Enver Hoxha

On RELIGION

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

ENVER HOXHA

ON RELIGION

 

selection of works arranged by Wolfgang Eggers

on February 1, 2015

published by the Comintern (SH)

 

 

Albania was the first country in the world

without religious institutions and clergy.

 

CONSTITUTION

PEOPLE'S SOCIALIST REPUBLIC OF ALBANIA

Approved by the People's Assembly on December 28, 1976

Article 37

The state recognizes no religion whatever and supports atheist propaganda for the purpose of inculcating the scientific materialist world outlook in people.

Article 55

The creation of any type of organization of a fascist, anti-democratic, religious, and anti-socialist character is prohibited.

Fascist, anti-democratic, religious, war-mongering, and anti-socialist activities and propaganda, as well as the incitement of national and racial hatred are prohibited.

 

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The History of the Party of Labour of Albania

CHAPTER VII

THE STRUGGLE OF THE PLA FOR THE FURTHER REVOLUTIONIZATION OF THE PARTY AND THE LIFE OF THE COUNTRY

(1966-1971)


3. THE GREAT REVOLUTIONARY MOVEMENTS


Comrade Enver Hoxha’s speech of February 6, 1967 [ Enver Hoxha. Report to the 4th Congress of the Democratic Front of Albania, «Reports and Speeches 1967-1968», pp. 176-177, Alb. ed. ] and the entire struggle of the Party to implement the decisions of the 5th Congress added even more fire to the revolutionary activity of the working masses. Young and old rose to their feet, boldly criticizing themselves and others in order to combat shortcomings, weaknesses and mistakes, to purge the socialist society of the remnants of the old society and the influences of the bourgeois-revisionist ideology, to inculcate revolutionary socialist norms and attitudes, the proletarian teachings of the Party in life and work. Remarkable initiatives burst forth among the working people, and these were embodied in a number of concrete actions and transformed into great revolutionary movements.

These movements were a direct outcome of the Marxist-Leninist line, of the whole revolutionary work and struggle of the Party, past and present, for the uninterrupted development of the socialist revolution.

At the head of these movements stood the working class with its Marxist-Leninist party.


The Movement against Religion, Religious Prejudices and Backward Customs

The Party of Labour of Albania has always waged a systematic struggle against religion as an ideology of the exploiting classes hostile to socialism and opium for the people. The Party has considered the struggle against religion, against religious prejudices, against backward customs directly or indirectly linked with religion, as essential for the social liberation of the working people, for their ideological revolutionary tempering and for the construction of socialist society. On the other hand, it has regarded the struggle for the abolition of socio-economic oppression and exploitation closely linked with the development of the economy and culture on a socialist basis, as the primary indispensable condition for the emancipation of workers from the spiritual enslavement of religion. In the struggle against religion and backward customs it has used revolutionary forms and methods which have varied according to the historical conditions and the real situation of religious beliefs in the country, according to the stages of the revolution and the level of socialist consciousness of the workers.

In this struggle it has always been guided by the principle that people must be convinced from their own experience of the futility of religion and the harm it does to socialist society.

The various religions in Albania and the respective clergy have been utilized by the occupiers to split and enslave the people. For this reason the liberation struggle of the Albanian people against foreign domination and oppressors through the centuries has been directed also against the reactionary clergy which has been a tool of the invaders. As a result the Albanian people have not been strongly linked with religion, have not been so fanatical, and the clergy has not had the same influence among the popular masses as in many other countries.

This has made the struggle of the Party against the religious ideology and the reactionary clergy easier.

During the Anti-fascist National Liberation War the Party defeated the attempts of the Italian and German occupiers and the local traitors to split the people into Muslims and Christians.

It exposed and thwarted the attempts of the top clergy, particularly the Catholic one, to detach the masses of the people from the Party and the National Liberation Front.

The attempts of the reactionary clergy and other class enemies after Liberation to hinder the socialist construction of the country by means of «the word of God» also failed.

These efforts did not win the support of the masses. The people listened to the word of the Party and carried it out.

