Theory and Tactics of the Socialist World Revolution in Africa







Theory and tactics of the

    socialist world revolution

    in Africa

[ "Africa-Platform" ]



    adopted by the Comintern (SH)- October 10, 2012


written and translated from original German language

    by Wolfgang Eggers






    A serious preparation for the socialist world revolution requires the creation of Sections of the Comintern (SH) on all continents. So far, there are only Sections of the Comintern (SH) on the European continent.

    The Comintern (SH) has set itself the goal of founding even Sections on the other continents. Regarding the future establishment of our Section in Africa, we have developed an "Africa-Platform". It serves as the ideological and programmatic basis for the planned foundation of our Bolshevik Party in Africa.

    This "African-Platform" is the concretization of our general platform of the Comintern (SH) and based on the general-line of the Comintern (SH).


    Now we hope for new African comrades who gather under the banner of the Comintern (SH) !


    The "Africa-platform" facilitates the foundation of the "African Section" by African comrades. It is the correct application of the teachings of the 5 Classics of Marxism-Leninism on the concrete conditions of the socialist revolutions on the African continent.


    At the same time we have launched our new website - "Africa."

    All interested comrades are welcome to contribute to this website.

    It fulfills the function of a Leninist collective propagandist, agitator and organizer and will be published as the official African central organ of the Comintern (SH) - as soon as the founding of the "Section Africa" will have taken place.


Comrades of the African continent !

Build up your strong "African Section" of the Comintern (SH) !

For a socialist Africa in a socialist world !

Long live the socialist world revolution !





Africa is the cradle of the classless humanity.

Africa is a fertile ground for classless world communism.


"The basis of the relations of production under the primitive communal system is that the means of production are socially owned" (Stalin, Historical Materialism).


The dialectics of African history is such that the first original classless production relations of mankind, after having passed through the 4 basic formations of class society (slavery, feudalism, capitalism, socialism) will reappear as the highest classless, communist type of relations of production.

That is the negation of the negation of the first classless society of humankind. We historical materialists call this scientifically - "the African Renaissance".

The road to "African renaissance" is a very arduous and painful road of all African peoples who are accompanied by the solidarity of the global toilers. If, soon or at least in the not too far future, Africa has taken the path of socialist class society, then the classless society is not far off. World socialism creates the objective conditions for world communism, and thus also for a communist Africa.

The history of African class society is the story of his heroic class struggle against slavery, subjugation and plundering, the history of defeats and victories of his liberation. The peoples of Africa are rich in experience from which they can draw lessons for their total liberation and emancipation. And also the African proletariat is capable to draw lessons from the recent history of the workers movement in Africa. And that goes also for the lessons of the communist movement and, especially for the anti-revisionist struggle in Africa.



The effects of colonialism past and present are visible all over Africa.

Africans are torn away from their past, propelled into a universe fashioned from outside that suppresses their values, and dumbfounded by an imperialist invasion of "culture" that marginalises them.

The evolution of mankind started in Africa. This must never be forgotten by the humanity. Meanwhile, Africa develops faster than many other parts of the world and Africa will play a growing global role for future mankind.

Africa was once the "first world" - not least in economic and technological regards. Africans were the ones who built the pyramids. And no one - not even in the 21 Century - has ever created anything like this.

The “Atlantic” Ocean was called the Ethiopian Sea as late as 1626 and the so-called “Indian” Ocean the Azanian Sea. Azanians stimulated trade with the East. The people of Azania whose country colonialists called “South Africa” through the British imperialist Union of South Africa Act 1909; mined gold and copper in Mapungubwe as early as the 9th century. That was one of the foundations of the emergence of high African cultures.

Slavery can only be abolished by the revolution

Africa has suffered (and still suffers) the worst genocide and holocaust at the hands of the architects of slavery and colonialism.

Slave owners and slaves - this was the first major African separation of classes.

The second major African class division was between the lords of the manor and serfs.

And finally - today - the capitalist Africa polarizes the class of proletarians and the bourgeoisie.


First, it was the "peace-loving" Islam, with which the Arab slave traders invaded Africa. In the end of the 17th Century, the Imam subjugated the East African territories.


What is called “European Renaissance” was the worst darkness for Africa’s people. In 1441, Africa was annexed by Portugal. Portugal was the first colonialist country and China is the most recent colonialist country which prevails in Africa. Armed with the technology of the gun and the compass it copied from China, Europe became a menace for Africa against the spears. So-called “civilized” Europe also claiming to be “Christian” came up with the Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade. Indeed, the first English ship of the slave traders, was called "Jesus", which, in 1562, began the journey towards the African "Gold Coast". Previously, people said: "Liverpool is built on African slave skulls."


Slave trade was (and is still) one of the worst crimes in human history - one of the basis of the riches of today's so-called "civilized world order". For Africa and its population this was the beginning of brutal exploitation and oppression. Some historians have estimated that the Gold Coast (today’s Ghana) alone, lost 5,OOO to 6,OOO of its people to slavery every year for 400 years. That was about 2 - 1/2 million people!

This will not go unpunished ! Such dark chapters in human history will never be forgotten !

And history will show it:

The classless society has not outlived its time. Whereas the class society has reached the end of its temporary existence in mankind's history. Africa is on the road back to its roots - to the classless society - and thus on the road towards communism in a classless world !


The expansion of imperialism in Africa - coupled with so much misery and blood - prepares its own decline and consequently its replacement by socialism. Unavoidably, that will be a new kind of socialism with global features - in the course of the globalization on the African continent and the socialist world revolution.


The history of the enslavement of African peoples is the story of their heroic slave revolts.


The colonialists followed the slavers.

The anti-colonialist wars followed the slaves' uprisings

The colonialists came to Africa to plunder the continent and its peoples. Each colonialist country occupied as many colonies as it could get. The colonists took possession of the African continent by soaking the African soil with the blood of its peoples. The African peoples were transformed into the servants of their colonial masters.

The African colonial history is the story of the heroic resistance movements of the African peoples against the colonialists. After the last white spots disappeared on the African map, after they had been turned into bloody spots by the final colonization, the period of the colonial policy of the capitalist countries was completed - namely, the period of the seizure of all unoccupied countries in Africa.



