On War and Peace

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The 5th Classic of Marxism-Leninism and the Foundations of Hoxhaism


Hoxhaism and war

Hoxhaism is Marxism-Leninism of the transition of the anti-fascist liberation war into the victory of the anti-imperialist people’s revolution, it's further transition into the armed socialist revolution which led to the overthrow of the own bourgeoisie and which made it possible to construct socialism on the outer conditions of the Great Patriotic War and the socialist world camp of Comrade Stalin;

Hoxhaism – in the question of war and revolution - is furthermore the Marxist-Leninist theory and tactics of the armed anti-revisionist, anti-imperialist and antisocial-imperialist struggle in the period of revisionism at the power, in general, and the theory and tactics of the national defense of the dictatorship of the proletariat under conditions of the military capitalist-revisionist encirclement, in particular.

What is Stalinism - Hoxhaism – in the question of war and revolution - today ?

Stalinism-Hoxhaism - in the question of war and revolution - is the Marxist-Leninist theory and tactics of the victory over the imperialist wars by means of the world proletarian revolution under today's conditions of globalization, in general; and the theory and tactics of the armament and military world defense of the dictatorship of the world proletariat, in particular; it is – last not least - the theory and tactics of the transition to the weaponless, peaceful and classless society on a global scale – to world communism.

Stalinism-Hoxhaism is the doctrine of the liberation of the wars of world imperialism, is the doctrine of the abolition of the inevitability of world imperialist war, is the doctrine of world-proletarian class war for the final liberation from the violent rule of the world-bourgeoisie, is the doctrine of the victory of socialism over the imperialist war on a global scale, is the doctrine of the military protection of the global domination of the proletariat.

Enver Hoxha emphasized in his speech - delivered at the Meeting of 81 Communist and Workers' Parties in Moscow on November 16, 1960:

“... that there can be an absolute guarantee of the prohibition of war only when socialism has triumphed throughout the world or, at least, in a number of other great imperialist countries” (page 138, English edition, Tirana 1969).

It is a cornerstone of Stalinism-Hoxhaism that the world revolutionary weapons of the proletariat will be indispensable for world peace and for the fulfillment of its mission of peaceful world communism. Postulations of the prematurely “withering of the war” and “lasting” peace in midst of the international arena of wars in the world's class society, means nothing more than to disarm the world proletariat, to betray the socialist world revolution and the peace-loving peoples. Our Marxist-Leninist theory of “war and revolution” (namely that the complete destruction of world imperialism is absolutely precondition for the abolition of the inevitability of imperialist wars) was and is still openly and hiddenly attacked by all the lackeys of the world bourgeoisie. That's why we need to defend Marxism-Leninism unconditionally in word and deed, with weapons and without weapons.

The pacifist slogan of the “disarmament and abolition of weapons” - even before the period of Communism - is a petty bourgeois anarchistic slogan, because the petty bourgeoisie feels threatened and oppressed, by both the weapons of the dictatorship of the proletariat and the bourgeoisie. Pacifism is the other side of the coin – is an ideological tool for the hidden preparation of the next predatory wars of the world bourgeoisie. To proclaim the withering away of the weapons, prematurely, would distort the historical perspective of world communism. The abolition of classes is not achieved by direct and premature disarmament of proletarian weapons, by the extinction of armed class war, but by its intensification. The intensification ( but not to fuel the flames artificially) of revolutionary wars is indispensable for the withering of wars. Proletarian weapons will not remain if the capitalist world is liquidated and the socialist world takes its place, if the danger of the restoration of capitalism is avoided, if the last remnants of the dying classes, the fragments of counter-revolutionary elements, have lost all soil for a revival of their armed activities. The radical economic changes (harmonization of the relationship between productive forces and relations of production) are the material basis of the abolition of imperialist wars, the material basis of the peaceful, classless, communist world society.

Let's stand up for the glorious Hoxhaist banner of the anti-imperialist war !

