 per cent higher than in 1950, with the result that for the first time the level of agricultural production surpassed that of 1938.
Gheorghe Apostol dwelt in detail on the rise in the standard of living of the working people, stressing that the draft of the new Constitution ensures for the people the right to work, to rest and leisure, to education and other democratic liberties. He also pointed out that in the new Rumania all national and race discrimination has been abolished, equality between national minorities and the Rumanian people established, and, at the same time, the material base for exercising these rights ensured.
The Rumanian people, said Gheorghe Apostol in conclusion, are proud of the fact that they have been able to inscribe such gains in the fundamental law of their country in a matter of only 8 years from the day of their liberation by the glorious Soviet Army. These gains testify to the fact that the Rumanian people headed by the Rumanian Workers’ Party, are going along the right path, along the path leading to the victory of Socialism and peace, along the path of Marx, Engels, Lenin, Stalin.
Gheorghe Apostol’s report was followed with close attention and repeatedly punctuated with tumultuous applause in honour of Rumanian-Soviet friendship and the Soviet people, in honour of Gh. Gheorghill-Dej—leader of the working people of Rumania in honour of Comrade Joseph Vissarionovich Stalin.
Gheorghe Apostol was followed by V. V. Kuznetsov, head of the Soviet Government delegation. Comrade Kuznetsov’s speech was repeatedly punctuated with applause and evoked an ovation in honour of Comrade Stalin, in honour of the U.S.S.R.
On the occasion of the anniversary greetings were also conveyed to the Rumanian people by the representatives of the Government delegations from other countries.
Those participating in the meeting enthusiastically adopted the text of a message of greetings to Comrade J. V. Stalin. great leader of the working people.
On the same day wreaths were laid at the base of the memorial to the soldiers of the Soviet Army who fell in the battle for the liberation of Bucharest.
A military parade, followed by a mass demonstration of the working people, was held in Bucharest on August 23rd.
Endless stream of demonstrators marched past the reviewing stand: the personnel of industrial enterprises, office workers, working peasants of the Bucharest Region, scientists, public figures and housewives. The columns were surmounted with thousands of portraits of J. V. Stalin. members of the Political Bureau of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. Gh. Gheorghiu-Dej, members of the Political Bureau of the Rumanian Workers’ Party and portraits of the leaders of the fraternal Communist and Workers’ Parties.
“For Peace! For Socialism!”—these words, repeated on posters and placards, resounded over the square. About 500,000 working people took part in the demonstration which continued for four hours.
Amid great political enthusiasm thousands-strong demonstrations took place also in the City of Stalin, in Ploesti, Cluj Constanta, Timisoara, Jassy and in other industrial centres.
After the demonstration the residents of Bucharest filled the gaily decorated parks and squares. An artillery salute was fired at 8 p.m. Twenty salvoes followed one another in honour of the heroic Soviet Army—liberator of the Rumanian people, in honour of the Rumanian people successfully building Socialism. The popular festivities lasted until late at night.
At Celebration Meeting in Bucharest Devoted to 8th Anniversary of Liberation of Rumania by Soviet Army
Dear comrades and friends!
On behalf of the Soviet Government and the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, on behalf of the Soviet people and also on behalf of the great Stalin personally, the Soviet delegation warmly greets and congratulates you and all the people of Rumania on the occasion of the great national celebration of the 8th anniversary of the liberation of Rumania from the fascist yoke. (Tumultuous applause)
As a result of the world-historic victory of the Soviet Union over German fascism and the liberation of Rumania by the Soviet Army your people overthrew the Fascist dictatorship and rid themselves forever of the foreign imperialist yoke. Having taken the fate of the country into their own hands the Rumanian people, under the leadership of the Workers’ Party, founded the people’s democratic state in complete consonance with the vital interests and aspirations of the broad masses of the country.
The people’s democratic power realised the age-old dream of the Rumanian people—the land reform—transferred the landlords’ land to the peasants, nationalised industry, transport and banks, and, in this way, abolished the landlord-capitalist system, the system of exploitation of man by man and created the economic and political prerequisites for the successful realisation of socialist construction.
The Workers’ Party, headed by the tried leader Comrade Gheorghiu-Dej, confidently leads the Rumanian people along the path-way of building Socialism. (Applause).
Relying on the friendship and selfless aid of the Soviet Union, and utilising its rich experience of socialist construction, the working people of your country, having unfolded wide-scale socialist emulation, are successfully fulfilling and overfulfilling the Five-Year Plan for the development of the national economy.