At the time of the proclamation of the People’s Republic, the separation of the Church from the state and the school from the Church were proclaimed by the Constitution, and the utilization of the Church and religion for political ends, as well as the creation of political organizations on a religious basis, were prohibited. The bulk of the land and other possessions belonging to religious institutions were expropriated by law. The publication of religious literature was banned and the possibilities for training religious cadres were restricted, and later totally abolished.

However, the Party and the state did not prohibit religious beliefs, the presence of religious communities, or the performance of religious rites. Neither could they prohibit those customs related to religion, which did not constitute direct violations of the state laws, even though they were reactionary in essence.

The Party could not insult the feelings of a mass of working people, especially in the countryside, who were closely linked with the Party and the people’s power, but continued to believe in one or the other religion, although they did not display any exaggerated fanaticism. The eradication of the religious outlook would come as a result of convincing the masses ideologically.

The Anti-fascist National Liberation War and the socialist construction of the country themselves were a great school for the atheist education of the working people. They taught the people that freedom and independence, progress and prosperity do not come in answer to prayers and are not given by «God,» but are won through the struggle and efforts of the people themselves, are a deed of the popular masses. At the same time, in order to liberate people from religious beliefs and backward customs, the Party carried on extensive atheist-scientific propaganda work by means of the radio and the press, books, lectures and talks, films, etc. By disseminating culture, education and scientific knowledge, the school played a major role in this direction.

By this time the conditions had been created to go over to a higher stage of the struggle against religion, religious prejudices and backward customs. After the 5th Congress and Comrade Enver Hoxha’s speech of February 6, 1967, this struggle began over a broad front and assumed the character of a major movement with a profound ideological content. It comprised all strata of the people, especially the youth, but the elderly were included, too. It was manifested in concrete actions, not only against the reactionary religious outlook, but also against any material base which preserved and fostered religion and backward customs.

The youth and other masses of the people in villages and cities rose to their feet, demanding that the churches and mosques, temples and monasteries, all the «holy places» be closed down; that the clergy give up their parasitic life and become working people living like everyone else, by their own work and sweat. In people’s meetings and assemblies organized by the Democratic Front and the Youth Union, where heated discussions took place, the people condemned the anti-national and anti-popular role of religion, the reactionary clergy and religious customs, decided to wipe out religious centres and transform them into cultural and other centres, to give up performance of religious rites and backward customs and to clear the icons, religious books and other symbols out of their homes.

These initiatives of the people had the powerful support of the party organizations and the organs of the people’s power.

With the destruction of religious centres, important bases, which poisoned human minds and served as hot-beds for hostile activity, were also wiped out.

Thus, Albania became the first country in the world without churches and mosques, without priests and hodjas.

While supporting the people’s movement in the struggle against religion, religious prejudices and backward customs, the Party guided it carefully. It did not allow distortions and took timely action to avert any hasty act not based on the will of the mass of population. It instructed the people to replace religious celebrations and customs with new celebrations, customs and norms with a socialist content. The actions of the masses to destroy the bases of religion were accompanied with intensive atheist-scientific work of clarification by the Party.

The Central Committee instructed the party organizations that any narrow concept of the problem of the struggle against religion, any manifestation of self-satisfaction stemming from the brilliant results achieved in a very short time with the destruction of religious centres, should be combated. The elimination of churches and mosques did not wipe out religion as a world outlook. Religion is very deep-rooted. It has been interwoven and linked with a thousand threads with the backward customs stemming from remote centuries, which live on and operate for a very long time. For this reason it was necessary to reveal the source, the reactionary, idealist philosophical basis of backward customs and religious practices and dogmas, and to struggle to destroy this basis.

«We must be realistic,» taught Comrade Enver Hoxha. «The struggle against outdated customs, traditions, norms and religious world outlooks... is not over. This is a protracted, complicated and difficult struggles.» [Enver Hoxha, Speeches and writings; 1967 – 1968, page 206).

Along with the educational work, the creation of all the respective material and moral conditions in the course of the revolutionary process of the complete construction of socialist society also served the aim of wiping out religious prejudices and inculcating the revolutionary materialist world outlook in the consciousness of the people.