Based on the correct general-line of Stalin and the Comintern, the PLA developed its own victorious strategy and tactics of the anti-imperialist war, applied to the particular conditions of the country. In the period of fascist occupation the general-line of the Communist Party of Albania was: "National liberation of Albanian from fascism !”

The armed uprising against fascism was the only real and reliable political line. The establishment of the National Liberation Army was the main chain link of the armed struggle. Without a real people's army which would be able to attack the enemy relentlessly, and to destroy its military and political apparatus - the armed uprising would be unthinkable - the country could not be liberated - the independence could not be achieved - and a people's democratic government could not be built. The National Liberation Army emerged from the rapid development of guerrilla warfare, and was organized and guided by the CPA with Enver Hoxha at the head.

The army is the weapon of the dictatorship which must always stand ready on the correct Marxist-Leninist road, extremely vigilant against internal and external enemies. The army must always be politically clear, and in order to be politically clear, the party organization in the army must be pure, at a high political and ideological level, and must understand and apply everything, looking at it from this angle alone, the angle of Marxism-Leninism, the angle of the interests of the people and the party. Therefore, it is also essential that the cadres of the army must be loyal to the party, to Marxism-Leninism and the people. In this way alone, the enemy can do nothing, it cannot exist in the army, even if it has some influence, and in this way alone, the army remains truly a weapon of the dictatorship of the proletariat in the hands of the party.

(Enver Hoxha, Reflectios on China I, Hanuary 15, 1967)


On specific condition of Albania, the armed uprising was not a single, nonrecurring outbreak, but took place in form of an ongoing, relentless, armed people's resistance. The Albanian National Liberation struggle was part of the anti-fascist World War II, based on the military alliance of the anti-fascist coalition. In this anti-fascist coalition, the Soviet Union of Stalin played an international leading role, and the liberation movements of other Balkan peoples played also a significant role, especially their cooperation against the common enemy. The key external factor of the historic victory of the Albanian people was, of course, the Great Patriotic War of the Soviet Union and its great victory over fascism. The glorious Red Army created excellent conditions with its victory over Nazi-Germany that the Albanian people got up as one man, so that Albania achieved full national independence by its heroic struggle, and established the People's Power.


The National Liberation Councils who were formed in the process of the liberation struggle, represented the democratic dictatorship of the revolutionary forces, both in content of classes and according to their tasks - and under the direct and sole guidance of the Communist Party. The victory of the people's revolution led to the complete liberation from fascism in Albania on November 29, 1944. The working class played the leading role in the national liberation struggle. The working class implemented its leading role through the CPA which was the inspirer, organizer and leader of the victorious Anti-Fascist National Liberation struggle. Already before the end of the liberation war, the political power was in the hands of the CPA. The peasantry was the main source and main armed force of the national liberation struggle, the most solid ally of the working class and the CPA. With the struggle for the reconstruction of war-torn country, the Albanian working class under the leadership of the CPA moved forward to the victorious socialist revolution. Finally, this was the way, how Albania has successfully transformed the anti-imperialist war into the socialist revolution and construction of socialism.

Enver Hoxha:

"If the imperialist war of aggression can not be prevented, it will be the task of the revolutionists and the proletariat, to transform it into a war of liberation."

And, indeed, the Albanian people and the Albanian Communists opposed courageously the Nazi-occupiers and their lackeys in Albania, and then they transformed the imperialist war successfully into a revolutionary war of liberation.

Not only were the armies of fascism routed on the battlefield, but the anti-communist ideology of world imperialism and the counterrevolutionary policy of international opportunism were defeated, too.

The special meaning of the Albanian anti-fascist and anti-imperialist war consisted in this that it took place within the framework of a national liberation war, whereas it was internationalist in terms of content and character - because the Communist party has played the key role within this war. In regard of the globalized conditions of today, it is the Communist International who will assume increasingly the role of the leader of the antifascist-anti-imperialist war.