The Soviet people follow your successes with great attention and sympathy. We sincerely rejoice at the fact that every passing day in your country sees the socialist positions being consolidated, socialist industry strengthened and agriculture reorganised along socialist lines.
As is known, under the bourgeois-landlord regime Rumanian industry was practically in complete dependence on the trusts and monopolies of the imperialist states which rapaciously squandered and plundered the economic resources of the country, amassing huge profits from the sweat and blood of the working class and the peasantry. Today, in conditions of the people’s democratic system, native Rumanian industry is successfully winning leading positions throughout the national economy of the country which is borne out by the fact that, by the end of 1951, the relative share of industry in the national economy of the country exceeded 60 per cent.
The working people of your country have every right to be proud of having created new branches of industry equipped with up-to-date technique and turning out home-made machines, tractors and agricultural machinery, machine-tools as well as equipment for metal-processing, oil extraction, coalmining and other branches of industry.
All this made it possible to undertake in Rumania construction of the biggest enterprises and powerful electric stations such as the Lenin power station on the River Bistrita and the iron and steel combine in Hunedoara. The old dream of the Rumanian people about building a Danube-Black Sea canal is being realised. (Applause).
The industrialisation of your country creates a solid material-technical base for the socialist transformation of all branches of the national economy.
One cannot but note the radical changes that have taken place in the agriculture of your country. The socialist sector in the countryside has been extended on the basis of the voluntary co-operation of the small peasant households. This resulted in a considerable extension of the sown area, in increased yields of the main agricultural crops. The supplying of agriculture with up-to-date technique, the good experience of the work of the co-operatives—all guarantee the further development and consolidation of socialist agriculture in your Republic. (Applause).
All these successes have resulted in a steady rise in the material wellbeing of the working people. The Workers’ Party and the Government of the Republic display constant concern for raising the material and cultural level of the people.
The currency reform and the reduction of consumer goods prices carried out during the current year further raise real wages of factory and office workers and incomes of the working peasantry. Appropriations for cultural upbuilding are being increased, the network of schools and higher educational establishments, clubs and theatres extended from year to year and all conditions created for the flowering of science, culture and art. And all this is done in the interests of the working people.
Today you are building a new society in which the basic principle of Socialism: “From each according to his ability, to each according to his work” is being applied on an ever wider scale.
The splendid victories, the economic and social-political transformations that have taken place in your country during the past four years are reflected and embodied in the draft of the new Constitution of the Rumanian People’s Republic. The new Constitution sums up the results of the victories won by the Workers’ Party and the people in the struggle for building a free and independent Rumania, for abolishing exploitation of man by man, for building Socialism, for peace and friendship among the nations. The new Constitution proclaims and consolidates the great rights and freedoms now enjoyed by your working people and guarantees the exercise of these rights. We, Soviet people, can appreciate your joy in embodying in the Constitution the fruits of your persistent labour and selfless struggle for a happy future for the people. Every working man and woman realises that under the bourgeois regime it was impossible even to dream of this.
Undoubtedly the adoption of the new Constitution is a remarkable victory for the democratic system and will facilitate further consolidation of the people’s-democratic Rumanian Republic. (Applause).
But we know from our experience, and from the experience of socialist construction in the U.S.S.R., in the first instance, that the class struggle inside the country grows and that the venom and hatred of the foreign enemies for the new people’s democratic system are intensified accordingly as it advances towards Socialism. The class enemy in town and countryside offers desperate resistance resorting to sabotage, wrecking and terror in order to retard the onward march of the people along the pathway to Socialism.
We must not forget that the imperialist powers will resort to every crime, and, relying on the overthrown but not completely abolished exploiting classes, seek to destroy the revolutionary gains and the fruits of the peaceful labour of the popular masses in Rumania. In view of this we must display the greatest vigilance and irreconcilability towards the enemies of the people.
We know perfectly well that the working class, in alliance with the working peasantry and under the leadership of the Workers’ Party and its Central Committee, has traversed a militant path in building the people’s democratic state.
There is no doubt that the working people of Rumania headed by the Workers’ Party, by the Government, and by Comrade Gh. Gheorghiu-Dej, their tried leader, will successfully cope with the tasks of building Socialism, will overcome all the difficulties along this path. (Tumultuous applause).