 

 

 

 

 

 

COLLECTION OF QUOTATIONS

 

 

 

«How many religious beliefs are there in Albania,» Comrade Stalin inquired, «and what language is spoken?»
«In Albania,» I replied, «there are three religions: Moslem, Orthodox, and Catholic. The population which professes these three faiths is of the same nationality — Albanian, therefore the only language used is Albanian, with the exception of the Greek national minority which speak their mother tongue.»

(Enver Hoxha, "With Stalin", Second Meeting, March, April 1949, page 121

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During the talk with Stalin I pointed out to him the stand of the clergy, especially the catholic clergy in Albania, our position in relation to it, and asked how he judged our stand.
«The Vatican is a centre of reaction,» Comrade Stalin told me among other things, «it is a tool in the service of capital and world reaction, which supports this international organization of subversion and espionage. It is a fact that many catholic priests and missionaries of the Vatican are old-hands at espionage on a world scale. Imperialism has tried and is still trying to realize its aims by means of them.» Then he told me of what had happened once in Yalta with Roosevelt, the representative of the American catholic church and others.
During the talk with Roosevelt. Churchill and others on problems of the anti-Hitlerite war, they had said: «We must no longer fight the Pope in Rome. What have you against him that you attack him?!»
«I have nothing against him.» Stalin had replied.
«Then, let us make the Pope our ally,» they had said. «let us admit him to the coalition of the great allies.»
«All right,» Stalin had said, «but the anti-fascist alliance is an alliance to wipe out fascism and nazism. As you know, gentlemen, this war is waged with soldiers, artillery, machine-guns, tanks, aircraft. If the Pope or you can tell us what armies, artillery, machine-guns, tanks and other weapons of war he possesses, let him become our ally. We don’t need an ally for talk and incense.»
After that, they had made no further mention of the question of the Pope, and the Vatican.
«Were there catholic priests in Albania who betrayed the people?» Comrade Stalin asked me then.
«Yes.» I told him. «Indeed the heads of the catholic church made common cause with the nazi-fascist foreign invaders right from the start, placed themselves completely in their service, and did everything within their power to disrupt our National Liberation War and perpetuate the foreign domination.»
«What did you do with them?»
«After the victory,» I told him, «we arrested them and put them on trial and they received the punishment they deserved.»
«You have done well,» he said.
«But were there others who maintained a good stand?» he asked.
«Yes,» I replied, «especially clergymen of the Orthodox and Moslem religion.»
«What have you done with them?» he asked me.
«We have kept them close to us. In its First Resolution our Party called on all the masses, including the clergymen, to unite for the sake of the great national cause, in the great war for freedom and independence. Many of them joined us. threw themselves into the war and made a valuable contribution to the liberation of the Homeland. After Liberation they embraced the policy of our Party and continued the work for the reconstruction of the country. We have always valued and honoured such clergymen, and some of them have now been elected deputies to the People’s Assembly, or promoted to senior ranks in our army. In another case, a former clergyman linked himself so closely with the National Liberation Movement and the Party that in the course of the war he saw the futility of the religious dogma, abandoned his religion, embraced the communist ideology and thanks to his struggle, work and conviction we have admitted him to the ranks of the Party.»
«Very good,» Stalin said to me. «What more could I add? If you are clear about the fact that religion is opium for the people and that the Vatican is a centre of obscurantism, espionage and subversion against the cause of the peoples, then you know that you should act precisely as you have done.
«You should never put the struggle against the clergy, who carry out espionage and disruptive activities, on the religious plane,» Stalin said, «but always on the political plane. The clergy must obey the laws of the state, because these laws express the will of the working class and the Working people. You must make the people quite clear about these laws and the hostility of the reactionary clergymen so that even that part of the population which believes in religion will clearly see that, under the guise of religion, the clergymen carry out activities hostile to the Homeland and the people themselves. Hence the people, convinced through facts and arguments, together with the Government, should struggle against the hostile clergy. You should isolate and condemn only those clergymen who do not obey the Government and commit grave crimes against the state. But, I insist, the people must be convinced about the crimes of these clergymen, and should also be convinced about the futility of the religious ideology and the evils that result from it.»