"When the colonies of the European powers,for instance, comprised only one-tenth of the territory of Africa(as was the case in 1876), colonial policy was able to develop—by methods other than those of monopoly—by the 'free grabbing' of territories, so to speak. But when nine-tenths of Africa had been seized (by 1900), when the whole world had been divided up,there was inevitably ushered in the era of monopoly possession of colonies and, consequently, of particularly intense struggle for the division and the redivision of the world. ...

Monopolies, oligarchy, the striving for domination and not for freedom, the exploitation of an increasing number of small or weak nations by a handful of the richest or most powerful nations—all these have given birth to those distinctive characteristics of imperialism which compel us to define it as parasitic or decaying capitalism."

(Lenin, "Imperialism, the Highest Stage of Capitalism")



Africa became a bone of contention among the imperialist world powers

So the imperialists involved the African continent into a new, larger and even bloodier battle - namely re-division of their spheres of influence, sources of raw materials and markets. Thus, the African peoples were drawn into the imperialist wars ... First World War - Second World War.

The one colonial power replaced the other - but the colonies still remained.

The history of imperialist wars in the period of the redivision of Africa is the heroic story of its anti-imperialist wars and liberation struggles of the Africans.


Crowning the October Revolution by the victory of the socialist world revolution -

The African proletariat follows the road of the Comintern of Lenin and Stalin


The Russian proletariat and its victorious Great October Revolution began to transform the imperialist war into a revolutionary war, with the aim to defeat world imperialism. With the break-through of the weakest link of imperialism, all peoples got rid of the chains of the Tsarist empire and created the great Soviet Union of Lenin and Stalin with the Russian proletariat at the head.

The October Revolution was the first step towards the socialist world revolution. There will be no socialist Africa without applying to the experiences and teachings of the October Revolution. The October Revolution heralded the unification of anti-imperialist war of the world proletariat and the war of liberation of the oppressed peoples. The continuation of the October Revolution and the world socialist revolution is the only way to liberate Africa from imperialist exploitation and oppression.

The Soviet Union of Lenin and Stalin and the Comintern were the best and most loyal friends of the African peoples, who fought for the overthrow of the yoke of imperialism.

As before, the Communists in Africa will not deviate from the principled guidelines and directives of the Comintern, especially in regard of the solution of the national and colonial question.


The best and basically still valid guideline that are the theses of the Comintern:



- September 1928


Historically, these theses are the central basis of the theory and tactics of the socialist world revolution in Africa. However, they are too comprehensive to be published here. We recommend the reader to study these important theses in the link above.

Moreover, the Comintern (SH) presents further important excerpts of decisions of the Comintern - as follows:


In his theses on national and colonial question which Lenin submitted to the Second Congress of the Communist International in 1920, it says (thesis 12):


"The centuries-old enslavement of the colonial and weak peoples by the great imperialist Powers has left behind among the working masses of the enslaved countries not only feelings of bitterness but also feelings of distrust of the oppressing nations as a whole, including the proletariat of these nations.

The despicable treachery to socialism (...) could only strengthen that quite natural distrust. Since this distrust and national prejudice can only be eradicated after the destruction of imperialism in the advanced countries and after the radical transformation of the entire foundations of economic life in the backward countries, the removal of these prejudices can proceed only very slowly. From this it follows that it is the duty of the class-conscious communist proletariat of all countries to be especially cautious and particularly attentive to the national feelings, in themselves out of date, in countries and peoples that have been long enslaved; it is also their duty to make concessions in order to remove this distrust and prejudice the more quickly. Unless the proletariat, and all the working masses of all countries and nations of the entire world, themselves strive towards alliance, and unite as one, the victory over capitalism cannot be pursued to a completely successful end." (Lenin, complete works, volume 31).


And in the Program of the Communist International (adopted in 1928), it says:


 "Imperialism subjects large masses of the proletariat of all countries-from the centres of capitalist power to the most remote corners of the colonial world – to the dictatorship of a finance – capitalist plutocracy.

The organisation of the forces of the international revolution becomes possible only on the platform of Communism.

Expressing the historical need for an international organisation of revolutionary proletarians-the gravediggers of the capitalist order-the Communist International is the only international force that has for its programme the dictatorship of the proletariat and Communism, and that openly come out as the organiser of the international proletarian revolution.


The special conditions of the revolutionary struggle prevailing in colonial and semi-colonial countries, the inevitably long period of struggle required for the democratic dictatorship of the proletariat and the peasantry and for the transformation of this dictatorship into the dictatorship of the proletariat, and, finally, the decisive importance of the national aspects of the struggle, impose upon the Communist Parties of these countries a number of special tasks, which are preparatory stages to the general tasks of the dictatorship of the proletariat. The Communist International considers the following to be the most important of these special tasks:

(1) To overthrow the rule of foreign imperialism, of the feudal rulers and of the landlord bureaucracy.

(2) To establish the democratic dictatorship of the proletariat and the peasantry on a Soviet basis.

(3) Complete national independence and national unification,

(4) Annulment of State debts.

(5) Nationalisation of large-scale enterprises (industrial, transport, banking and others) owned by the imperialists.

(6) The confiscation of landlord, church and monastery lands. The nationalisation of all the land.

(7) Introduction of the 8-hour day.

(8) The organisation of revolutionary workers’ and peasants’ armies.

In the colonies and semi-colonies where the proletariat is the leader of and commands hegemony in the struggle, the consistent bourgeois-democratic revolution will grow into proletarian revolution in proportion as the struggle develops and becomes more intense (sabotage by the bourgeoisie, confiscation of the enterprises belonging to the sabotaging section of the bourgeoisie, which inevitably extends to the nationalisation of the whole of large-scale industry). In the colonies where there is no proletariat, the overthrow of the domination of the imperialists implies the establishment of the rule of people’s (peasant) Soviets, the confiscation and transfer to the State of foreign enterprises and lands.

Colonial revolutions and movements for national liberation play an extremely important part in the struggle against imperialism, and in the struggle for the conquest of power by the working class. Colonies and semi-colonies are also important in the transition period because they represent the world rural district in relation to the industrial countries, which represent the world city. Consequently the problem of organising socialist world economy, of properly combining industry with agriculture is, to a large extent, the problem of the relation towards the former colonies of imperialism. Hence the establishment of a fraternal, militant alliance with the masses of the toilers in the colonies represents one of the principal tasks the world industrial proletariat must fulfil as leader in the struggle against imperialism.