Comrades, of great significance for the economic advance and for strengthening the people’s democratic state is the fact that Rumania, the Soviet Union and the countries of people’s democracy are linked in close bonds of friendship and co-operation based on mutual fraternal aid.
The friendly relations between our peoples are a striking example of the realisation of the great Lenin-Stalin principles of equality among the peoples, of respect for national independence and state sovereignty. The friendship of the Soviet and Rumanian peoples is being developed and strengthened in the common struggle for peace and democracy, for the triumph of Socialism under the invincible Lenin-Stalin banner. This has found expression in the Treaty of Friendship, Co-operation and Mutual Assistance signed by our countries.
The friendship between our freedom-loving peoples assumes particular importance in conditions when the U.S.-British imperialists seek to plunge the world into the abyss of a new war.
Over two years ago the U.S. aggressors perfidiously attacked the Korean People’s Democratic Republic, committing unprecedented crimes on Korean soil. Unable to achieve victory over the freedom-loving Korean people heroically upholding their freedom and independence, the U.S. invaders resorted to a most monstrous means—the bacteriological weapon. All honest people throughout the world have branded with shame the U.S. cannibals. The U.S. imperialists also resort to other criminal means—to barbarous air raids on peaceful towns, to extermination and torture of the civilian population and prisoners of war. The U.S. warmongers and their henchmen are knocking together a “Pacific Bloc” and turning Japan into a bridgehead for a new aggression in the Far East.
Simultaneously the U.S.-British aggressors bank desperately on reviving German militarism, on creating in Western Germany a hotbed of aggression in Europe. The separate agreement of the U.S., Britain and France with the revanchist Adenauer Government is aimed at stepping up preparation for and unleashing a new war.
In order to realise the insane plans for world domination the U.S. imperialists resort to the most cynical and vile means of struggle. The Truman Government spends hundreds of millions of dollars bribing assassins and saboteurs, sending them into the peace-loving democratic countries for wrecking activity.
The U.S. imperialists assign a special role in their criminal designs to the fascist Tito-Rankovic clique which has betrayed its people, deprived them of their revolutionary gains, restored the capitalist order in Yugoslavia and turned the country into a tool for realising the imperialist plans.
However, a wave of popular protest against the imperialist policy of hunger, poverty and war is rising throughout the entire capitalist world.
The burden of the armaments drive falls most heavily on the working people. While the standard of living in the countries of the democratic camp is steadily rising as a result of peaceful creative labour, the material conditions of the popular masses in all capitalist countries are steadily declining. Prices and taxes are soaring, the already miserable allocations for social needs cut, and wages frozen or reduced. The millionfold army of unemployed, of people suffering privation, grows daily. In their endeavour to amass maximum profits from war, the imperialists intensify the plunder of the working people, resort to the most brutal exploitation. At the same time, the capitalist governments are engaged in an unrestrained offensive against democratic rights and freedoms, employing fascist methods for suppressing the working-class movement, persecuting peace supporters and progressive organisations.
This intensifies the protest of the popular masses, gives rise to a growing strike movement and inflames the national-liberation struggle in the colonial and dependent countries.
The peace movement is a mighty, invincible movement of the peoples in defence of their freedom and independence, against the preparation for a new war.
Having experienced the horrors of the second world war, the peoples do not want another slaughter, they are filled with the determination to uphold the cause of peace, to frustrate the criminal designs of the instigators of world war.
The freedom-loving peoples are rallying still closer around the Soviet Union—the mighty bulwark of peace, around Comrade Stalin—their leader and teacher, great standard-bearer of peace! (Applause growing into ovation).
The 11,000,000 signatures collected in your country to the Appeal of the World Peace Council for a five-Power Peace Pact, are a vivid expression of the readiness of the Rumanian people to uphold the cause of peace to the end, for the triumph of democracy and Socialism.
Allow me once more to congratulate you on your outstanding achievements during the past year in building Socialism.
On this splendid day the Soviet people convey to the fraternal Rumanian people heartiest wishes for further successes in the struggle for pre-schedule fulfilment of the Five-Year Plan, for a lasting peace, for new achievements in socialist construction. (Applause).
Glory to the Rumanian people and their Government headed by Comrade Gheorghiu-Dej—their tried leader!
Glory to the Rumanian Workers’ Party—organiser and inspirer of the struggle of the Rumanian people for peace and Socialism!
May the inviolable friendship and fraternal alliance of the peoples of the Soviet Union and the Rumanian People’s Republic grow stronger!