(Enver Hoxha, "With Stalin", Third Meeting, March, April 1949, page 154 - 157)

 

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"The revolution disperses the religious fog."

(Enver Hoxha) 

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We Marxist-Leninists always understand clearly that religion is opium for the people.

In no instance do we alter our view on this and we must not fall into the errors of "religious socialism", etc. The Moslem religion is no different in this regard.

Those who have adopted and exploited the Moslem religion to exert social oppression over these peoples and to exploit them in the most ferocious ways are the anti-popular oppressive regimes and the reactionary clergy.

They have protected and continue to protect their blood-thirsty power through the weapons and support which they have received from abroad, that is, from the imperialist powers, the neo-colonialist robbers, as well as through inciting and developing religious fanaticism.

(Enver Hoxha)

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«The struggle against outdated customs, traditions, norms and religious world outlooks... is not over.

This is a protracted, complicated and difficult struggles.»

[Enver Hoxha, Speeches and writings; 1967 – 1968, page 206).

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The solution of the great and difficult tasks of the complete construction of socialist society demanded people with a high level of socialist consciousness, liberated from the bourgeois, feudal and patriarchal customs and concepts and religious prejudices, people imbued with the proletarian ideology, with great revolutionary tempering and determination.

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Church and bourgeoisie have despised the woman alike.

 

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". . . in this question [the struggle against religion] we shall not allow . . . the employment of administrative measures. There is only one method: . . . political, ideological and convincing work with the people."
Enver Hoxha, 7 April 1967, in Hoxha, E., Ditar [Diary], n. 9, Tirana, 1990, p. 133.
 
". . . The Party has given the directive to be very prudent, very mature in this question ."

Enver Hoxha, "The True Friendship is only the One which is Characterized by Faithfulness towards Marxism-Leninism: From a Talk during a Meeting with the Chinese Ambassador in Tirana", 12 April 1967, in Hoxha, E., Vepra, n. 35, Tirana, 1982, p. 234.

 

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"Our Party and people destroyed this structure within a few decades, but the fight to root out this cancer from the mentality of the people, is still far from ended. . . . and if a consistent and persuasive battle is waged in this direction, it will no longer take centuries but a few decades, a few generations."
Enver Hoxha, "How We Should Understand and Fight the Imperialist-Revisionist Encirclement of Our Country and the Effect of Its Pressure on Us: Speech Delivered at the General Meeting of the Communists of the Apparatus of the Central Committee of the Party to Render Account and Hold Elections", 15 March 1973, in Hoxha, E., On the Further Revolutionization of the Party and the Whole Life of the Country: Speeches (1971-1973), Tirana, 1974, p. 278.


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"There are old people who practise some religious rites. In respect of these, we must follow the road of persuasion, of working to rescue these people from religious bondage."

Enver Hoxha, "Let Us Be Attentive in Taking Decisions:  From the Discussion at the Meeting of the Presidium of the Popular Assembly of the PRA", 31 January 1976, in Hoxha, E., Vepra, n. 56, Tirana, 1987, p. 343. 

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"On the Struggle against Religion, Religious Prejudices and Customs"

27 February 1967

original text in Albanian language:

PRAKTIKAT FETARE T'I L PATRIOTIKE DHE UFTOJMË ME FRYNIEN REVOLUCIONARE TE MASAVE


Excerpts:

 

"We have continually to bear in mind that we must not enter into open struggle with persons who believe in religion, since among these people there will be honest people, linked with the Party and ardent patriots, who will retain in their consciousness for a long time, perhaps even until they die, their beliefs. With them the task of persuasion must be carried on, continuously and with great patience, in ways which we must not allow to be offensive. . . .
. . . Without slackening for a moment anti-religious propaganda, we must always bear in mind that we are dealing with people. Exaggerated, extreme actions must be avoided; we must carefully prepare political ground for each action we undertake."

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"The elimination of churches, mosques, teqe and monasteries naturally introduces a difficulty."

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"It must not go ahead in direct opposition to that part of the people which believes. That is why care and tact must be exercised in this direction."