Thus, in rousing the workers in the home countries for the struggle for the dictatorship of the proletariat, the progress of the world revolution also rouses hundreds of millions of colonial workers and peasants for the struggle against foreign imperialism. In view of the existence of centres of socialism represented by Soviet Republics of growing economic power, the colonies which break away from imperialism economically gravitate towards and gradually combine with the industrial centres of world socialism, are drawn into the current of socialist construction, and by skipping the further stage of development of capitalism, as a dominating system, obtain opportunities for rapid economic and cultural progress. The Peasants’ Soviets in the backward ex-colonies and ,the Workers’ and Peasants’ Soviets in the more developed ex-colonies group themselves politically around the centres of proletarian dictatorship, join the growing Federation of Soviet Republics, and thus enter the general system of the world proletarian dictatorship.

Socialism, as the new method of production, thus obtains worldwide scope of development.


In the epoch in which the proletariat in the most developed capitalist countries is confronted with the immediate task of capturing power-that in which the dictatorship of the proletariat already established in the U.S.S.R. is a factor of world significance-the movement for liberation in colonial and semi-colonial countries, which was brought into being by the penetration of world capitalism, may lead to social development - notwithstanding the immaturity of social relationships in these countries taken by themselves-provided they receive the-assistance and support of the proletarian dictatorship and of the international proletarian movement generally." (Program of the Comintern)



When Stalin began to create the world socialist camp after World War II, the first and greatest opportunity was offered to the African peoples to get rid of imperialist exploitation and oppression, and to pave the way to socialism. World imperialism was weakened by the Soviet Union of Lenin and Stalin to such degree, that the African people have never been so close to their aim of final liberation and emancipation.


modern revisionism

- a new type of enslaving communism in Africa


The Anglo-American imperialism was able to recover quickly again - thanks to the treachery of the modern revisionists. This was consequently a heavy blow which weakened and split the young communist movement in Africa.

The Soviet Union, once in solidarity with the African revolution, turned into the support of the counter-revolution. This was particularly dangerous, because the Soviet revisionists were in words for a socialist Africa, but only in order to mask their actual social-imperialist interests of exploitation and oppression there. The two superpowers - the U.S. and Soviet Union - became the greatest enemy of the African peoples. In Africa, Asia and Latin America, the central target of the revolutionary liberation movement was to attack these two superpowers.

When the fight against the influence of modern revisionism began to expand and intensify in Africa, there appeared for the first time, Maoism with the purpose, to continue the protection of the world imperialism on the African continent in replacement of the tarnished influence of Soviet revisionism.

The influence of the Soviet social-imperialism in Africa was indeed pushed back, but not in favor of the communist and liberation movement. However, to prepare the occupation of Africa by the Chinese social-imperialism - as we see today. The influence of Maoism - and especially the "three worlds" theory - led once again to the weakening and further division of the African Communist movement.


The weakening of the chain of world imperialism means strengthening the anti-imperialist chain in Africa


(Temporarily), some colonies formed their free and independent nation for the first time, which were oppressed and exploited by such imperialist countries, which were themselves the weakest chain links in the imperialist chain ( Portugal, Spain, Belgium etc ).

According to the teachings of Marxism-Leninism, at first, Africa gets rid of the weakest chain-links in the imperialist chain and in continuation, Africa will break through the oppression and exploitation of its strongest chain-links.

But as long as the world imperialism still exists, even in Africa the old imperialist powers are replaced by new imperialist powers (by the Chinese imperialism and more recently, by the Brazilian imperialism. Brazil, a former colony of Portugal, is going to replace the Portuguese imperialism in Africa !). The goal of today, is not only to break through but finally to smash the whole world-imperialist chain by the socialist world revolution.


World-capitalist crises

- imperialist parasitism in Africa

With the development of capitalism in the colonies, the global development of world imperialism is nearly mature and complete - thus ready for the transformation into world socialism - also in Africa.

And it is not surprising that capitalism in the colonies grew as fastest, and thus speed up the rotting process of world imperialism and its parasitism aggravated. This decay, these crises of world capitalism, have devastating consequences which are significantly noticeable for the poor people in Africa. Exploiting ruthlessly the world crisis for the purpose to extract ten times more riches from Africa - that is the essence of imperialist parasitism ( the business with starvation, with water, with resources, with weapons, with labor, etc).

And Chinese parasitism has trumped every parasitism by far.


Struggle against neo-revisionism


And that is what is, in general, reflected in the African class society today - in particular, neo-revisionism within the communist and workers' movement in Africa.

African neo-revisionism is the restoration of African revisionism, is reconciliation with revisionism in general, and with Maoism, in particular. The socialist revolution will fail if the communist movement in Africa is not purified from neo-revisionism, as long as neo-revisionist influence is not defeated.



is the highest stage of colonialism.

Neo-colonialism is a "molted" colonialism, is

"decolonialization" in words and

re-colonialization in deeds



Neo-colonialism is the highest stage of colonialism - is parasitic, decaying, dying colonialism. Imperialism, itself, destroys its own hinterland. And without its hinterland imperialism is doomed to die.


In principle, there is no difference between the exploitive character of neo-colonialism and the old colonialism. The previous open exploitation and oppression was now hidden behind the curtain of so-called "credits", "development aid", "economic aid", "partnership", "non-discrimination", "help African people help themselves", "de-colonialization" etc.

This was inevitable after the triumph of socialism after World War II. By means of the support of the socialist world camp of Stalin, the hinterland of world imperialism was impacted by the anti-imperialist liberation struggle. This was a direct threat for the existence of the world capitalist system.

The colossal victories of the liberation struggle of the oppressed peoples of Africa, Asia and Latin America manifested in the creation and establishment of their independent states. Thus, the imperialist powers could no longer exploit and suppress the African colonies like before. They were forced to wage a struggle for the restoration of colonialism.

Neo-colonialism is restoration of colonialism for protecting and maintaining the world imperialist hinterland.

The newly independent states were a challenge for world imperialism. They could neither be openly occupied nor be annexed by force. The imperialist powers contrived ways and means, to enlist them for their cause. To this end, the African countries became instrumentalized, manipulated, blackmailed incited against each other, involved in wars etc. And most importantly they exerted influence on the bourgeoisie and her government, in general, and on the equipment and training of the inner counterrevolution for the suppression of the revolutionary movement. Those who exploit the African continent fear nothing more than the Revolution in Africa. Thus, the imperialist powers created on African soil a counterrevolutionary buffer zone. The purpose is, to cut off both the spread of the revolution from inside and the revolutionary influence from the outside.