In the question of war and peace, Hoxhaism teaches to support the peoples, the proletarians of all countries, the revolutionaries, in their revolutionary struggle against the war – in the spirit of proletarian internationalism. Above all, Hoxhaism was the ideological weapon against the wars of the two superpowers and the local monopoly bourgeoisie, who supported their war. Hoxhaism ascertained that the same political, economic and social causes that have led to the outbreak of the former imperialist wars further exist in their entirety. However, the imperialist competition and rivalry at the world markets and the plundering of nations increased even more,

first, by the restoration of the economy of the imperialist and capitalist countries which were destroyed during the Second World War - (especially with the help of U.S. imperialism) - and

second, through arrival in power of revisionism and the restoration of capitalism in the Soviet Union. This has led to a second center of imperialism, to aggression and international counter-revolution - and a new, dangerous hotbed of global contradictions and tensions arose.


Enver Hoxha:

When the superpowers fail to achieve their predatory interests through economic, ideological and diplomatic means, when the contradictions become exacerbated to the most acute level, when the agreements and reforms. prove unable to resolve these contradictions, then the war between them begins.

„The imperialist superpowers (...) will remain imperialist and warmongering, and if not today, tomorrow they will plunge the world into a great nuclear war.“ (Enver Hoxha: „Imperialism and Revolution“, English edition).

"The superpowers are the main enemy of socialism, freedom and independence of nations - individually or jointly to the same extent and at the same level -, they are the largest force in defense of the systems of oppressors and exploiters. The danger of a third world war mainly emanates from them." (Enver Hoxha: „Report to the VII. Party Congress“, English edition).

Hoxhaism fought against both who prepared the war - the United States and the Soviet Union - , against both NATO and the Warsaw Treaty as the two rival aggressive instruments of war. The PLA united all the factors that opposed the imperialist powers and their preparations for war. The PLA tried to isolate the superpowers as far as possible, and made use of the inter-imperialist contradictions in favor of the revolution and the liberation of the peoples.


Hoxhaism was against the views of the modern revisionists who rejected the necessity of the revolutionary and national liberation in the struggle for the prevention of a war. The modern revisionists favored the reconciliation of classes, made concessions to the enemies and surrendered to them. In particular, the PLA disagreed with the Chinese revisionists, who planted doubts in the strong forces of socialism, the world proletariat and the peoples. Allegedly, these forces would be unable to prevent a world war. The PLA applied to the Stalinist theory that the world proletariat and the peoples of the world can prevent the aggressive world war by all means. They are absolutely strong enough to prevent the imperialists and social imperialists from putting the world on fire.

In its revolutionary struggle against the war, the proletariat, whose leadership is unchallenged, relies on the anti-imperialist struggle of the oppressed and exploited peoples. That was always the Leninist revolutionary attitude of the PLA.

The VII. Party Congress of the PLA argued unconditionally for the support of the peoples and their liberation wars. Comrade Enver Hoxha emphasized:

“With all their great power and wealth, with all their modern means of warfare, the superpowers are not able to subjugate the peoples and countries, even small ones, if the latter are determined to fight to the end and make any sacrifice. It confirmed the thesis that freedom and independence are won and defended with the gun, through struggle, that the strategy of the national liberation people's war is a strategy that ensures victory.

“The proletariat, all those who are for the revolution and socialism, must closely link their struggle with the struggle of the peoples for freedom and independence. This can be done only by resolutely struggling against the bourgeoisie of one's own country, by struggling against imperialism and predatory war. This is also the most effective and direct aid the proletariat can give the liberation movement of the peoples.”

“The People's Republic of Albania does not accept and publicly exposes the so-called theory about the need to preserve the «balance between the superpowers» as a condition or a basis to avoid war and defend peace.”

“Our Party upholds the thesis that both when the superpowers work together and when they quarrel, it is others who pay the bill. The collusion and rivalry between the superpowers are the two sides of the one contradictory reality, important expressions of the same imperialist strategy, to rob the peoples of their freedom and to dominate the world. They pose the same danger, therefore the two superpowers are the main and greatest enemies of the peoples. That is why one must never rely on one imperialism to fight or escape from the other.”