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"To close mosques and churches by means of campaigns or orders is easy, but it is more difficult to spiritually and ideologically prepare believers to understand the futility of these institutions, to eradicate religion from the habits of their existence and give up its practices with conviction. . . .
The people . . . must be prepared spiritually and politically."

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"With these forms we must continue until they have been wiped from the face of the earth."
 Enver Hoxha, "Let Us Struggle against Religious Practices with the Patriotic and Revolutionary Spirit of the Masses: Letter of the CC of the PLA Addressed to the Party District Committees on the Struggle against Religion, Religious Prejudicies and Customs"
, 27 February 1967, in Hoxha, E., Vepra, n. 35, Tirana, 1982, pp.102-13.

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ENVER HOXHA

In the fight against religion there is only one road
- political work, Ideological conviction


From the first conversation with the Secretary of the Committee
Party District of Dibra
April 7, 1967
 

[excerpt - translated by the Comintern (SH) - we appologize possible mistakes of our translation]

 

With bureaucratic measures, the party can not eradicate religious institutions, customs and false beliefs.
Instead, we must rely on political work, ideological conviction. Otherwise, we can not solve this problem. We have repeatedly pointed out that outdated customs and religious beliefs do not immediately disappear at once, but only gradually, through individual approach to the problems of each family of the district and not by a general sweeping blow.
We must never hurt the feelings of the people. You can not preach futility of religious belief neither from the tower of a minaret nor enforced by governmental decrees or even by violence.
If we want to curb the influence of religion and religious rites, then I urge you to win the women for the according party work.
The problem of women, and I stress this again and again, is a central problem of the Party and socialism.

For the party and the working class, it is clear that the women is - in addition to young people - among the most progressive people. The woman is involved in
life, burdened with troubles, with work, with family, with the home. Despite previous big successes of the emancipation of woman over man, the centuries-old religious traditions in the family are still effective - namely directed against the woman.
We need to realize that these habits are further maintained in the families through the man. The woman continues to suffer from these outdated habits, often without being aware of it.
This is not a matter for the woman, but for the whole party and especially for the male party members. It is the joint responsibility of the husband and wife to abolish the outmoded religious customs. Of course, women need to take the initiative, but not against the man. Women have their husbands actively involved.
There are comrades who talk a lot about the "Increase of the image of women", but do little for it or do it out of pity. Some men in the party consider the woman not as an equal member of the party. This inevitably leads to reactionary thought and action.
In the younger age there is no difference between girls and boys. Although both sexes grow up equally in our socialist society, the patriarchal spirit is still not disappeared in this issue.
It is absolutely necessary that the party in her work turns to this issue of women. The party must rely more on women. The better the party will succeed in relying on the force of the women , the faster the outdated religious morals will disappear.
The question of religious belief on the status of women and the man has nothing to do with the philosophical conviction.
This is more of a pragmatic issue, a matter of bad habits. Of course, much has already changed for the better, religious influence fades away even without intensive atheist convictions through strengthening the material basis of socialism. This becomes clear when we compare the current situation with the previous historical periods.
Nowhere in the world, the influence of the Catholic Church is lower than here.
The prayers in mosques and churches are held only relatively rarely and religious holidays are becoming less important. The fasts lose their effect, especially among young people, but also in the cities.

With the founding of the People's Power, with the great advance in culture and education, by raising the living standards of the people, the influence of religion was pushed back further and further.
It is important to convince people with the correct political and ideological means.

Central Archives of the Party

 

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FOR THE FURTHER REVOLUTIONIZATION OF OUR SCHOOL


Speech delivered at the meeting of the Political Bureau of the Central Committee of the PLA

March 7, 1968


[Excerpts]


Science must be liberated completely from theology.

Some say simply: «Why do we need these things at all?» But such people do not understand that without learning these things, without dealing with them in various forms, from the lowest to the highest, it is impossible to impart a materialist philosophical world outlook to our people of socialism, and far from advancing, we shall fall back and be overwhelmed by ignorance, theology and bourgeois philosophy. Lenin expressed the idea that whithout sound philosophical arguments, neither natural science nor materialism are able to withstand the pressure of bourgeois ideas and the revival of the bourgeois world outlook. Our scientists of socialism must apply themselves patiently to study and be the most arden supporters of Marxist philosophy, in short, must be dialectical materialists.