Stalinism-Hoxhaism is the teaching of the preparation, recruitment, centralized organization and mobilization of the international proletarian army, in general, and the transformation of the reserves of the imperialist hinterland into new proletarian detachments of the world socialist revolution, in particular.


By means of the globalization of neo-colonialism, world imperialism has transformed Africa, Asia and Latin America into capitalist continents. This corresponds with the drive of capital to expand and centralize globally.

With the neo-colonialism, the previous slavery was transformed into the capitalist wage slavery. And that is the crucial difference from the old slavery and colonialism.


In the society of slavery, the existence of the slaves were relatively "save".

"The modern laborer, on the contrary, instead of rising with the process of industry, sinks deeper and deeper below the conditions of existence of his own class. He becomes a pauper, and pauperism develops more rapidly than population and wealth. And here it becomes evident that the bourgeoisie is unfit any longer to be the ruling class in society, and to impose its conditions of existence upon society as an overriding law. It is unfit to rule because it is incompetent to assure an existence to its slave within his slavery, because it cannot help letting him sink into such a state, that it has to feed him, instead of being fed by him. Society can no longer live under this bourgeoisie, in other words, its existence is no longer compatible with society." (Marx and Engels, Manifesto of the Communist Party).


With the introduction of the capitalist mode of production in the countries of Africa, Asia and South America, a new proletarian basis was created for the victory of the world socialist revolution. It is the creation of a new industrial proletariat, namely the new additional army of gravediggers of the world capital.

The theory and tactics of the struggle against the two superpowers

- is a cornerstone of Hoxhaism and is more relevant today than ever, especially in Africa.


The more Africa gained increasingly importance in the course of globalization and the sharper the competition on world markets (for example, scarcity of raw materials), the more highly competitive the African continent.

This leads inevitably to massive imperialist contradictions, which in turn cause enormous revolutions. The African history in the period of the rivalry of the imperialists, especially that of the two super powers, is the history of the anti-imperialist struggle of the African peoples, in general, and the revolutionary struggle against the two superpowers, particularly, in which the proletariat plays increasingly the central role.

The African proletariat must know that the Soviet social-imperialist superpower was replaced by the Chinese social-imperialist superpower. In Africa, there was a cut-throat competition between the Soviet social-imperialism and the Chinese social-imperialism. The history of the rivalry of the two superpowers - for the purpose of the re-division of Africa's riches - was thus not finished with the collapse of the Soviet social-imperialism.

Today there are two superpowers, the USA and China, which are the main enemies of the African peoples.

To the question: "Who is more dangerous?" the Comintern (SH) gives the wise answer: "On the whole, they are both dangerous in equal measure."

The Comintern (SH) sees its task in this, to support the African people in their anti-imperialist struggle against all foreign and domestic exploiters and oppressors- inclusively all their African servants - but primarily the two main enemies USA and China.

The Chinese social-imperialists quickly learnt from the mistakes of the American, Soviet and other imperialists. They are on the rise and have actually taken over the dominant role on the African continent, especially in the economic field. The clever Chinese social-imperialists have stolen the African booty. Is it not obvious that the rapid change in the balance of power on the African continent, that the rapid growth of the Chinese financial capital, will inevitably aggravate the contradictions in Africa, that will cause wars and revolutions ?

That's why Maoism is a hypocrite ideology of the Chinese social-imperialism - not only a very dangerous poison for the liberation struggle of the African peoples, but also one of the most dangerous obstacles to the socialist future of Africa. If the Maoists condemn Western imperialism, in order to whitewash the Chinese imperialism, then the Maoists betray the African peoples, because it is a fact that both the superpowers cooperate to maintain exploitation and oppression of the African continent. Voluntarily, that is, without revolutions, China would never again abdicate the African Throne.

Therefore, the Comintern (SH) continues consistently its Stalinist-Hoxhaist fight against Maoism. We are the only world-revolutionary force that supports Africa's revolutions expressively against Chinese social-imperialism and Maoism.


In Africa, there is a fight of imperialists against imperialists, a fight of the monopoly against the monopoly, a fight of the financial capital against the financial capital. If revolutionaries would forget these basic principles and main features of imperialism, this would be tantamount to the replacement of Marxism-Leninism by reformism or revisionism.

It is mainly the Maoists in Africa who spread the lie that the Chinese imperialists - allegedly "in contrast" to the imperialist powers of the West - would do "fair and free" trade with the Africans. That is a blatant deception in face of the African masses.

And this is exactly conform to the criticism at the Kautskyites, the criticism at the "theory of ultra-imperialism" which Lenin had branded so aptly in his analysis of imperialism. The period of the alleged "trade for mutual benefit" is necessarily nothing but a breathing space between the imperialist wars. War and peace are both interdependent and determined by the same imperialist interrelations and interactions in the world economy and world politics. Africa can not side with the Chinese imperialists to fight the other imperialists - as it is intended by the Maoists. On the contrary, just like all other imperialists: China has already enslaved the whole African continent. The Chinese imperialists support pragmatically the fascist regimes, if that serves their own interests. However, in respect of unemployment, poverty, hunger, wars, civil wars and displacements of Africans - nothing has been changed by the Chinese imperialists - to the contrary.

It is the tactic of the Maoists to whitewash the Chinese plunder of the African continent while they promote reconciliation with the Chinese social-imperialists. Moreover, Africa receives modern Chinese weapons for the purpose to kick all Chinese rivals out of the African markets. This is what all the imperialists do in the same way - more or less openly. With the Maoist policy of conciliation of classes , Africa will never defeat the world imperialism.

Therefore, Africa can not rely on the imperialist forces, can not rely on the domestic bourgeoisie. The victorious Africa will only rely on the revolutionary alliance of its workers, peasants and soldiers, and the solidarity of the world proletariat.


It was the socialist Albania of Comrade Enver Hoxha, which, as the only remained socialist country in the world, supported the revolutionary liberation struggle of the African peoples in the spirit of genuine Marxism-Leninism. Comrade Enver Hoxha is the standard bearer of todays proletarian internationalism - also in Africa.