Long live the great Stalin—wise leader and teacher of the working people of the world. the best friend of the Rumanian people! (Tumultuous applause growing into ovation).
Ulanfu, Candidate member, Central Committee, Communist Party of China, Chairman, People’s Government, Inner Mongolian Autonomous Region, People’s Republic of China
The Communist Party of China, basing itself on the Marxist-Leninist theory concerning the national question and on the experience of the implementation of the Lenin-Stalin national policy in the Soviet Union, has resolutely carried out, with brilliant results, a policy of national equality in the course of the Chinese revolution and of building the new State.
China is a large country of many nationalities. There are more than 100 nationalities in addition to the Han. The national minority population of China comprises about forty million of the 500 million population of the Republic. These national minorities are now in different stages of social and historical development.
Before the liberation of the country the Kuomintang reactionaries adopted a policy of brutal oppression towards the national minorities. The Kuomintang reactionaries bought over and cajoled elements of the upper strata of the national minorities and used them to control the masses. Moreover, foreign imperialists engaged in driving wedges between the national minorities. All this caused the national minorities to be on guard against each other, to be suspicious of each other and to engage often in mutual killing.
Ever since the founding of the Communist Party of China it consistently exposed the brutal oppression of the national minorities by the reactionary Chinese ruling classes. It always faithfully adhered to the Marxist-Leninist theory concerning the national question, advocated the equality of all nationalities within the boundaries of China and assisted in various ways the liberation and development of the national minorities. In his report “On Coalition Government” made at the Seventh Party Congress of the Communist Party of China in April, 1945, Comrade Mao Tse-tung declared: “Members of the Party should positively help the broad masses of all national minorities to fight for the realisation of this policy. We should help these masses, including all their leaders who are in close contact with them, to fight for their political, economic, and cultural liberation and development and to build up armies of the national minorities which uphold the interests of the masses. Their spoken and written languages, customs, traditions, and religious beliefs should be respected”.
After the victory of the People’s Democratic Revolution was won throughout China the First Plenary Session of the Chinese People’s Political Consultative Conference, meeting on September 29, 1949, on the eve of the founding of the People’s Republic of China, adopted the Common Programme in accordance with the suggestion made by the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China.
The Common Programme declares: “All nationalities within the boundaries of the People’s Republic of China are equal. They shall establish unity and mutual aid among themselves, and shall oppose imperialism and their own public enemies, so that the People’s Republic of China will become a big fraternal and co-operative family composed of all its nationalities. Greater nationalism and chauvinism shall be opposed. Acts involving discrimination, oppression and splitting of the unity of the various nationalities shall be prohibited”.
The Common Programme (Article 51) declares: “Regional autonomy shall be exercised In areas where national minorities are concentrated and various kinds of autonomy organizations of the different nationalities shall be set up according 10 the size of the respective populations and regions. In places where different nationalities live together and in the autonomous areas of the national minorities, the different nationalities shall each have an appropriate number of representatives in the local organs of state power”.
The Common Programme further declares: “All national minorities shall have freedom to develop their spoken and written languages, to preserve or reform their traditions, customs and religious beliefs. The People’s Government shall assist the masses of the people of all national minorities to develop their political, economic, cultural and educational construction work”.
For more than two years the Communist Party of China and the People’s Government have resolutely carried out the policy on nationalities laid down in the Common Programme and have made great achievements.
In the political field, the Communist Party of China and the People’s Government have carried out a series of measures to protect the political rights of the national minorities and to strengthen solidarity among the various nationalities.
The People’s Government has actively carried out regional national autonomy in areas where national minorities are concentrated. The national autonomous regions are set up in accordance with relations between the local nationalities, the conditions of their economic development and with due consideration to the historical background.
Internal affairs are administered in conformity with the will of the majority of the people of the nationality concerned and that of the leaders who keep in touch with the people, that is to say, they are administered by the people of the nationality themselves. The autonomous organs in the national autonomous regions are the organs of the state power of the people. They are set up in accordance with the principle of the system of democratic centralism and the system of people’s congresses. The autonomous organs in the national autonomous region ensure that equal rights are enjoyed by all nationalities within the local autonomous region. They also ensure that the freedom and the right to elect and to be elected as laid down in the Common Programme of the Chinese People’s Political Consultative Conference are enjoyed by all people within the local autonomous region irrespective of nationality. All the autonomous organs in the national autonomous regions use their own spoken and written language. The setting up of such regional national autonomy is the key to the solution of the national problem in China.