“We must base ourselves on the mobilization and strength of the peoples, on the unity of all those who want to throw off the imperialist-revisionist yoke. We stand for the unity of the world proletariat and all the true anti-imperialist and progress-loving forces who, through their struggle, will smash the aggressive plans of the imperialist and social-imperialist war-mongers.

Consistent in their Marxist-Leninist line, the Party of Lab our of Albania and the Albanian people have been and are against the two superpowers, against predatory imperialist war, against the monopoly bourgeoisie and international reaction. Therefore, in the future, too, they will spare no effort and will fight, together with all the other anti-imperialist and anti-social-imperialist peoples, with all the Marxist-Leninist parties, all the revolutionaries and the world proletariat, all progressive people, to foil the plans and manoeuvrings of the enemies and ensure the triumph of the cause of the freedom and security of the peoples.

At every moment our country will be found standing beside all those peoples whose freedom and independence are threatened and whose rights are violated. We have repeatedly declared this stand, and not just in good times, but in dangerous times as well ; the peoples of the world can be sure that socialist Albania is with them and fears no sacrifice.” (Enver Hoxha, Report to the VII. Party Congress of the PLA, chapter V: “The international situation and the foreign policy of the PRA”; English edition, Tirana 1976)

We must not underestimate, the fear of war which big capital has created. It is a fact that time after time, when the crisis reaches its climax, partial wars, and perhaps even world war, could break out. Only the revolution on the Marxist-Leninist road can prevent, avert, or defeat world war. Otherwise, the major contradictions that exist between the superpowers, between multinational companies may cause it. Therefore, since we understand this important problem in this way, we must make every effort to defeat the plans and actions which the bourgeoisie and its lackeys are making in preparation for a bloody, general war. This can be an insurecction which is led only by the working class which has the Marxist-Leninist doctrine as its guide.

The Comintern (SH) defends unconditionally this correct Hoxhaist anti-imperialist line also in regard against the social-imperialist China - the new superpower of today.

The Chinese revisionists - the Maoists - began systematically to replace the Soviet social-imperialist superpower with support of the US-imperialism. The Maoists tried to justify their social-imperialist and social-fascist ambitions of world domination with Marxist-Leninist phraseology. Albania refused to do the Maoists' dirty work and proceeded in the principled Marxist-Leninist struggle against both the superpowers, USA and USSR. Later on, also the Chinese revisionists dropped their "peace" mask and reared their ugly, social-imperialist head. The Maoists created their so called "Three-World-Theory", to deceive the socialist Albania, to deceive the Marxist-Leninist world movement, the world proletariat and the peace-loving peoples. The Maoists needed their "Three-World-Theory" for the implementation of their aggressive, warmongering plans.

With the defeat of the socialist Albania - the last socialist bastion - , the conditions for the strategy and tactics of the struggle against imperialist war have changed fundamentally. There is no socialist country any more against which the imperialists could wage a war. The socialist countries as the strongest bulwark for world peace do not exist any more. This means:

firstly: Without the presence of socialist countries, the world imperialists uninhibitedly wage their wars a lot easier.

secondly: Without the presence of a socialist country, the world-imperialist, counterrevolutionary forces crack down on the communist world movement a lot easier.

thirdly: Without the presence of socialist countries, the world-imperialists crush down the liberation wars of the peoples a lot easier.

And we take it also for granted that the social-fascist states and their international revisionist front of lackeys is on the side of the world-imperialists, in the struggle against the world proletariat and the peoples. Thus, the Albanian revisionists restored not only capitalism, moreover they have forced the membership of NATO upon the Albanian people, and it was especially Nexhmije Hoxha, the wife of comrade Enver Hoxha, who has advocated for the membership in the NATO.

With the collapse of socialist Albania, the world bourgeoisie has robbed all the material weapons of the world proletariat for its defense of world peace. Now, the enemies of the global working class have all the global armed forces in their sole hands.