The fight of Albania for the defence of Marxism-Leninism against modern revisionism, including the Chinese revisionism, was and is of the utmost importance and invaluable for the revolution of the proletariat in Africa.

Without a revolutionary organization, which is guided by the teachings of the 5 Classics of Marxism-Leninism, there will be no communism in Africa.

For the revival of the Hoxhaist movement in Africa !

Let's prepare the creation of a

Section of the Comintern (SH) in Africa !

The Comintern (SH) is documenting on its "Africa"-website the story of the friendship and the proletarian internationalism of socialist Albania and Comrade Enver Hoxha with the class struggle of the African proletariat and the liberation struggle of the African peoples. Between the mid-70s and mid-80s, Hoxhaism flourished in various Marxist-Leninist African organizations. In this period, a lot of African parties and organizations intensified their cooperation with Albania and the Hoxhaist world movement, especially after drawaing the necessary demarcation-line to Maoism. This was a great triumph of Marxism-Leninism over revisionism on the African continent and must be defended by all genuine revolutionaries in Africa.

The restoration of capitalism in Albania was a heavy blow for the Marxist-Leninist World Movement, for the world proletariat and the oppressed peoples, particularly in Africa. As in other parts of the world, Comrade Enver Hoxha, and the former socialist Albania were buried in oblivion. Instead, African comrades turned to the positions of neo-revisionist organizations (liberal and conciliatory contacts to various anti-Marxist currents, such as Maoism, Guevarism, Castroism, Anarchism, the "Greens", etc. etc.)

Needless to say, after the 70s-80s, the relations and shifting of classes in Africa have changed significantly, so that the Comintern (SH) must develop a new global strategy and tactics according to the globalized African conditions of today. Based on our ideological principles of Stalinism-Hoxhaism, we give different answers in different times.

Our stated goal is that the communist and workers' movement in Africa becomes acquainted with our new world-revolutionary ideas. We like to gain new, young African revolutionary forces for the support of the cause of the world proletarian revolution. Our goal is to build a strong revolutionary detachment of the world proletariat on the African continent - a base of the Stalinist-Hoxhaist world movement in Africa. We struggle for the "African Section" of the Comintern (SH).

We call on all interested African comrades to make contact with the Comintern (SH).

Comrades from Africa,

we invite you to active participation and co-organizing of our "Africa"-website ! Send us your correspondence and it will be published !

We appeal to those African revolutionaries who are militant fighters against revisionism, neo-revisionism, and especially against Maoism. Today, an African communist is characterized by the ideological demarcation-line between Stalinism-Hoxhaism and Neo-Revisionism. We need African comrades who are implacably against revisionism and social-fascism, and absolutely determined to fight against every revisionist influence among the revolutionary communist- and workers movement in Africa.

It is the core issue of the communist movement in Africa , not to unite with the reformist, revisionist or neo-revisionist elements in the struggle against imperialism, but to fight imperialism and its lackeys by the socialist revolution on the basis of the 5 Classics of Marxism-Leninism. In it, Stalinism-Hoxhaism differs from Neo-Revisionism not only in Africa but throughout the world.



Imperialism - is capitalism in transition, is moribund capitalism

imperialism - is moribund colonial policy


Characteristic of the epoch of imperialism is the colonial policy, as Lenin teaches. Lenin called this the fourth major type of monopoly capitalism:


"Fourthly, monopoly has grown out of colonial policy." (Lenin: "Imperialism - the highest stage of capitalism")


Here, Lenin stressed explicitly that the monopoly emerged from colonial policy. Since then, more than 100 years of colonial policy have passed.


"From all that has been said in this book on the economic essence of imperialism, it follows that we must define it as capitalism in transition, or, more precisely, as moribund capitalism."

(Lenin: "Imperialism - the highest stage of capitalism")



If Lenin defined imperialism as "moribund" capitalism then, consequently, colonial policy is policy "in transition", more precisely, "moribund" colonial policy. If the imperialist world system will collapse, then this means also unavoidably the collapse of the colonial world system.


The interlocking of international finance capital could not stop outside the African continent. Finance capital has created the epoch of monopoly. The monopoly dominates the entire African society. Africa has become part of the powerful world monopoly.

In the beginning, exchange of commodities was predominant in the colonies.

In the age of globalization capitalism stops at nothing. Capitalism could not stop at the coasts of the African continent.

With the power of the bourgeoisie and the increasing exploitation and oppression, capitalist exploitation and oppression in African countries was not significantly different from all other countries in the world where the law of capitalism prevails.

The ulcers of capitalism burst quickly on the African continent .

Africa was transfered into a capitalist continent in which wage slavery prevails. The basic contradiction between labour and capital can only be solved by the socialist revolution.

But you can not socialize the capitalist mode of production in Africa sustainably without destroying international finance capital, in whose hands is the capitalist mode of production in Africa.

It is only possible through a series of revolutions and rebellions in Africa and also in the financial centers of the ruling world. Ultimately, this can only be guaranteed by the victory of the proletarian world revolution and the establishment of world socialism.

The dialectics of history is such that the African proletariat will only gain victory over imperialism in Africa, if it strengthens the united front of the entire world socialist proletariat - for the global storm against world imperialism.

However, the Communist International was still not reorganized again for the purpose, to rally the world proletariat under the banner of the world revolution.

Above all, the subjective factor of the revolutionary proletariat was not yet strong enough developed for the creation of a genuine Bolshevik party, which would have been in a position, to guide the proletariat and the poor peasants to the accomplishment of the bourgeois-democratic revolution, to bring them close to the victory of the socialist revolution, to the establishment of the dictatorship of the proletariat, to the construction of socialism in Africa.


The poor peasants are the closest, most reliable and most crucial allies of the African proletariat.



Since the vast majority of the African population is connected to the life in the country, the character of the exploitation of the peasants by imperialism and its allies (the national bourgeoisie and the class of landlords) is particularly important. About 60% of all toilers work in agriculture.

The bourgeois states expropriate the poor peasants without compensation and sell huge estates to the imperialists - also to the Chinese imperialists. They run agrarian large plants to sell their agricultural products on the world market. This means loss of the livelihood of the poor farmers in Africa.

The water reservoir of the villagers are expropriated by the state , for example in Kenya. The water pipes have been layed in foreign industrial plants. They make profit with their products at the world market. And the villagers can die of thirst.

European subsidized milk destroys the African milk production etc. etc.