In the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region the People’s Government was formed very early. During the past two years 130 national autonomous regions of this kind have been set up elsewhere in the country.
Where several nationalities live together in a region, a democratic-coalition government of various nationalities is established. This coalition government is composed of the representatives of various nationalities in proportion to their population, with due consideration given to those nationalities whose numbers are especially small. The task of the democratic coalition government of nationalities is to ensure that all the nationalities which live together in the same region enjoy equal rights in the organ of state power so that the development of all the nationalities and mutual co-operation among them can be protected. All the national minority elements who, as a result of historical reasons, live among the inhabitants of the Han nationality, are given equal legal rights with the Han people. More than 160 democratic-coalition governments of nationalities have been established throughout the country during the last two years.
The General Programme for the implementation of Nationality Regional Autonomy in the People’s Republic of China, came into effect on August 9, on an order issued by Mao Tse-tung, Chairman of the Central People’s Government. It was adopted by the Central People’s Government Council on the previous day.
This General Programme is drawn up in accordance with the policy towards nationalities laid down in the Common Programme, China’s fundamental law, and on the basis of experience in selling up nationality autonomous regions in the past three years. This is legislation of historic significance, divided into seven chapters and 40 articles, every word and line of which vividly expresses the basic spirit of Article 9 of the Common Programme: “All nationalities in the People’s Republic of China shall have equal rights and duties.”
In the areas inhabited by more than one nationality the People’s Government has actively helped the different nationalities to reconcile their disputes inherited from former times. Owing to incitement by the reactionary ruling class, the different nationalities in such areas had many feuds over pastures, irrigation systems, matrimony, robbery etc. Some of these feuds had remained unsettled for scores of years or even for more than a century. Now the People’s Government constantly expounds to the masses of the various nationalities the policy of equality and unity of all nationalities and of freedom of religious belief. Moreover, the government helps them by various kinds of democratic consultation to reach impartial and rational solutions of these disputes. Within the past two years more than 7,000 disputes, both old and new, have been settled in areas inhabited by more than one nationality. With the settlement of the historically-rooted disputes, the barriers between the different nationalities have been removed, their unity cemented and the prestige of the Communist Party and the People’s Government greatly enhanced.
One of the greatest successes in solving the national question since the establishment of the People’s Republic of China has been the peaceful liberation of Tibet. Tibet is an inseparable part of China. The Tibetan people are one of the nationalities living within the boundaries of China and have a long history. However, due to deceit and provocation by the imperialists, Tibet was alienated from the rest of the country. After the inauguration of the People’s Republic of China, the policy of national equality carried out by the Communist Party and the People’s Government as well as the fact that the national minorities in, China have won liberation, greatly impressed and encouraged the Tibetan people. As a result, the local government of Tibet, in April, 1951, sent its representatives to Peking to negotiate with representatives of the Central People’s Government and an agreement for the peaceful liberation of Tibet was reached. The Tibetan people have thus returned to the great family of the People’s Republic of China.
The Chinese Communist Party and the People’s Government pay special attention to training cadres of the various nationalities. In 1950, the training classes established by various administrative departments of the Sinkiang Provincial People’s Government trained more than 4,000 cadres. In the meantime, local training classes in various places in Sinkiang Province have also trained 3,600 cadres.
In December 1950, the Government Administration Council of the Central People’s Government also promulgated the “Provisional Measures for the Training of National Minority Cadres.” At present, there are eight local nationalities’ colleges with students drawn from more than fifty nationalities, and a Central college of national minorities in Peking. The task of these colleges is to train both high and middle-level cadres from among the national minorities to take part in the construction work in the country.
At the same time, five schools for cadres’ of national minorities as well as various cadre’s training classes have been opened in different places and are now training large groups of cadres of various nationalities.
A considerable number of men and women have been selected from among the national minorities to undertake different kinds of work in the people’s governments at various levels. During the past two years, more than 60,000 cadres from the national minorities have been promoted in this way. In Sinkiang Province, more than 80 per cent of the functionaries of the people’s governments at various levels are cadres drawn from the local nationalities.
In the economic field, the Chinese Communist Party and the People’s Government have undertaken a series of practical measures to further economic restoration and development in areas inhabited by national minorities and to improve their living conditions.