The epoch of our Renaissance is a democratic revolutionary epoch, of great importance in the history and literature of our people, an epoch enlightened and guided by the illuminist ideas of our most outstanding men of that period, which has rightly been called the rebirth of the nation, its emergence from mediaeval-feudal and imperialist darkness to light, to insurrection, to the fight for freedom, independence and democracy, for enlightenment and education.

In one of his works Engels has written about the Renaissance, not our Renaissance, but the «Cinquecento» (the period of the second half of the the 16th century). He says it was a brilliant epoch which brought forth prominent men, not only artists and painters but also scientists and philosophers who were burned at the stake by the church, physicists, astronomers and others who burst asunder the heavy mediaeval darkness, destroyed faiths and systems and gave a further impulse to economic, cultural and scientific development.

But the analysis Engels makes of the epoch of the Renaissance is a materialist dialectical analysis and not an idealist one, since the impulse the men of the Renaissance imparted to society was neither complete nor perfect, it would be transformed and developed further and local and general upheavals would occur in the development of human society and in the various sciences. New or complementary laws would emerge and, as Lenin says, these upheavals «in most cases give birth to major and minor reactionary philosophical schools and trends» [V .I. Lenin, «On the Importance of Militant Materialism», Collected Works, vol. 33. p. 254 (Alb. ed.)]

And only our materialist philosophy can disperse the fog of them and ward off the damage they bring.

It is precisely from this angle that our Party has viewed the epoch of our Renaissance, which must be reexamined more thoroughly from the viewpoint of dialectical materialism, so that this period will be transmitted to the school children, students, teachers, professors, and the people as clearly and correctly as possible, analyzed in a Marxist-Leninist way from both the social and economic, and the educational, cultural and historical angles, and not to suit the inclinations of this or that individual.

This must be done in this way.

The men of our Renaissance must be seen in the proper perspective, in the epoch in which they lived, worked and fought; their ideas, which were the product of the development of society of that epoch, and their immediate and long-term aims must be brought out. If matters are presented in this correct way, it will emerge that the men of our Renaissance were outstanding people with progressive ideas, were courageous revolutionary illuminists, burning with ardent love for their country.

They fought with rifle and pen for the freedom and independence of the people, for their awakening. All of these are their great positive aspects. All these attributes and characteristics of the Renaissance and of the men who led it we must present to the people.

But we must not forget for one moment that these men of our Renaissance also have their negative aspects, which must be subjected to our Marxist-Leninist criticism.

Their weaknesses lie in their philosophical concepts which are idealist. This is a heavy impediment, it is the philosophy of their epoch which is in contradiction and struggle with our ideology.

Should we keep quiet about this antagonism, about this merciless, life-and-death struggle we Marxists wage against idealist philosophy, against religion and religious beliefs? Should we consider the ideas of the men of our Renaissance inviolable, taboo, just because they have expressed them? Can we co-exist with these ideas at a time when we are waging a stern fight against theology, religion, the churches and mosques, the priests and hodjas? Can we exalt those parts of the work of Naim Frashëri where he expresses his Bektashi philosophy, or of Mjeda where he speaks of Christian theology, or of Çajup where he says, for example, that Baba Tomorri is «the throne of God», etc. and feed all this to the people as ideological nutriment, simply because they are men of our Renaissance, great men who laid the bases of and developed our written language, because their political verses are beautiful and rich in delightful figures?

No, as Marxists and in the interest of the people and socialism, we must combat these negative aspects. In ideology we cannot make concessions to the beauty of verse or the language. The assessment Engels made of Luther's language as the basis of the German literary language did not in any way prevent h im from judging the role of the Reform, before and after the Peasant Revolt in Germany, in its true light and exposing it as reactionary.

Therefore, for us, too, the question of textbooks on all these subjects, and especially on literature, within and outside the school, must be subjected to a thorough analysis and examination from the angle of our philosophy.