The hunger of Africans is mainly caused by the ruinous profit-oriented agricultural industry in the imperialist countries.

The cause of hunger is capitalism.

Global agriculture could feed easily twelve billion people in today's development. African agriculture could feed its own people quite adequately - 1 billion people.

The counterrevolution misuses hunger as a weapon against the revolution. The fight for revolution and socialism is a struggle against hunger.

The solution to the problem of hunger in Africa decides over victory or defeat of the socialist revolution. This must be perfectly clear for the African working class .


Three main tasks have to be solved:

1. centralization of food and transportation.

2. Unification of the proletarians of all African countries.

3. Organization of the poor African peasants.


Only in the united struggle of workers, peasants and soldiers for the socialist revolution, the problem of hunger in Africa will be solved.


In practice, the Agricultural Policy of the bourgeoisie leads to an enrichment of the large landowners, multinational food-companies and the finance capital at the food markets. But even more, it means a greater impoverishment of the vast majority of African peasants, that in turn undermines the development of the internal markets and food supply.

All talk of the imperialists and their lackeys about the politics of so called "development aid",or about the "help for self-help", etc., which the imperialist powers spread, is nothing more than an imperialist lie. Each year Africa must remit much more money to repay its debts, than it gets aid from the imperialist countries. It is of utmost importance for all Communists to expose all those lies.


The intolerable exploitation of the African peasantry can only be ended through an agrarian revolution.

As an ally of proletarians, the peasantry becomes a driving force of the socialist revolution in Africa.

The peasantry can free itself only under the leadership of the proletariat, while the proletariat can only lead the socialist revolution to victory, if the peasantry is united with the proletariat. The proletariat can only gain the leadership of the peasantry if it fights for the urgent peasant demands. The proletariat must support the full implementation of the agrarian revolution. The proletariat must take over the lead in the struggle of the peasant masses for a revolutionary solution of the agrarian question.

The Comintern (SH) will work out a world-revolutionary global agrarian program.

The gradual engagement in the revolutionary struggle of the broad masses of peasants and farmers, and the organization of the masses - these are some of the most important tasks for the future Africa Section of the Comintern (SH).

Also in Africa is our slogan:

Revolutionary Councils of the workers, peasants and soldiers!

Establishment of Soviet Republics of workers, peasants and soldiers!

Formation of a red army of the workers and peasants !


The national liberation struggle of the African people has created new independent nations in African countries.

The national question - a powerful weapon in the hands of the African proletariat


As once in Europe - the new independent African nations had initially progressive nature.

However, in the further process of the formation of independent African nations, the native bourgeoisie was successively pushed into the camp of reaction and became finally an instrument of the international counter-revolution. While the proletariat - struggling for its social emancipation - became the hegemonial leader of the national-revolutionary movement.


And, given the misery that capitalism produced there, the African people begin faster than ever to get rid of their illusions, which spreads the national bourgeoisie.


In essence, we have to understand the artificial creation and development of African nations in the context with the colonial powers, with imperialism. The colonies formed the secure hinterland of imperialist powers. And, consequently, the weakness of a chain-link of the world imperialist chain has an impact on its weakness in its hinterland that caused, in return, the liberation struggle there.

With the weakening of the entire world-imperialist chain - caused by the expansion of the Stalinist socialist world camp - also the old colonial system in Africa fell apart. The African continent had been the battleground of the struggle between the old capitalist and the new socialist world.

Africa awoke from its age-long slavery and stood up heroically against the entire imperialist world.

These heroic anti-imperialist wars of liberation remain indelibly the brightest and most important event in the great, glorious history of the freedom-loving African peoples. The day of the liberation of Africa from the yoke of foreign domination is celebrated since 1958. The 25th May is the symbol of the final destruction of the chains of slavery in Africa, the days of the revolutionary struggle for a socialist Africa.


Colonialism survived with the help of the forces of modern revisionism with Soviet revisionism at the top. Neo-colonialism is a molted colonialism, is "decolonialization" in words and re-colonialization in deeds.

And thus the African proxy wars were instigated between Western imperialism and Eastern imperialism with the Soviet social-imperialists at the top. One of the characteristic features of social imperialism is a dangerous sort of neo-colonialism, which hides behind socialist phraseology.


In recent African history, so with the emergence of the capitalist Africa has increased the oppression and exploitation of weak African states by strong African states rapidly. Generally, the line of development of inner-African exploitation and oppression runs from the coasts [especially from South and North Africa] towards Central Africa. In the same direction the revolutionary tactical line of the African proletariat must also run in order to eliminate the exploitation and oppression of Africans by Africans.

In Africa, the whole history of the development of the bourgeois nations is principally not different from that of Europe, in particular, and of all bourgeois nations, in general: the turning point of the progressive early trend towards the rotting, decomposing stage, and the replacement of the bourgeois state by the socialist state, and finally the decaying state in the epoche of communism.

Throughout the world, the bourgeois nations emerged with the capitalist social formation. However, there is a significant difference in Africa:


Africa is the continent with the most nations. Many of them are relatively small. The borders of almost all African countries were ruthlessly drawn on the drawing board by the colonialists and imperialist occupiers (such as the staking of new claims). This meant that numerous African peoples live in one state, while other peoples are in turn distributed to several African nations. That this arbitrary act of demarcation by the foreign rule has had and still has a negative impact on the development of the African peoples, this is more than obvious. Millions of Africans have lost their life in these conflicts. Therefore, the Comintern (SH) adheres to the consistent implementation of the Leninist teachings of the self-determination of peoples - particularly in Africa.


The formation of states in Africa is the negation of the negation of the European formation of states in the nineteenth century. The bourgeois states of Africa emerged mainly from the liberation struggles of African peoples against colonialism of the imperialist powers.

The overcoming of feudalism was thus "only" a by-product in the formation of the bourgeois African state. This was anything but easy. Today, there are still plenty remnants of feudalism, tribalism, occultism, roots of islamization and christianization etc. in Africa. All this plays a reactionary role, that cannot be underestimated in regard of the preparation of the socialist revolution. But despite all this it is evident that the history of Africa nations will overcome feudalism faster than this has been the case in the history of Europe. First, the experiences of the Soviet Union of Lenin and Stalin, and the experience of socialist Albania of Comrade Enver Hoxha were incorporated in the national processes of Africa, and secondly, the process of nationalization was accelerated in demarcation of the globalization of imperialism.
Marx and Engels wrote in their "Communist Manifesto":


"The bourgeoisie has, through its exploitation of the world market, given a cosmopolitan character to production and consumption in every country."