In this respect the People’s Government has in the first place carried out a fair and reasonable price policy. In the past, Kuomintang reactionaries, unscrupulous merchants and usurers of Han nationality in these areas brutally exploited the people of the national minorities by forcing them to trade on unequal terms. After liberation, state trading enterprises established 750 trading concerns in these areas, and also organised a large number of mobile trading units. These commercial organs carry out a policy of fair and reasonable prices. In Chinghai, a herdsman now receives 14 and a half times as much cloth as he received in exchange for the same amount of wool before liberation. In Ningsia, the barter-rate of camel hair for wheat was 30 times higher in May 1951 than in pre-liberation days. This has greatly increased the income of the people of national minorities and raised their purchasing power.
In the grazing areas, the People’s Government makes every effort to protect the pastures, to improve the quality of the grass, the storing up of winter fodder and to render veterinary aid. In the Northwest alone, a total of 2,400,000 head of cattle were inoculated and given veterinary treatment during the past two years.
In the crop-growing areas, in order to increase the output of food products, the People’s Government is doing everything to repair and build irrigation projects, to reclaim more farm land, to carry out relief projects in case of crop failures, to organise mutual-aid teams and to offer big loans for the purchase of farm implements, draught animals and seed. In Sinkiang Province alone, for instance, irrigation channels totalling 1,800 kilometres in length were dug and the arable land increased by 24.4 per cent within two years.
In addition to the measures described above, big strides are rapidly being made in agriculture, cattle breeding, industry and trade in the areas inhabited by the national minorities.
In accordance with their correct policy, the Communist Party of China and the People's Government have also carried out a series of measures to promote culture and education in areas inhabited by the national minorities.
The People's Government has revived, readjusted and developed the network of schools in the national minority areas. Throughout the country, the areas where the national minorities live now possess a total of 9,100 primary schools, 130 middle schools and one university. In Sinkiang, where many minority people live, the increase in primary schools and middle schools in 1951 was 32 per cent over pre-liberation days, and the increase of pupils 50 per cent. In these schools the pupils are educated in their own languages.
The People’s Government has actively embarked upon the publication of books and newspapers in the various national languages. During the last two years, the Commission of Nationalities Affairs of the Central People’s Government has published various books, pictorials, graphs, charts and documents in the Tibetan, Mongolian, Uighur and Kazakh languages. In the Inner Mongolian Autonomous Region, 330,000 copies of 45 different text-books were published in the Mongolian language in 1950, in addition to many theoretical works and popular reading material. Newspapers in the Mongolian language have also made their appearance. In Sinkiang Province, 58 books in the Uighur language and 38 books in the Kazakh language were published within the year ending March 1951.
Health work has been extensively carried out by the People’s Government in the areas where the national minorities live. Some 260 public health centres have been opened in these areas.
Owing to the political, economic and cultural measures carried out by the Chinese Communist Party and the People’s Government and described above, the relations between the various national minorities have undergone a radical change. Mutual distrust and suspicion, common in the past, have been done away with. Instead there is now friendship and unity. All the various national minorities express in high degree, love for and confidence in the Communist Party, the People’s Liberation Army and the People’s Government.
Thanks to the liberation many of the national minorities have been given a new lease of life. The Olunchun of Heilungkiang Province in Northeast China furnishes a good example. In the past, during the Japanese occupation, the life of this national minority, deteriorated under the oppression and exploitation of the Japanese imperialists to the extent that their numbers dropped by one half. After liberation, the autonomous organisations of this national minority, under the leadership of the Communist Party and the People’s Government, actively look up the task of planting forest belts and of fire prevention, developed agricultural production, established co-operatives and schools, and improved sanitary conditions. Thus the life of the masses of his people has conspicuously improved and its numbers have increased significantly.
The political consciousness and enthusiasm of the people of the different national minorities are growing year by year. The people of the various national minorities are profoundly interested in the affairs, big or small, of the People’s Government and regard them as their personal affair. The national minorities in various regions throughout China have taken an active part in such patriotic movements as the Resist American Aggression and Aid Korea campaign and the referendum against the remilitarization of Japan by American imperialism; they have also participated in eliminating U.S.-Chiang Kai-shek espionage agents. People of the various national minorities in the provinces of Yunnan, Sikang and Kweichow, which were liberated later than other areas, have organised a militia and vied with each other in clearing out the bandits. Men and women, old and young—all have voluntarily joined in searching for and capturing espionage agents of American imperialism and the Chiang Kai-shek clique, thus consolidating revolutionary order and national defence.