What we need, is a new center against the preparation of the threatening imperialist world war, a new anti-imperialist world-bulwark, a new Communist world-front against the imperialist war - guided by the Communist International.

There is no restoration of socialism without the restoration of material socialist weapons.

What we need is the global formation of the Red Army of the world proletariat for solving the question of war and peace on a global scale.

The imperialist weapons by which the imperialist world suppresses the world proletariat and the peoples of the world must be transformed into weapons of the world revolutionary liberation !


General-Line of the Comintern (SH)


world revolution and imperialist war



in Russian language

re-published by the Comintern (SH) on October 23, 2014

The Communist International and the war.


Documents and materials of the Communist International against imperialist war and in defense of the USSR

(Moscow - Leningrad: State Publishing House, 1928)


Коммунистический Интернационал и война.

Документы и материалы о борьбе Коминтерна против империалистической войны и в защиту С.С.С.Р.

(Москва - Ленинград: Госиздат, 1928)

Introduction (5).
Part I: DOCUMENTS OF Comintern (7-29).
Lenin "The situation and tasks of the Socialist International" (November 1, 1914) (9).
Resolution of the Berne Conference of the RSDLP (29 March 1915) (14).
Lenin "first step" (11 November 1915) (19).
Lenin - the slogan of disarmament (October 1916) (24).
Part II: DOCUMENTS Comintern: (31-108).
Resolution of Congress I CI about Zimmerwald (33).
Resolution I of the Berne Congress CI Conference (34).
Proclamation of the Communist International on the Versailles Peace (13 May 1919) (40).
Proclamation of the Communist International on the international strike (July 24, 1919) (46).
Washington Conference and Kommintern (50).
"Disarmament" - from the Appeal of CI Genoa Conference (March 19, 1922) (53).
Abstracts of the ECCI on the fight against the war danger and war (February-March 1922) (55).
Lenin, "Notes on the problems of our delegation in The Hague" (December 1922) (67).
Proclamation of the Comintern (February 1927) (71).
Abstracts VIII Plenum of the Comintern "Tasks of the Communist International in the fight against the war and the danger of war" (29 May 1927) (75).
Resolution of the ECCI on the Polish-Lithuanian conflict (January 1928) (100).
Appeal against the section of the Comintern in China, to protect the Chinese Revolution (May 1928) (104).
From the introduction:
This published book is not intended as a source of material for the historian, but an auxiliary weapon in the practical work of the party. In connection with the VI World Congress of the Comintern, it will introduce a mass membership and delegates with the material you need for pre and post study of one of the most essential issues on the agenda of the Congress - the question of the war ...
... This compilation serves the purpose of a preliminary study of these problems. It does not cover all the documents of the Comintern on the war, but only the most important. Further study is facilitated by the attached index of all the proclamations and the resolutions of the ECCI and the most important sections of the documents on the war.



Where we stand in the question of war

Eugene V. Debs

September 1915


If I were in Congress I would be shot before I would vote a dollar for such a war.

Capitalist wars for capitalist conquest and capitalist plunder must be fought by the capitalists themselves so far as I am concerned, and upon that question there can be no misunderstanding as to my position.

I have no country to fight for; my country is the earth; and I am a citizen of the world.

I would not violate my principles for God, much less for a crazy Kaiser, a savage czar, a degenerate king, or a band of pot-bellied parasites.

But while I have not a drop of blood to shed for the oppressors of the working class and the robbers of the poor, the thieves and looters, the brigands and murderers, whose debauched misrule is the crime of the ages, I have a heart-full to shed for their victims when it shall be needed in the war for their liberation.

I am not a capitalist soldier; I am a proletarian revolutionist. I do not belong to the regular army of the plutocracy, but to the irregular army of the people. I refuse to obey any command to fight from the ruling class, but I will not wait to be commanded to fight for the working class.

I am opposed to every war but one: I am for that war with heart and soul, and that is the world’ wide war of the social revolution. In that war I am prepared to fight in any way the ruling class may make it necessary, even to the barricades.