The African states were established when world capitalism had already reached its highest stage, thus the era in which world capitalism goes to meet its transformation into world socialism.

The African states were created in a time when world capital had begun to tear down national barriers and to run roughshod national interests of the oppressed peoples.

In the process of capitalism's global accumulation there are principally no differences between "white" and "black" capital. And indeed, the global financial capital put the screws on the process of the formation of independent African nations. Many of the former leaders of the national liberation wars (especially those who were bribed by the Soviet- and Chinese social-imperialists ) betrayed their own people and became corrupt leaders and lackeys of the new bourgeoisie in power in their own country or agents of all the foreign imperialist powers. Thus, the capitalist dictatorship of the black bourgeoisie had been developed in the course of the history of Africa, - with all its typical brutal fascist and social-fascist traits. The corrupt rich blacks exploit the poor blacks. They suppress and kill them for their own profit and by order of the dictatorship of the international finance capital.

When the independent African states were formed out, the local bourgeoisie, shifted step by step into the camp of imperialism and reaction until they themselves became the instrument of the international counterrevolution - the fire extinguishers of the world revolution. The proletariat - fighting for its own social liberation - is confronted with the bourgeois traitors and becomes now the hegemonic leader of the national revolutionary movement.

Marxism-Leninism teaches that the national question can not be solved without the social question, that the solution of the national question is a part of the social question, and subordinated to it.

This principle is to be applied more clearly and consistently on the changing conditions in Africa. Necessarily, the African proletariat will combine the revolutionary struggle for socialism with the issue of the independence of Africa from world imperialism, with the issue of the democratization of the entire African society, in order to complete the expropriation of the entire continent.

One of the most basic features of imperialism is to intensify the national oppression and to incite the African people against each other and to divide the proletariat.

African police officers and soldiers become trained and equipped by the foreign imperialist counter-revolution. The aim is clear: namely to throw down revolutions and rebellions, to wage wars and civil wars. Some African peoples were wiped out in this way, others are threatened with extinction. If Africans shoot Africans, this is more lucrative for the enemies of the African peoples than their so-called "development aid".

And precisely this means turning national wars into revolutionary wars for the liberation from oppression and exploitation. And this also applies to the unavoidable civil wars in Africa, which are the most severe form of the class struggle.

Only after the world proletariat has overthrown the world bourgeoisie, completely defeated and expropriated, only then the unavoidability of wars in Africa and throughout the world will be banished.

Imperialism in Africa not only produces revolutionary wars and rebellions against national oppression, but also social wars and uprisings of the proletariat against the bourgeoisie. But above all, imperialism creates the vital unification of the two types of revolutionary wars and rebellions in Africa.


The world proletariat fights for proletarian internationalism at two fronts against both bourgeois nationalism and imperialist cosmopolitism - last not least also in Africa.

The Pan-Africanism has deep roots and traditions. The Comintern (SH) supports, however, only the proletarian-internationalist Pan-Africanism in order to fight the feudal-religious, the enlightened bourgeois-nationalist Pan-Africanism as well as the imperialist Pan-Africanism.


No matter whether the color of the chains is "black" or "white", the African proletariat will break the entire chain of capitalism, together with the proletarians of all other continents - in the great world socialist revolution.

The African proletariat is not only fighting against the oppression in its own country, not only against oppression on the African continent, however generally on a world scale for the removal of the inevitability of all national oppression.

Only that can be genuine proletarian pan-africanism.

The capitalist chains of Africa are global chains that can only be smashed on a world scale. Therfore, we follow the internationalist principle, the summary of all African proletarians as detachments of the army of the world proletariat for the global abolition of the contradiction between the oppressing and oppressed nations. And meanwhile, the struggle for the national interests of the African peoples has become a powerful weapon in the hands of the African proletariat to march forward to the socialist revolution.


The African proletariat - a powerful detachment of the world-proletarian army,

and part of the vanguard of the socialist world revolution


The establishment of a strong African socialist bulwark against world imperialism and against its lackeys - the corrupt African bourgeoisie and her fascist dictatorship - is indispensable for safeguarding the socialist revolution and the establishment of world socialism. The world socialist revolution is the key not only to the solution of social and national question in Africa but throughout the world.

Today, the proletariat rises as a global revolutionary class, including in Africa.

The grave changes in the development of the society of classes in our period of globalization is of decisive significance. This means the inevitably necessary modification of the previous theory and tactics of the socialist world revolution as it was created by the Comintern in 1928. These principles of the Comintern - based on the relations of classes in Africa over 80 years ago - cannot remain valid unmodified. For the world proletariat of today, the objective conditions of the victory of the socialist world revolution have significantly improved since then.

Contrary to the time of the Comintern, especially when its theses were adopted in September 1928, Africa is not any more a hinterland, neither the hinterland of imperialism nor the hinterland of the world socialist revolution.


World imperialism had been able to escape the blows of the labor movement in the Western capitalist countries, by relying on its hinterland, on its reserves, based on its colonial world, where the revolutionary proletariat was not yet represented or only weakly developed. If the African proletariat impressively organized the stoppage of the production in one of the major platinum mines in the world for several weeks, then world imperialism as a whole (and not only an individual imperialist power) has obviously lost its secure hinterland in Africa. Due to globalization, the world proletariat became a significant global revolutionary factor in such a way that world imperialism is nowhere secure. Meanwhile, the world proletariat has its command over own strong detachments in every country of the world.

At the same time, imperialism created a corrupt labor aristocracy by means of the super-profits from the colonies which tried to hinder the revolutionary unification of the proletariat of the oppressed with that of oppressing countries. Today a new labor aristocracy originated in Africa, which was created jointly by the foreign imperialists and the national bourgeoisie, to paralyze the revolutionary struggle of the African proletariat. The new aristocracy of labor in Africa is also backed by the global reformist trade union organisations. It is therefore necessary to unite the revolutionary unionists of Africa in the Red International of the Labor Unions and to form new red Unions in Africa in such cases if there is no other alternative for a revolutionary opposition within the social-fascist unions. This does not mean to withdraw from the struggle of the revolutionary opposition in the yellow unions.