In some areas inhabited by the national minorities, Christians, both Protestant and Catholic, belonging to the national minorities, have also launched the reformation movement calling for self-government, self-support of the churches (the author has in mind the emancipation of churches from the influence of foreign imperialists and ending the financing of the churches from abroad.—Ed.), have exposed the intrigues of imperialism, accused the guilty clergymen of their crimes, and have driven out the imperialist elements who conducted espionage activities in the guise of missionaries.
The successful solution of the national question in China is one of the important fruits of the great victory of the revolutionary cause of the Chinese people. It is also a heavy blow to foreign imperialism. In the past the imperialists sought by every means to split the various Chinese nationalities so as to carry out their plot to dominate China. New, under the policy of equality for the nationalities as advocated by the Chinese Communist Party, the close unity of the various Chinese nationalities has shattered these intrigues of imperialism.
The successful solution of the national problem in China is also a victory for the Marxist-Leninist teaching on the national question. Marxism-Leninism teaches us that the national question can be solved consistently and completely only under the leadership of the proletariat. Following the victory of the Great October Socialist Revolution the friendly co-operation among the various nationalities in the Soviet Union confirmed this point long ago. Now, the close solidarity of the various nationalities in the People’s Republic of China once more eloquently confirms this.
On August 25 the newspaper “Zeri i Popullit” (“Voice of the People”), organ of the Central Committee of the Albanian Party of Labour, celebrated its tenth anniversary.
A message of greetings to the newspaper, signed by Enver Hodja, General Secretary of the Party of Labour, says that from the first day of its existence, in conditions of fascist occupation, “Zeri i Popullit” has been a powerful weapon in the hands of the Party and the people in their sacred struggle for a free, democratic Albania, for the genuine triumph of the Lenin-Stalin Party line, for the defeat of all its enemies.
At present the newspaper is, with honour, performing its tasks in the struggle for peace, for laying the foundations of Socialism.
Learning from the experience of the Bolshevik Party, “Zeri i Popullit” holds aloft the banner of the all-conquering ideas of Marxism-Leninism, the banner of democracy, peace and Socialism. It wages persistent struggle for the ideological and organisational strengthening of the Party of Labour and for the purity of its ranks. It regularly publishes articles by secretaries of district Party committees and of the Party branches, by propagandists and agitators; it generalises experience of Party work and criticises shortcomings. The newspaper consistently exposes the foul machinations of the U.S.-British imperialists and their Titoite lackeys against the People’s Republic of Albania.
During recent years it has considerably strengthened its contact with the workers and peasants, with the advanced people of the Republic. The editorial board receives hundreds of letters every month. Some 900 worker and peasant correspondents systematically send reports to the newspaper.
The aggressive war plot of the Yugoslav, Greek and Turkish fascists, under the aegis of plague-General Ridgway, is a serious threat to peace in the Balkans.
Drawing by J. Novak
The other day three American soldiers belonging to the U.S. occupation troops in Western Europe travelled by train from Holland to Basel (Switzerland) just to rest and to have a good time”. When a Swiss border official requested their passports one of the trio immediately... bashed him in the face with his fist. The astounded official tried to call this strange “guest” to order, but he was immediately set upon by the other G.I.’s. Only action by Customs officials and railway workers saved the frontier guard from brutal assault...
Reporting this “deplorable incident” the Swiss Telegraphic Agency added that evidently the Americans would be made “to answer for assault and violence in relation to public officers”.
But this was said in a sort of by the way style, timidly and diffidently, more for the purpose of re-assuring public opinion than to alarm the American “guests”. And, indeed, how one can speak of holding Americans “responsible” for insulting Swiss citizens when the amp Americans have for long acted in “neutral” Switzerland as in an occupied country. The active economic espionage carried on by the U.S. on Swiss territory is admitted even by the American press. The deal concluded between the Swiss rulers and the U.S. militarists, is an open secret. Did not the American newspaper “Chicago Sun Times” write recently that Switzerland was getting ready to link itself in a military relationship with the United States.
Not long ago Frank Nash, U.S. Assistant Defence Secretary, accompanied by the Swiss President Kobelt, visited units of the Swiss Army in Thun, Brienz and Lucerne. This “visit” resembled least of all the pleasure trip of a curious tourist—it was a regular tour of inspection.
Nash was followed by General Draper, U.S. permanent representative in the aggressive Atlantic Alliance, who “conferred’ with the Swiss military and civil authorities and, in particular, with Petitpierre, Chief of the Political Department.