The question I raise about the men of our Renaissance must be understood and solved correctly. It is impermissible and not Marxist to obscure this epoch. We must make selections on sound criteria from the works of the authors of our Renaissance for the different categories of schools and the public, eliminating the negative passages without hesitation, for if you give the children of the 8-year schools poems and writings of an author of our Renaissance in which he speaks of God, and on the other hand you praise this author highly, then you have also exalted his idealist, deistic or polydeistic philosophy. No matter how much you criticize it, the school child will not understand you, will not understand what you are eulogizing and what you are criticizing. In the higher schools, however, their texts can be more extensive, but never without serious Marxist-Leninist criticism of their idealist views.

On the other hand, we must be on our guard against the idealization and cult of the men of our Renaissance.

We must view this question from the angle of our Marxist-Leninist philosophy. Since the time of our Renaissance, colossal changes have taken place in our country in the economic, social, cultural and educational fields.

Albania is no longer what it used to be, nor are its economy, culture, education, language, regime, politics or ideology. According to the law of materialist dialectics, everything has changed and is in the process of change. If you do not keep all these changes in mind, if you exalt one and forget the others, if you live only with the old and forget the new, if you think that the old alone should influence the new and that the new plays a minor role, then you are heading into a blind alley. While bearing these things in mind, we must combat any tendency to belittle the literature of the period of people's power. The doors of our schools should be flung open wide to this new literature of socialist realism, for it reflects the sentiments and efforts of a glorious new epoch and can and should assist the all-round education of the masses with the lofty ideals of socialist and communist society.

The other periods of the development in thinking, in science and literature, in art and music which are portrayed in textbooks, should also be examined with these same criteria. As I said earlier, in the textbooks these must be complete, but we must not permit the exaggerated mania of certain prominent erudites who are unduly keen to teach pupils, within a short period, all these things which they themselves took a whole lifetime to learn.




 

The Superpowers

SUNDAY OCTOBER 22, 1978

A POLISH POPE AT THE HEAD OF THE VATICAN


A new Pope in the Vatican. He is a Pole, the former cardinal of Cracow, the famous centre of Polish Catholicism As everyone knows, the Church has exceptionally great influence in Poland. Poland is second only to Italy in matters of religion. The Polish cardinals, headed by Wyszynski, have stood up to all the pseudo-communist, pseudo-socialist governments in Poland under Ochab, Gomulka, Gierek, etc., etc., and have gained great privileges. Recently, Gierek has given them a completely free hand: Wyszynski makes the law in Poland. The state there has not only left the believers free to fill the churches and cathedrals, but it pays for the building of new churches instead of halls of culture.

Therefore, the advent of a new Pope to the head of the Vatican is not only of great importance for the Roman Catholic religion, but it has to de with a specific political aspect. The new cardinal, Wojtyla, who took the name John-Paul II, will pursue a Roman-Christian international policy. Now, for the first time in four centuries, the Pope elected to head the Vatican is not an Italian, but precisely a Pole. I think the advent of this Pope to the head of the Roman Catholic Church is the work of the CIA, the United States of America, of Brzezinski, this Pole who is actually adviser to the American president on national security.

His predecessor, John-Paul 1, the former cardinal of Venice, was found dead in his bed one morning only one month after he was elected "unanimously" as they say, by the conclave. They said he "died suddenly", but it is possible that neither his election nor his death were normal. This might have been a cleverly arranged manoeuvre, because the deceased was not very old and did not suffer from heart disease. A tactic was employed so that his election would seem in order, very satisfactory, without opposition, but then they secretly sang de profundis over him in order to bring the new Polish Pope, the Pope appointed by the United States of America to the head of the Vatican, the man who, with his policy will serve American imperialism first of all. The election of this new Pope will have an influence in many countries of Europe and the world, especially to build support for imperialism and to deceive the proletariat and the peoples. This event will exert a major influence in Poland as well as in Czechoslovakia, Hungary, and France, where the bourgeoisie is pleased that the Roman Church is not headed by an Italian cardinal. On the other hand the Italians are very disappointed, especially the Christian Democrats and the whole bourgeoisie of that country, all the different parties of the Italian bourgeoisie and the Italian Catholics, because the Pope is no longer theirs, a Pope from the Italian Church, but one of Polish citizenship who has the backing of the United States of America...