The globalization of the productive forces took place not least because of the relocation of production of the classic Western industrial nations in the so-called "low cost" countries in Africa, Asia and Latin America.

Today, the principle applies:

The African proletariat and the proletariat of all oppressed peoples has become a part of the vanguard of the world socialist revolution.

The objective conditions for the old Marxist-Leninist formula of the "anti-imperialist unification of the proletariat of Western capitalist countries on the one hand and the oppressed peoples of Africa, Asia and Latin America on the other hand", have changed in favor of the proletariat. By globalized production relations, also new globalized class relations have emerged, especially within the oppressed peoples of Africa, Asia and Latin America. The globalization of the capitalist mode of production has incorporated all the countries into the world capitalist production system - ( capitalist [ ! ] countries , whereas South Africa is even on the road towards an imperialist country -like Brazil - both were formerly colonies!). Of course, such a development was not forseeable for the Comintern in 1928.

So also Africa found its way into the capitalist mode of production. And it cannot be denied the fact that the African proletariat will become an important and indispensable factor of the socialist world revolution. The socialist future of the revolutionary African proletariat is bright ! Today, the proletariat has started to take the leading position in the class struggle in nearly every African country.


The Comintern (SH) states herewith:
Today, the conditions are really fulfilled for the unification of the workers of the entire world, thus on a global scale.

This is contrary to the times of Marx and Engels. In their time, the slogan of "Proletarians of all countries - unite!" was restricted to the proletarians in the Western capitalist countries.

Therefore, today, the establishment of the dictatorship of the proletariat is a practical task which must be solved in every country of the world. Based on this goal, the Comintern (SH) calls directly for the workers of Africa :


Establish the proletarian dictatorship in every African country !"


Unlike before, the proletariat occupies now, both on a national scale as well as on a global scale, the full leadership in the struggle against world imperialism.

Today, the world proletariat stands at the head of the class struggle in all countries, ready to fulfill the mission of the socialist world revolution all over the world - indeed in every country - of course not without the allies, especially the poor peasants.
The globalization of capital has created the globalization of labor and thus transformed the African proletariat into one of the divisions of the world proletariat. Today, the world socialist revolution can be based on a fast-adolescent African proletariat, which will develop into a powerful global socialist productive force.

The African proletariat is becoming more and more self-conscious, organized and battle-hardened. The targeted interest of the African proletariat is the continental centralization of its class organizations, to form one of the strong troops of the world-proletarian army.

It is the task of the Comintern (SH) to integrate the centrally organized class struggle of the proletariat of Africa in the global class struggle of the world proletariat. The creation of a central "Section of Africa" of the Comintern (SH) is therefore necessary for the unification of all forces of classes and for the transformation of their common will into their common action.



Class struggle decides on the future fate of Africa

There are 33 African countries among the 49 poorest countries in the world.

Every year, there are many million refugees across Africa and refugees who leave Africa. Every 5th refugee dies.

In former times, Africans were forced to leave their home on slave ships - today it is the reverse: Africans are forced, not to leave Africa . The imperialist Europe has built a zone of death against the African "invasion". The poverty stricken masses of Africans are left to their fate, which is to go miserably to the dogs.

About 30 million Africans die due to HIV- and malaria infections. The figures are rising dramatically.

Health care for the majority of the African population is catastrophic.

Unemployment is alarmingly high in Africa (Zimbabwe = 82%) and one of the main problems.

Especially, the people living in major cities like Lagos (Nigeria), and Kinshasa ( Democratic Republic of the Congo), must vegetate in large slums. Every day many millions of poor people in Africa are doomed to battle for their pure existence.

The imperialists caused dramatic environmental damages. In this regard, none of the other continents suffers more than Africa (catastrophic droughts, deforestation of tropical rain forests, ruthlessly overexploitation of natural resources in Africa, etc.).

The infant mortality rate is high, while life expectancy, literacy rates and education levels are alarmingly low.


Nowhere in the world, the social inequality is greater than in Africa.

Even on the African continent, the Leninist principle of the uneven development of the capitalist countries takes effect - with all its implications in relation to the old imperialist countries on the one hand, and to the new emerging markets of Latin America and Asia on the other hand.

It is the imperialism that throughout Africa exacerbated the contradictions between rich and poor, that sharpens the class contradictions enormously, that has divided the entire African-class society into two camps - the bourgeoisie on the one hand and the proletariat and the poor peasants on the other hand. Therefore, it is the class struggle between the proletariat and the poor peasants and the bourgeoisie, the class struggle between the world proletariat and the world bourgeoisie, who will decide on the future of the African peoples and the future of all the peoples of the world.

Only by the leadership of the revolutionary African proletariat the miserable life in Africa can come to an end. The future of Africa lays in the hands of the proletariat. The workers of Africa will become winners of globalized socialism. When the world-economic center of gravity will increasingly shift to the south and east, then the African revolutionary movement is becoming increasingly an international character and global significance. The African proletariat is destined to play an important role in the world socialist revolution.


The storm of liberation, sweeping over the Arab and African countries, shatters the whole world. The sparks of the "Arab Spring" spreaded all over the African continent. These sparks have already reached the "Cape of Good Hope" and enflame the revolutionary struggle of the workers in South-Africa.


The Arab and African revolution goes on – it is not interrupted or finished on half the way. The democratic revolution is the eve of the socialist revolution.  Only with the transformation into a socialist revolution, the Arab and African peoples can be liberated from capitalism.

 It is essential for their success to transform their spontaneous, unarmed uprising in an orderly organized, armed insurrection. Both the weapons of the revolutionary elements of the army and weapons of the insurgents - the workers and poor peasants - are essential and indispensable for the victory of the revolution in the Arab and African countries. The class struggle against imperialism, the anti-imperialist front must be considered as the active warfare of the armed, leading class of the world proletariat, its avant-garde, its allies, etc.. This is the crux of the doctrine of Marxism-Leninism on the question of today's military struggle for world revolution.


The conscious and active transformation of the interests of the revolution in Africa into the service of the interests of the socialist world revolution - only this is genuine internationalism of the African working class.


Let us fight for a communist Africa in a communist world - without slavery, without exploitation and oppression of man by man !


Long live proletarian internationalism !


Long live the socialist revolution of the working class in Africa !


Long live the socialist world revolution!


Long live world communism !




Comintern (SH)

October 10, 2012