The Americans are seizing control over military installations in Switzerland and act the master on Swiss airfields. For instance, the newspaper “La Suisse” recently reported that the U.S. Air Ministry had decided that, henceforth, technical inspection of U.S. military aircraft based in Western Germany will be conducted on an airfield near Geneva, indicating thereby that it regards Switzerland as a country occupied by U.S. troops.
The Federal War Department officially announced that a Swiss military mission would visit the U.S. at the end of August. The visit is connected with the armament deliveries to Switzerland under the U.S. “Mutual Security” law. The U.S. press gloated that, while purchasing armaments in the U.S., Switzerland undertakes strictly to observe this law and scrupulously follow U.S. orders in respect to curtailing trade with the East. A group of U.S. officers will shortly arrive in Switzerland to acquaint Swiss military personnel with tanks and radar installations produced in the U.S. According to the “Baseler Nachrichten”, Switzerland intends to purchase in the U.S. a considerable number of tanks, special military automotive cars and other war materials.
But no matter how Messrs Kobelt and Pelitpierre twist in their endeavours to make black appear white and to present their deal with warmongers as “intimate talks” with curious tourists, it becomes clearer and clearer that Switzerland is being dragged into the criminal system of the aggressive North Atlantic bloc. It was not fortuitous that at his recent press conference in Paris plague-General Ridgway showered compliments on the Swiss authorities and on the Swiss armed forces, as well as on the “policy of neutrality and solidarity” pursued by the Swiss Government. He confirmed thereby that the policy of the present Swiss Government is a policy of betrayal of the national interests and of preparing a new war, a policy which fully corresponds to the aggressive designs in Europe of the U.S. imperialists.
Ridgway’s compliments caused confusion even in the Swiss bourgeois press which is brazen enough for anything. Clearly, the fairytales about Switzerland’s “traditional neutrality” can deceive nobody. The entire activity of the rulers of Switzerland fully reveals them as agents of the U.S. warmongers and executors of Ridgway’s orders.
It is said that during the second world war the “neutral” Swiss bourgeoisie worked six days a week for Hitler, and that on the seventh, the Sabbath, they prayed for the victory of the allies.
At present, Messrs Kobelt and Petilpierre spend the whole seven days a week mumbling about “peace” and “neutrality” and, simultaneously, during the same seven days, they grovel before their U.S. masters and barter Switzerland’s national sovereignty and independence. And neither the fulsome compliments of plague-General Ridgway, nor the slaps in the face by American soldiers, insulting the national dignity of Swiss citizens, brings a blush to the cheeks of these professional lackeys and traitors.
An enlarged meeting of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of Mexico was held in Mexico City on August 5-7.
In his report Comrade Dionisio Encina, General Secretary of the Party, made a critical analysis of the results of the presidential election held on July 6. He exposed the trickery and machinations of the Government and described the terror and repressions which accompanied the election. He disclosed shortcomings and weaknesses in the work of the United Front of the Democratic Parties, outlined the next tasks arising from the political experience accumulated by the working class and the entire people of Mexico during the presidential election. These tasks are: the fight for unity of the democratic opposition against the policy of national betrayal pursued by President Aleman and his clique which also· includes the new President, Ruiz Cortines, who takes over on December 1; continuation of the struggle for peace which remains the basic task of the Party; intensified struggle for unity of action and for a united front of the trade unions, for unity of the working people in their struggle for immediate demands; resolutely to turn towards the masses; improvement in the entire organisational and political work of the Party and intensified work among the masses; building the mass organisations and committees as the organisational expression of unity of action and of the united front of the struggle by the broad democratic and progressive forces.
The report on the second item of the agenda—improving the organisational and political activity of the Party—was delivered by Comrade Encarnacion Valdez, Organising Secretary of the Party. The reports were subjected to detailed discussion.
The fourth anniversary of the “Marshallisation” of Austria was noted in July. What are the results of the U.S. “generosity”?
There are now 120,000 unemployed in Austria-three times more than was the case four years ago. Food prices and consumer goods prices have risen fivefold.
The schilling is down to half its value. Americans have seized key positions in Austrian industry and banks. Due to curtailment of trade with the East, Austria during this period, has lost 7.5 billion schillings annually.
Comment would be superfluous.
Journal “For a Lasting Peace, for a People’s Democracy” is printed and published in Bucharest, Rumania, and appears every Friday. Address of Editorial Office and of Publishing House:—56, Valeriou Braniste, Bucharest, Tel: 5.10.59