 

 

REFLECTIONS ON THE MIDDLE EAST

1958 — 1983. Extracts from the political diary, TIRANA, 1984 

(extracts)

* * *

Hua Guofeng, the chairman of «socialist» China, held intimate talks in the palace of the Shahanshah, while SAVAK was slaughtering Iranian patriots and people en masse.

Chairman Hua is fixing up his connections with the leaders of Iran, with the Islamic countries, with Pakistan and with the Americans. It is self-evident that China is serving as a vanguard of American imperialism and the CIA in Iran. It was not accidental that Hua Guofeng, the leader of a big country, came to support the Shah against the people in revolt precisely in his last days. It is of no importance to the Chinese whether you are a Shia or a Sunni, a Buddhist or a Moslem, a Catholic or a Protestant.

They are all the same to the Chinese, all «cats» are the same so long as they catch «mice».

 

extracts:

THE EVENTS WHICH ARE TAKING PLACE IN THE MOSLEM COUNTRIES MUST BE SEEN IN THE LIGHT OF DIALECTICAL AND HISTORICAL MATERIALISM

written January 1980

* * *

The glorious past of peoples cannot be ignored

July-August 1983. . . page 451

 

 

 

 

secondary sources:

 

Modern revisionism and religion

 

Albania Today No 6 / 1972

 

* * *

 

Dilaver Sadikaj

Some Aspects of the revolutionary Movement for the complete Emancipation of the Albanian Women in the Sixties

in: "Socio-Political Studies" No 1 / 1984 ; page 110 - 111

 

The movement against religion, religious prejudices and backward customs, just as the movement for the complete emancipation of women, the movement to put the general interest above the personal interest everywhere, the movement for the revolutionalization of the school, literature and art, was undertaken by the working masses under the leadership of the PLA, and was undertaken with concrete actions not only against the religious world outlook, but also against any material base which preserved and bred religion and backward customs, thus making Albania the first country in the world without religious institutions and clergy. Broad masses saw the struggle against the church, the clergy, and the religious ideology in general, as an important element of the struggle for their liberation. We can say without hesitation that the movement against religion assumed a mass and popular character at this period because the great bulk of the Albanian women became actively involved in it. However, their role in this matter should be measured not so much by the extent of their participation, as by the contribution they made to it. Emerging in the front line of the struggle against religion, the church and religious prejudices, the women became one of the decisive forces of the movement. They expressed their opposition to the religious ideology and rites in the assemblies of the people or in initiatives which they themselves took. Regarding religious beliefs as a means for their subjugation, they unmasked the activity of the clergy and rose afainst religious preachings and the practices of fasting and attending church. The fact that the women and girls rose to smash the shackles of religion was vivid evidence of the achievments in the field of their emancipation and of their participation in social and political life.

Closely linked with the revolutionary situations which were created in these years, with the revolutionalization of the entire life of the country, with the movement from North to South and vice-versa, with the collectivization of the mountainous zones, with the great actions of youth and, especially with the struggle which the masses waged against religious institutions and the clergy, a considerable increase was observed in the number of marriages between persons who had belonged to different religious groups.

* * *

 

in German language

 

Against the Albanian nation and the Albanian people

The reactionary role of the clerus in the history of Albania

"Albania Today" - No. 5 / 1973

 

Kriegsverbrecher und Reaktionär Pater Anton Harapi, einer der Mitglieder des Regentschaftsrates der Quislingregierung während der Nazi-Okkupation im intimen Gespräch mit dem Oberkommandierenden der deutschen Truppen in Albanien.

In 1945 Misto Treska was general prosecutor and responsible for sentencing to death for high treason Maliq Bushati, Lef Nosi and Anton Harapi

 

* * *

 

The Vatican

- a centre of Anti-Albanian Diversion

Editorial in the newspaper "Zeri i Popullit"
No. 2 - 1973 - "Albania Today" - pages 39-40

* * *

in German language

The Vatican

- a center of the Albanian infiltration

Editorial in the newspaper "Zeri i Popullit"
No. 2 - 1973 - "Albania Today" - pages 39-40

 

recent revision: 28. 01. 2017